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Full text of "Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine"

s.v^ 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 

Published under the Direction of the Society 

Formed in that County A.D. 1853. 

Edited by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon 

VOL. XLV. 

Nos. 152—156. June, 1930— June 1932. 




DEVIZES : 
C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station IIoad. 



June 1932. 



ERRATA IN VOL. XLV. 

p. 50, 1. 15 from bottom. For Kingston, read Kington. 

p. 52, 1. 24 from bottom. For Kingston, read Kington. 

p. 190, 1. 18 from top. For in Salisbury, read on Salisbury. 

p. 383, 1. 17 from top. For Gouldsbury, read Gouldsburg. 

p. 384, 1. 10 from top. For Abbey of Chitterne, read Abbey at Chitterne. 

p. 389, 1. 23 from bottom. For Jades, read Jacks. 

p. 400, 1. 15 from bottom. For Prichard, read Fritchard. 

p. 496, 1. 16 from bottom. For Giles, read Giles. 

p. 615, 1. 2 from top. For 1932, read 1850. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLV. 



No. CLII. June, 1930. 

The Origin and History of the Wiltshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society : Presidential Address by Capt. 
B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot., at the Bath Meeting of the 

Society, August 7th, 1929 1— 9 

Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library : By Canon 

Christoper Wordsworth, F. R. Hist. Soc 10— 23 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929 : By M. W. Willson 

(St. Martin's Rectory, Salisbury) 24 — 35 

Wiltshire Wills, etc., still preserved in the Diocesan Registry, 

Salisbury: By C R.Everett 36— 67 

The Sacraments Window in Crudwell Church : By G. McN. 

Rushforth, F.S.A 68— 72 

A Probable Source of the Material of some Wiltshire Prehistoric 

Axe-hammers : By the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A 73— 74 

Notes— Witches " Scrag " Tree on Winkelbury Hill. Roman 
Stone CoflSn, Bradford-on- Avon. Marlborough Bill of Fare. 
Shorncote Church. The Wishford Legend. The Corsham 
Miscellany. Stone Cannon Balls at ClyfiFe Pypard Manor. 
Thirteenth Century Coflfer in Salisbury Cathedral. Gospel 
Bush near Calne. Bradenstoke Barn Demolished. Carved 
Stone at Bradenstoke. Roman Figure at Tockenham 
Church. Cinerary Urn and Bronze Dagger from Barrow on 
Roundway Down. Unrecorded Long Barrow at Imber. 
Saxon Burials, West Chisenbury. Netheravon Petition 
against Vicar, 1681. Sarsen Stones at Kingston Deverell. 
Local Lore of the Cuckoo. Glazed Flints. Great Bedwyn 
Breviary. Polished Greenstone Celt of Breton Type. The 
Mount at Great Somerford. Thunderstorm at Steeple 
Langford, 1704. Status of the Comma Butterfly. Bronze 
Seal at Market Lavington. Light in the Sky, 1929. 
Coniferous Roots in Sarsen Stones. Early Iron Age Bronze 

Horse Bit Roller ,. 75— 94 

Wilts Obituary 94—113 

Wiltshire Books, Pamplets, and Articles 113 — 138 

Additions to Museum and Library 138 — 139 

Museum Heating Apparatus. Appeal for Contributions 140—141 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1929 142—146 



IV CONTENTS OF VOL. XLV. 

No. CLIIT. December, 1930. 

Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire : By the Rev. R. St. John 

B. Battersby 147—155 

The Church of Shaw-in Alton : By H. C. Brentnall 156—165 

Romano-British Wiltshire: By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 166—216 

The Seventy-Seventh General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archseological and Natural History Society held at Trow- 
bridge, July 30th and 31st, and August 1st, 1930 217—223 

The Future Work of the Society. Presidential Address : By 

Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 224—232 

Glazed Flints : By W. J. Arkell, D. Phil., M. Sc. 233-234 

The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral : By Canon J. M. J,. 

Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc 235—253 

The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches , 254—267 

Wilts Obituary.. 268—271 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 272 — 277 

Additions to Museum and Library 278 



No. CLIV. June, 1931. 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn (IV.) : By Cecil P. 

Hurst, F.L,S. 279—290 

Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches : By R. G. V. Dymock ... 291—299 
The "Sanctuary" on Overton Hill, near Avebury : By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington 300—335 

Notes on Farming Families of the 19th Century in Wiltshire : 

By Edward Coward 336—341 

Extracts from the Accounts of the Overseers of the Parish of 

Box, Wilts, from November 26th, 1727, to April 17th, 1748 : 

Extracted by A. Shaw Mellor 342—349 

Easton Down, Winterslow, S. Wilts, Flint Mine Excavation, 

1930 : By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil .. 350—365 

A Settlement Site of the Beaker Period on Easton Down, 

Winterslow, S. Wilts : By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil. ... 366—372 
A Hoard of Bronze Implements from Donhead St. Mary, and a 

Stone Mould from Bulford, in Farnham Museum, Dorset : 

By A. D. Passmore 373—376 

Wilts Obituary = 377—382 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 383—399 

Additions to Museum and Library 399 — 401 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1930 402—406 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLV. V 

No, CLV. December, 1931: 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn (V.) : By Cecil P. 

Hurst, F.L.S 407—417 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1930 : Edited by the Rev. 

M. W. Willson, 59, Vicarage Street, Warminster 418 — 431 

Barrow 85 Amesbury [GoddeErd's List]. Lat. 51° 9' 32'7". 

Long, r 44' 44-8" : By R. S. Newall, F.S.A 432—458 

The Society's MSS. Various documents presented by the 

British Record Society, 1930 : Catalogued by George Kidston 459—469 

The Seventy-Eighth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society held at 
Devizes, July 28th, 29th, and 30th, 1931 470—476 

The Act of Uniformity, 1662. Declaration by Ministers (of 

Salisbury Diocese) : Transcribed by C. R. Everett 477—482 

Notes — Graves found at Westbury. Romano-British Burial at 
Easterton. Skeletons found at the Upavon Aerodrome. 
Skeletons found on Boreham Down. Report on charcoals 
from " The Sanctuary " on Overton Hill. Skeletons found 
at Amesbury. Romano-British pot and human remains 
found near Devizes. Two Romano- British Cist Burials at 
TefiFont. " The Sanctuary " on Overton Hill. Was it 
roofed ? Backgammon Board, scratched on a slab from 
Shaw-in-Alton Church. Three Iron Axes found at Downton. 
Roman Villa at Netheravon House. The Malmesbury 
Ciborium and Cover. Titian's Portrait of the " Man in a 
Red Cap." The Font in Ramsbury Church. Tiles formerly 
in Great Bedwyn Church. Seals found in Wiltshire. The 
Darell Transept at Ramsbury in 1810. Urn from Barrow at 
Bulford. Giles Fettiplace, Knight, died Uth March, 1641. 
Robert Kemm. A Wiltshire Skimmington. The Halle of 
John Halle, Salisbury. Hoard of Roman Bronze Coins found 
at Groveley, 1906. Did Canon Jones " discover " the Saxon 
Church at Bradford-on-Avon ? Clyflfe Pypard Church 
House, 1654. [Extract from the Records of Quarter Sessions.] 
Mural Paintings in Great Chalfield Church. Old Sarum 
Parliamentary Tree. A Romano-British Site in Alton Priors. 
" Druidical Stones in Marlborough Fields." A " Road Sur- 
veyor's Perambulator." 483—505 

Wilts Obituary 606—509 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 510—513 

Additions to Museum and Library 514 

List of Members 515—524 



vi CONTENTS OF VOL. XLV. 

No, CLVI. June, 1932. 

The Antiqua Monumenta of Bedwyn : By G. M. Young 525—527 

The Tombstone of the Countess Ela, Foundress of Lacock 

Abbey : By Preb. W. G. Clark-Maxwell, F.S.A 528—532 

Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches : By R. G. V. Dymock ... 533—534 
The Influence of Geology on the Past and Present of Wiltshire : 

By Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 535—543 

The Flora of the Wiltshire Downs : By Eric M. Marsden- Jones, 

F.L.S. .. 544—548 

The Disafforesting of Braden : By Canon F. H. Manley 549—567 

Saxon Interments on Roche Court Down, Winterslow : By 

J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil 568-582 

The Human Remains from Roche Court Down : By M. L. 

Tildesley 583—599 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1931 : By M. W. Willson 

(59, Vicarage Street, Warminster) 600—614 

Wilts Obituary.., 615—623 

Additions to Museum and Library 624 — 625 

Accounts of the Society for 1931 626—629 

Index to Vol. XLV 630—707 



Illustrations. 

Fig. 1. — Crudwell Church. The three eastern lights of the Sacraments 
Window, 68. Fig. 2 — Doddiscombsleigh Church (Devon). The Sacra- 
ments Window, the modern central figure being replaced by the corres- 
ponding one at Cadbury, 69. Bronze knife-dagger from Barrow on 
Roundway Down, 83. Fig. I.— Late Bronze Age Cinerary Urn from 
Barrow on Roundway Down, 1928 ; Fig. II. — Trench cut through " The 
Mount " at Great Somerford showing rough wall ; Fig. III. — Bronze 14th 
Century Seal found at Market Lavington ; Fig. IV. — Impression of 14th 
Century Seal found at Market Lavington ; Fig. V. — Early Iron Age 
Horse Bit Roller from Swindon, 88—89. The Church of Shaw-in-Alton. 
Fragments of Altar Slab (?) 160. Plan of Church excavated, 1929, 162. 
Air Photograph, 200ft. Site of Church from the S. West, 162. Small 
window found during excavation, 162. Exterior stop on jamb of N. 
door; Half of Hood Mould of S. door; N.E. corner, interior, showing 
altar-base on right, 163. Plan of Romano- British Remains in Wiltshire, 
170. The "Sanctuary" on Overton Hill, near Avebury. Plate I., 
General Plan of the " Sanctuary," 318. Plate IL, Plan of Post Holes, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLY. Vll 

320. Plate III., Section of holes, 322. Plates IV.-X., Aubrey's Plan, 
Flints, Pottery, &c., 326. Easton Down, Winterslow, Flint Mine Excava- 
tion. Figs. 1 — 39, 350. A Settlement Site of the Beaker period on 
Easton Down, Winterslow. Figs. 1 — 35, 366. A Hoard of Bronze Im- 
plements from Donhead St. Mary, and a Stone Mould from Bulford. 
Plates I— III., 374. Fig. I. and II.— Objects from Barrow 85, Amesbury. 
Ground Plan of the Barrow. Distribution of the Ogival Bronze Daggers 
of England, 445—447. Possible methods of roofing " The Sanctuary " 
on Overton Hill, 487. Axes found during excavations at Downton Tan- 
nery, 1930, 489. Druidical Stones in Marborough Fields, 505. Fig. 1. — 
Grimm's Sketch of Beads and Cross hanging in Lacock Abbey Cloister, 
1790. Fig. 2.— Modern Beads and Cross from Jerusalem, cir. 1830, 53 1. 
Ancient Map of Crown Lands in Braden Forest, 564. Roche Court 
Down. Plate I.— Decapitated Skeletons in the Ditch. Plate II. — 
General Plan of Interments. Plate III.— Sections of Ditches. Plate 
IV.— -General Plan of Interments, 580. 






iB OCT 1958 



9:6 \ 



No. CLII. JUNE, 1930. Vol. XLV. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY 

A. D. 1 8 5 3. 



EDITED BY 

CANON E. H. GODDARD, F.S.A., Clyfie Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this *' Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 




DEVIZES : 

Printed for the Society by C. H. Woodward, 

Exchange Buildings. Station Road. 



Price 8s. Members, Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE Ihab a copious Index for the preceding eight 
vohiines of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. 6c?., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining 10s. ^d. as before. Life Mem- 
bership £15 15s. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Me. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other connnunications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : Canon E. H. Goddahd, F.S. A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 



THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS. 

To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEH, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

THE BRITISH AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF THE NORTH 
WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev, A. 0. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 lis. 6d. 

THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF WILTSHIRE. One Volume, 8vo, 
504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev, T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

CATALOGUE of the STOURHEAD COLLECTION of ANTIQUITIES 
IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE of the SOCIETY'S LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. 
Price Is. APPENDIX No. L, II., and III., 3d. each. 

CATALOGUE gf DRAWINGS, PRINTS, and Maps, in the SOCIETY'S 
LIBRARY AT the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE of WILTSHIRE TRADE TOKENS in the SOCIETY'S 
COLLECTION. Price 6d 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d, (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 



WILTSEIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 
AGAZINE. 



No CLII. JUNE, 1930. Vol XI>V 



Contents* page 

The Origin and History of the Wiltshire Akch^ological 
AND Natural History Society : Presidential Address by 
Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot., at the Batli Meeting 

of the Society, August 7th, 1929 = . ... 1— 9 

Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library : By Canon 

Chiistoplier Wordsworth, F. R. Hist. Soc 10— 23 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929 : By M. W. 

Willson (St. Martin's Rectory, Salisbury) 24 — 35 

Wiltshire Wills, etc., still preserved in the Diocesan 

Registry, Salisbury: By C. R. Everett -. 36— 67 

The Sacraments Window in Crudwell Church: By G. 

McN. Rushforth, F.S A 68—72 

A Probable Source of the Material of some Wiltshire 
Prehistoric Axe-hammers : By the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, 

F.S.A. 73- 74 

Notes — Witches "Scrag" Tree on Winkelbury Hill. Roman 
Stone Coffin, Bradford-on-Avon. Marlborough Bill of Fare. 
Shorncote Church. The Wishford Legend. The Corsham 
Miscellany. Stone Cannon Balls at Clyflfe Pypard Manor. 
Thirteenth Century (Coffer in Salisbury Cathedral. Gospel 
Bush near Calne. Bradenstoke Barn Demolished. Carved 
Stone at Bradenstoke. Koman Figure at Tockenham 
Church. Cinerary Urn and Bronze Dagger from Barrow on 
Round way Down, Unrecorded Long Barrow at Imber. 
Saxon Burials, West Chisenbury. Netheravon Petition 
against Vicar, 1681. Sarsen Stones at Kingston Deverell. 
Local Lore of the Cuckoo. Glazed Flints. Great Bedwyn 
Breviary. Polished Greenstone Celt of Breton Type. 'J'he 
Mount at Great Somerford. Thunderstorm at Steeple 
Langford, 1704. Status of the Comma Butterfly. Bronze 
Seal at Market Lavington, Light in the Sky, 1929. 
Coniferous Roots in Sarsen Stones. Early Iron Age Bronze 

Horse Bit Roller 75 — 94 

Wilts Obituary 94 — 113 

Wiltshire Books. Pamphlets, and Articles 113 — 138 

Additions to Museum and Library 138 — 139 

Museum HeatIng Apparatus. Appeal for Contributions 140 — 141 
Accounts OF THE Society FOR THE Year 1929 142—146 




ILLUSTRATEONS. 

Fig 1. — Orudwell Cliurch. The three eastern lights of the Sacra- 
ments Window 68 

Fig. 2. — Doddiscombsleigh Church (Devon). The Sacraments 
Window, the modern central figure being replaced by the 
corresponding one at Oadbury ... 69 

Bronze knife-dagger from Barrow on Roundway Down 83 

Fig. I. — Late Bronze Age Cinerary Urn from Barrow on Round- 
way Down, 1928; Fig. II. — Trench cut through "The 
Mount" at Great Somerford showing rough wall ; Fig III. — 
Bronze 14th Century Seal found at Market Lavington ; 
Fig. IV.- — Impression ol 14th Century Seal found at Market 
Lavington ; Fig. V. — Early Iron Age Horse Bit Roller 
from Swindon „ 88—89 

Devizes: — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



"MULTORUM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ON{JS." — Ovid. 

No. CLII. June, 1950. Vol. XLV. 

THE OEIGm AND HISTOEY OF THE WILTSHIEE 
AECH^OLOGICAL AND NATUEAL HISTOEY SOCIETY. 

Presidential Address by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., at the 
Bath meeting of the Society, August 7th, 1929. 

It formerly was the custom for the President of our Society to deliver an 
inaugural address at our annual meetings, dealing with some subject of 
interest connected with Wiltshire. 

Unfortunately in recent years this admirable institution was not kept up 
but it was again revived last year by Lord Lansdowne, and those of us thek 
present had the pleasure of listening to a fascinating account of the life of 
Sir William Petty. Last year you paid me the high honour of electing me 
President for the ensuing year, and before handing over that office to my 
successor, I feel I ought to do my best to carry out the entire duties of a 
President by giving you some sort of an address. After casting round for 
a suitable subject, and almost giving the matter up in despair, it struck me 
that perhaps a brief outline of the origin and development of our Society, 
now in its seventy-fifth year, might be interesting, especially so to our 
more recently joined members. I imagine there are not many of those here 
to-day who have a complete set of the Magazine, in which are contained the 
records of the early days of the Society. Fortunately I have come into 
possession of the first twenty-six volumes rebound in quarto size, inter- 
leaved with blank pages. On these pages are pasted innumerable letters, 
newspaper cuttings, manuscript notes, extracts, and original sketches rele- 
vant to the subject matter of each Magazine. From these I have endeavoured 
to compile a short history of our Society, its origin, inauguration, and de- 
velopment — or in other words, brought together in one concise story the 
principal facts that led to our Society being formed and some of the chief 
points that have brought it to its present condition. That there are many 
omissions I know well, but I dare not make this address too long or with- 
out a doubt many of you will be fast asleep before I reach the end. This 
sad event occurred once at one of our annual meetings which may be in the 
memory of some of the older members present. 
YOL. XLV. — NO. CLII. B 



2 21ie Origin and Histoi-y of the Wilts Arch, and Nat, Hist. Soc. 

The earliest efforts to establish a Society for the study of the history of 
Wiltshire that we have any record of, were made by John Aubrey ata meet- 
of gentlemen in Devizes in 1659. At this meeting it was decided to divide 
the county into areas with an accredited local representative in each. This 
excellent idea, however, fell through. 

In 1788 Mr. Penruddocke Wyndham attempted to make a County History. 
He proposed in the preface of his " Domesday Book of Wiltshire " that the 
work should be accomplished by a subscription among the county gentle- 
men of not less than ^£25 each, that a committee of five or more of such 
subscribers should have the entire management, and that when the total 
subscriptions amounted to ^1500 — £2000 the work should be proceeded 
with. This plan does not seem to have met with much support. Mr. Coxe, 
Mr. Lambert, and Mr. Wm. Cunnington, of Heytesbury, were to some ex- 
tent associated with Mr. Wyndham in his eflforts, and the earlier papers and 
reports of Mr. Cunnington upon his excavations were sent to Mr. Wyndham. 
When, however, in 1804 Sir R. C. Hoare undertook to write the " History 
of Ancient Wilts " all the materials in Mr. Wyndham's hands were sent to 
him. 

Sir R. C. Hoare in 1817 made an effort in the same direction. He issued 
a circular to the County Gentlemen in which he urged that the time had 
now come when the researches of the antiquary were no longer considered 
useless, and that the history of the various hundreds should be undertaken 
by a society of resident gentlemen, and that such a society might succeed in 
what an individual would not venture to begin or hope to accomplish. He 
did not, however, succeed in his scheme, except so far as to draw together 
as guests at Stourhead, the few antiquaries and men of literary ability who 
were associated with him in his Modern Wilts. It is indeed a matter for 
congratulation that the topographical collections in Hoare's Histories 
of Ancient and Modern Wilts are so safely stored up in those magnificent 
but costly volumes. 

In 1839 John Britton established the first " Wiltshire Topographical 
Society." He induced a few friends to form a committee, and was fortunate 
enough to obtain the interest of the then Marquis of Lansdowne, who be- 
came the Patron of that Society as he subsequently was of our own 
Society. The first meeting was held in the Freemasons' Tavern, London, 
in June 1840. This Society published " The History of Grittleton," * An 
Essay on Topography," " A Memoir of John Aubrey," and " Aubrey's 
Natural History of Wilts." 

Although it consisted mostly of Wiltshire men it was from the begining 
a London Society, and it is to this circumstance that its early demise can 
be traced. It had neither local habitation, permanent museum, or library, 
and with these lacking, there was an absence of that unity necessary for 
permanence, a disadvantage that even the active zeal of Britton failed to 
overcome. The Society never numbered more than 170 members, of whom 
no fewer than 40 resigned after the first year, and in November, 1846, the 
committee failed to obtain a quorum. The following extract from the 
minute book is pathetic : — " Mr. Britton cannot help recording his regret 
and mortification at having devoted so much of his time and money to a 



By Capt. B. H. Cuymington, F,S.A.^ Scot. 3 

society in the promotion of which he has had so little assistance and co- 
operation from other gentlemen of the county. He must own that he feels 
his zeal much abated and that he must relinquish his efiforts in despair." 
Diminishing both in numbers and finances the Society dragged out a feeble 
existence until 1850, when it was decided to suspend further operations 
until a more favourable period should arrive. 

At the close of the meeting of the Archaeological Institute at Salisbury 
in 1849, a proposition was put forward by Mr. Britton to form a Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society but it met with no support. 

In spite of these failures yet one more attempt was made when in 1853 
the Wilts Archaeological and Natural History Society of to-day came into 
being. During the succeeding 76 years it has steadily progressed in all its 
objects. 

The origin of our Society was as follows : — Early in 1852 Mr. Britton, 
for reasons I need not go into, wished to dispose of his Wiltshire books, 
manuscripts, etc., and in a private letter to Mr. Wm. Cunnington, of Devizes, 
to that effect, said he would prefer that they should goto some gentleman of 
the County of Wilts or to a public society at Devizes, Chippenham, or Salis- 
bury, or some other place for the use of future topographers, and to promote 
the compilation of the history of the county. As it appeared desirable 
to procure this interesting collection for the public use, Mr. Cunnington 
wrote to some of the gentlemen of the county for their assistance in effect- 
ing the purchase, and received so much encouragement that he called a 
meeting in June, 1852, of friends who were interested in the matter. The 
outcome of this meeting was that a circular was issued to all the influential 
inhabitants of the county asking for their co-operation. The response was 
so encouraging that a letter was sent to Mr. Britton suggesting that the 
books, drawings, manuscripts, etc., should be valued. This was done by a 
Mr. John Taylor, of Gower Street, and on receipt of the valuation the 
<5ommittee agreed with Mr. Britton to buy the collection. At a meeting of 
the committee the following Septemberjit was resolved to apply to the Town 
Council of Devizes for the use of a room in the Town Hall for the reception 
of the books, &c. This was readily granted by the Council. There the 
property remained until it was removed to the Devizes Savings Bank at a 
later date. At a committee meeting held November 1st the same year it 
was unanimously resolved that having secured Mr. Britton's Wiltshire 
books, &c., an endeavour be made to form a Society for the purpose of 
establishing a County Museum and Library and for the promotion of the 
study of all objects concerning the general topography of Wiltshire. It 
was also resolved to bring the subject of the proposed Society to the notice 
^f the county gentlemen who would assemble at the ensuing Quarter 
Session. A meeting was accordingly held with Mr. T. H. Sotheron Estcourt 
in the chair, when the provisional committee were empowered to add to 
their numbers and proceed to make all necessary arrangements for the for- 
mation of the " Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society." 
The committee was instructed to report at a further meeting to be held the 
following Easter. 

In March, 1853, Lord Lansdowne was asked to become Patron of the 

B 2 



4 The Origin and History of the Wilts Arch, and Nat, Hist. Soc. 

Society, and Mr. G. Poulett Scrope to be the first President with a number 
of county gentlemen as Vice-Presidents. 

An inaugural meeting was held at the Town Hall, Devizes, on October 
12th, 1853, presided over by the Patron, Lord Lansdowne. 

At this inaugural meeting a number of influential gentlemen were elected 
as vice-presidents, including the Bishop of Salisbury (Denison), John 
Britton, the Hon. Sidney Herbert, Walter Long, M.P., Earl Bruce, with the 
Eev. W. C. Lukis and the Rev. J. E. Jackson as hon. secretaries. In ad- 
dition a strong committee of twelve members and fourteen local hon. sec- 
retaries, covering practically the whole of the county, was appointed. Be- 
tween two and three hundred persons attended this meeting and the num- 
ber of members enrolled totalled 140. A dinner was held in the Bear 
Hotel under the presidency of Mr. Sotheron Estcourt and later in the even- 
ing a conversazione took place in the Town Hall at which Mr. G. Poulett 
Scrope, M.P, presided. 

Thus was our Society launched under the most promising auspices. It& 
success indeed, was guaranteed. Writing in 1895 Mr. Wm. Cunnington 
says : — " Looking back from this the 42nd year of the Society's existence 
it is very gratifying to observe the continued success of the Society. The 
want of enlarged premises for the library and museum is an unmistakable 
proof of progress." 

If I were asked what are the principal features that have made our 
Society what it is to-day I think I should place them in this order. First, 
our magazine, then our museum, and finally our annual meetings. 

The magazine, started in 1854 and continued ever since, teems with 
articles concerning the archaeology, history, topography, geology, folk lore, 
ornithology, botany, and in fact almost every conceivable subject connected 
with Wiltshire. Under the able editorship of the Rev. (afterwards Canon) 
J. E. Jackson our magazine could not be otherwise than of great interest to 
Yv^iltshire people. There was scarcely a number from 1854 until within a 
year or two of his death in 1891 that did not contain some contribution 
from his pen. Writing to a friend less than a year before his death he said 
" Well, our magazine labours will live after us and show that at all events 
we did our best to keep up an interest in the history and antiquities of the 
county." In 1864 the editorship passed into the hands of the Rev. A. C. 
Smith, who had been one of the general secretaries since 1857, and the work 
was most ably carried on by him until his resignation in 1882. At the next 
annual meeting the Rev. (now Canon) E. H. Goddard was formally elected 
hon. sec. and editor. Canon Jackson writing to a friend a short time before the 
Rev. A. C. Smith's resignation said " I fear Charles Smith is getting anxious, 
through bad health, to be relieved of his responsibility in connection with 
Wilts archaeology. The most likely young hand I know of to undertake 
active work is the Rev. Edward Hungerford Goddard, Rector of Cliffe 
Pipard, son of Canon Frank Goddard, of Hilmarton. E. H. G. is a very 
sharp intelligent fellow and takes much interest in our pursuits." At the 
next general meeting Canon Jackson's suggestion was carried out and 
E. H. G. was formally elected hon. sec. and editor. What a wonderful 
iudge of character Canon Jackson was, and what a great debt of gratitude 



By Capt. B. H. dmnington, F.S.A., Scot. 5 

we and the archaeological world generally owe to him for his timely sug- 
gestion ! Since that date our Society, and especially the magazine has 
more than retained its early standard and reputation. It would be a pre- 
sumption on my part to say anything of Canon Goddard's work these last 
forty years on behalf of our Society, in archseology and kindred subjects, 
but I must refer to the fact that all through the strenuous years of the 
Great War our Magazine appeared regularly at the appointed times, an 
accomplishment that very few societies similar to our own can lay claim to. I 
can only add, long may that " very sharp intelligent fellow " continue to 
take an interest in our pursuits. What Canon Jackson was to the Society 
in his time Canon Goddard is in ours. " His magazine labours will live 
after him and show that at all events he did his best to keep up an interest 
in the history and antiquities of our county." 

To refer once more to the inaugural meeting, a temporary loan museum 
was arranged in the Town Hall, which comprised a large number of exhibits 
of archaeological, geological, and historical interest, Wiltshire views and 
historical records, models, drawings, books, manuscripts, &c. Many of 
them were afterwards presented to the Society and formed the nucleus of 
our museum to-day. The first magazine was published in 1854. It con- 
tains an account of the steps that led up to the formation of our Society, an 
account of the inaugural meeting and addresses by Mr. G. Poulet Scrope, 
the Rev. J. E. Jackson, Mr. John Britton, and other articles. 

Donations of exhibits to the museum and library began to come in fast 
from all parts of the county, and in June, 1857, arrangements were made to 
rent and fit up a large room over the Savings Bank, Devizes, as a temporary 
museum. The number of members was then 376, and every year the don- 
ation of exhibits increased. The scheme for establishing a museum and 
library at the Savings Bank was carried into effect in 1858. In 1863 the 
Society held its tenth General Meeting at Devizes, when the committee in 
its report gave a vivid outline of the progress the Society had made during 
the first ten years of its existence. This is published in Vol. IX., No. 25, 
of the magazine. The annual report for 1867 states that "the Committee 
has now under serious consideration the great and growing want of a more 
commodious museum and asks for the support of the members to a scheme 
which they hope shortly to lay before them for supplying this great want.'' 
The following year further reference was made to this matter, and the 
necessity of a larger museum was brought forcibly to the notice of the mem- 
bers by the fact that many objects of great interest had to be declined 
owing to the lack of space. In June, 1871, a special meeting of the com- 
mittee was held at the Savings Bank to consider an offer made to the 
Society of premises in Long Street, for the purpose of a museum and 
library, the property of Mr. Joseph Jackson. Early in January the follow- 
ing year a general meeting of the members was held in the Town Hall to 
consider the recommendation of the committee thereon. The High Sheriff, 
J. W. G. Spicer, presided, and after viewing the premises it was unani- 
mously agreed that they should be purchased for ^630 provided the 
necessary funds could be raised, with a further ^300 for adapting the 
place to the requirements of a museum. A strong committee, headed 



6 The Origin and History of the Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. 

by the High Sheriff and the Mayor of Devizes, was formed to make ap- 
plications for subscriptions and carry out the necessary arrangements. The 
response was most gratifying ; within one month the full amount required 
was promised or paid. 

One subscriber when sending his cheque for £50 says, " Archasology may 
be a highly interesting and elevating pursuit but it must be considered an 
expensive luxury in these days of progress." 

It is a matter of interest to note that the stone used in building the front 
of the museum is Seend stone and was given by Wadham Locke, Esq. 

In 1873 the work at the new museum was progressing towards comple- 
tion, and in a few months the building was ready to receive donations of 
antiquities, sketches, manuscripts, etc. 

In September, 1874, the annual meeting was held in Devizes. This year 
is mentioned because it marks two important milestones in the history of 
our Society, viz., the celebration of its 21st birthday and the opening of 
the museum in Long Street. An unusually large gathering met in the 
Town Hall on Tuesday, September 8th, which was presided over by G. 
Goldney, Esq., M.P. 

After the meeting the president, with the Mayor and Corporation of the 
borough, preceded by the maces, &c., walked in procession from the Town 
Hall to the Museum in Long Street, where the president unlocked the door 
and declared the building opened. Thus was started our museum. It is 
safe to say that since 1874 not a year has passed without some valuable 
addition being made to it of archseological, historical, geological, or other 
interest, and to-day we have a museum so representative of the archaeology 
and natural history and all other ologies of the county of Wilts that we 
cannot but feel proud of it. 

Early in 1878 the committee met to consider an offer by Sir Henry Hoare 
to allow the Stourhead Collection of Antiquities, then stored in the cellars 
at Stourhead, to be transferred to the Society's museum on loan. The fol- 
lowing letter from Mr. Joseph Jackson, of Devizes, to Mr. Longbourne, of 
Lincolns Inn Fields, dated November 12th, 1877, will give an outline as to 
how and why this offer was made. 

Mr. Jackson writes : — "I write to remind you of Mr. Henry Cunnington's 
suggestion about the Stourhead Collection of Antiquities. The collection 
as I undertand was made by Sir Kichard Colt Hoare, with the assistance of 
Mr. Cunnington's grandfather, and contains curiosities and specimens 
gathered from all parts of the county, more especially from barrows. Mr. 
Cunnington tells me that many of the specimens are rapidly deteriorating^ 
from want of proper care, and that more than half the value of the collection 
would be lost if the particular barrow or place where each article was found 
could not be identified. He thinks that there are materials in possession of 
his family which would enable him to identify the source of each specimen 
or nearly so, and that it would be a labour of love to do it. He would 
undertake the packing and removal to Devizes and have all the specimens 
cleaned, repaired, and correctly labelled. And further he could arrange 
them in proper cases and keep the collection together and mark it as the 



By Capt. B, H, Cuimington, F.S.A., Scot. 7 

Stourhead Collection. I hope Sir Henry and his trustees may see their way 
to comply with this request, &c." 

The return post brought the following reply from Mr. Longbourne : — 
" You will have gathered from my telegram that Sir Henry consents to lend 
the Stourhead Collection to the committee of the Museum, Devizes, on the 
terms suggested, provided the committee will become personally responsible 
and return the collection to Stourhead when required to do so by Sir Henry 
or the trustees of the will of Sir Richard Colt Hoare, and to bear all the 
cost of removal and return of the articles, &c. I am very glad to have been 
in any way instrumental in rendering so interesting a collection of some 
benefit to the public. 

On March 30th, 1878, all the preliminaries had been carried through and 
permission given for the. collection to be moved to Devizes. This was done 
during the summer and at the annual meeting held in Devizes on Novem- 
ber 6th the same year the committee reported its safe arrival at the Museum, 
and that the specimens had been labelled and arranged in cases. In report- 
ing this valuable acquisition to our Museum a local paper of that date 
says : — " We are not alone in the opinion that the Society has made a mis- 
take in accepting the ' Collection ' on such onerous terms. It is fully clear 
that Sir H. Hoare places little store upon it, and to run the Society further 
into debt to rescue a ' Collection ' of what — as it lies in the cellar at Stour- 
head — appears to unarchseological eyes more like the refuse of a marine store 
shop than anything else, augurs a degree of antiquarian eccentricity which 
few persons will be able to appreciate." 

The editor of that paper has passed away, but one of his successors is 
with us to-day and I don't think he holds the same opinions as his pre- 
decessor. 

In 1883 the committee were given to understand that the Stourhead Col- 
lection of antiquities, together with many of the books, drawings, etc., that 
had been the property of Sir R. Colt Hoare, were for sale. It was felt that 
every effort should be made to secure these as far as possible for our Society, 
consequently an appeal was made for donations to carry out this purpose. 
The response, as always is the case when this Society puts forward an 
appeal for help towards any archaeological object, was generous, and ^390 
was soon subscribed. The collection as it stood in our museum was 
valued for the Society by Mr. Henry Cunnington in detail and the total sum 
estimated by him was -£234. Sir Henry Hoare's valuer, Mr. Francis 
Whelan, of Rollin & Feuardent, came to Devizes at the end of April and his 
valuation amounted to £250. Needless to add this was readily accepted by 
the committee. At the sale of books, etc., the prices were in many cases too 
high for the slender funds then in the hands of our treasurer ; nevertheless 
many valuable works were secured for a total of £136. These two amounts 
with minor expenses for printing and postages balanced the subscriptions re - 
ceived within a matter of a few shillings. The same year a collection of 
Wiltshire tradesmen's tokens, some 120 in number, were offered to the 
Society for ^£5 and ultimately purchased. They formed a valuable addition 
to the small collection already on exhibition, and from time to time they have 
been added to, so that at the present date the collection is nearly complete 



8 The Origin and History of the Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. 

as described in Williamson's Tradesmen's Tokens, besides which we have 
several examples not recorded. Time will not permit me to pursue the 
history of our Society further. Many valuable additions to the Museum 
have been made since 1883 and the archaeological history of Wiltshire has 
advanced by leaps and bounds during the last forty years. 

I have not been able to touch upon the magnificent collection of Wilt- 
shire books, drawings, tracts, manuscripts, etc., that have little by little, 
year by year, accumulated in our library. But it is safe to say that no other 
county society can give its members access to a more useful or valuable col- 
lection of books, drawings, manuscripts, etc., bearing upon its county history 
than can be seen on our shelves and in the portfolios of our library at 
Devizes. Much of the success of this branch of the Society's work is due 
to the untiring efforts and labours of our esteemed hon. sec and editor, 
Canon E. H. Goddard. What he has done to bring our library to its 
present state of efficiency is known to a few of us, but the excellent maga- 
zine he sends us each half year is an indication of the even greater work he 
has for so many years carried on in acquiring, arranging, and cataloguing 
this unique collection. 

Neither have I been able to refer, except briefly, to the untiring labours 
of our predecessors, to John Britton, Canon Jackson, Canon Rich Jones, 
General Pitt Rivers, G. Poulett Scrope, The Rev. Charles Smith, William 
Long, Dr. J. Thurnam, and may I add William and Henry Cunnington, 
and many others who will long be remembered as pioneers in the investiga- 
tion and study of archaeology and natural history in Wiltshire. 

Amongst the most important publications, issued under the auspices of 
the Society, besides the Magazine may be mentioned :— " The British and 
Roman Antiquities of the North Wiltshire Downs," by the Rev. A. C. 
Smith ; " The Topographical Collections of John Aubrey," by the Rev. 
Canon Jackson ; *' Stonehenge and its Barrows," by Wm. Long ; " The 
Flowering Plants of Wiltshire," by the Rev. T. A. Preston; and "The 
Tropenell Cartulary," by the Rev. J. Silvester Davies. 

I have endeavoured to give you a brief outline of the history of our 
Society — its origin and subsequent development. It was founded on a 
strong influential basis, it has met with liberal support from the very first, 
it has steadily advanced in usefulness, keeping pace with, and sometimes 
even leading, the development and building up of archaeological knowledge 
in general and the prehistoric and medieval history of Wiltshire in particular. 
Long may it continue so to do. 



[On the conclusion of the President's address, the following addition 
was proposed and carried unanimously with the special proviso that it 
should be printed in the Magazine after the address.] 

" It can hardly fail to be observed that in one respect, and that a most 
important one, the President's Address is, of necessity perhaps, seriously 
defective. In his sketch of the history of the Society he has only touched, 
and that in the lightest possible way, on the part which his own family has 



By Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 9 

borne in the development of Wiltshire archaeology. There were William 
Cunnington, F.S.A., of Heytesbury, William Cunnington, F.G.S., and 
Henry, for many years Curator of the Museum. And then there are our 
President himself, who has held the same office of Curator for 45 years, and 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, to whose devoted labours, wide knowledge, and 
skilful handiwork the present admirable condition of the archaeological col- 
lection of the Society is chiefly due. The excavations carried out by Captain 
and Mrs. Cunnington in camps such as Casterley, Lidbury,and Figsbury, and 
more especially on the very remarkable sites at All Cannings Cross and 
Woodhenge, with the accounts which they have published of their excava- 
tions, have opened new pages in our knowledge of the later prehistoric 
period, which cannot fail to influence the theories of all future students of 
of the Early Iron Age. If this family had elected to live in any other 
county, the status of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society would not be 
what it is, nor would our Museum collections have for all students of 
archaeology the interest and the value which they admittedly have to-day." 



10 



MAGNA CARTA IN SALISBURY CATPIEDRAL 

LIBRARY,! 

By Canon Christopher Wordsworth, F. R. Hist. See. 

The following is (with some revision) the address which Canon Christopher 
Wordsworth, while Chancellor of Salisbury Cathedral, gave to the members 
of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society at the Annual Meeting at Salisbury 
in 1924, on the copy of Magna Carta which is in the Library of the Cath- 
edral : — 

This afternoon a good many of us were looking at our Magna Garta» 
You saw our original itself under glass in the Cathedral Library, with a 
framed photograph of its endorsements, taken by Mr. H. Messenger. You 
saw also his most successful full-sized photographic reproduction of it in a 
glass case within the Chapter House. I am invited this evening to give 
some description of our original document. In what I now say you may 
agree with me, or you may think me very fanciful. 

Compared with the three other extant exemplars of the Great Charter, 
our Salisbury M S. looks slim and modest — stately perhaps, yet unpretentious. 
It seems in its proportions and dimensions to harmonise with the simple 
English style of architecture of the first quarter of the 13th century. It re- 
minds me of the tall tower which on this soil, though in a later age, was to 
grow up from the foundations which Richard Foore had laid on the lines of 
direction planned out by the skill of Master Elias. A superficial com- 
parison between the outlines of the broad tower of Lincoln and those of 
the narrower tower which we have in the centre of Salisbury Cathedral, 
may serve for the moment to draw attention to the points which will be 
noticed in contrasting our copy of Magna Carta with that other which is at 
Lincoln. 

Salisbury and Lincoln : a Comparison. 
In width Salisbury tower is certainly narrower than the central tower of 
Lincoln Minster, and our exemplar of the Charter is narrower than their 
copy. We cannot boast of so rich a battlement as Lincoln is graced with. 
Our Cathedral upper battlement, though worthy of detailed examination, 
is not so strikingly elaborate, but was designed and executed in accord with. 
the simplicity of its base (early 13th century). In like manner, the Anglo- 
Norman scribe who wrote our Charter, as I suppose, for old Bishop Herbert 
Poore and his canons of Old Sarum five years before the survivors came 
down from the hill, has carried the up-strokes of the top line of his writing 
a little higher than his ordinary style ; he made the top of some reach five 
or six, others only three or four, millimetres above the main line of the 
ordinary top of his clear and careful lettering. A different scribe, executed 
their exemplar for Bishop Hugh II. — the Hugh of Wells who was the 
brother of Josceline of Wells and one of the numerous friends of our 
Canon architect. Master Elias of Dereham, and who was to become after- 
wards ever memorable for the exquisite Lincoln angel choir of his episcopate. 

* This address was printed in full in the Wiltshire {xazttte^ Aug. 21st, 1924» 



Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library. II 

The scribe — commissioned by Hugh II. and his Dean (Roger de Rolveston) 
and by their Canons — carried the heightened upstroke of his Great 
Charter for Lincoln some eleven millimetres (not quite so steadily carried 
up, according to Basire's engraving) above the main line of the top of his 
lettering, but nearly twice as high as our top-line embellishment. 

Then there is a point about the masonry of our C^athedral here. The 
workmen, under the direction of Elias, fitted their courses of stone so nicely, 
and with such a delicate layer of honest lime mortar— no hard cement for 
us ! — that you have to look twice at least to make sure that our Cathedral 
inner walls of Chilmark stone are not all solid, of one gigantic single block, 
nor have been covered with a wash of white. You will require, in like 
manner to look at our copy of the Charter probably twice, unless your eye- 
sight is very good, before you notice, perhaps in the lower lines nearest to 
the eye, that our scribe has ruled his lines with a very delicate plummet of 
lead. [I have not ascertained whether the like is true of the Lincolnia 
copy also.] But their courses of masonry are not so perfectly laid as ours. 

The written surface of the Salisbury exemplar, from the top of the highest 
up-stroke to the feet of the lowest letter of its script measures 15 4 5th 
inches in height by only 13 inches in breadth along the lines. The Lincoln 
one is 16 and 4-5ths inches high by 17 1-lOth of width along its lines of 
writing. Thus Lincoln is a trifle larger every way, but Salisbury looks 
tall and delicate, having 75^ lines of writing, whereas Lincoln, with its 54 
lines, is almost a square — a trifle broader than its height. Here, of course, 
my illustration is inept, as no sane person can think of Inncoln Cathedral 
tower except with admiration. 

Of the British Museum exemplars : — 

Height Breadth 

Cotton Charters XIII. 31a. has 80 lines ... 17 3-10 X 13 1-10 

MS. Cotton ^wgrws^ws II. 106 has 51:^ lines ... 14| X 11 9-10 

— supposing the line of correction had been written consecutively in text. 

But I hope you will appreciate the proportions of our Salisbury copy of the 

great Charter. 

Of its finish at the base you will hardly notice that our document ends 
unostentatiously with a short line of written text, just where the scribe's 
pen reached a full stop. You might compare such a simple termination to 
a lowly plinth not rising very noticeably above the inclination of the green- 
sward, at one corner and modestly dying away. 

Hugh de Welles, the Bishop of lincoln, was present himself in person 
at '• Runimede"— no two of the four scribes has spelt this name alike, 
nor " Windsor " either. Our man, for instance, has written " Runingmede " 
with a g. The scribe for Lincoln has contrived to get an h into " Windles- 
horam"— (knowing that his dictated task was drawing to its close and 
breathing freely)— and has more deliberately spaced out his words so as to 
give an apparently substantial basis to the left-hand corner of his line, as 
well as for the centre and the right. Successive Bishops, deans and canons 
of Lincoln have doubtless given the clerk who wrote their copy due credit 
for this pretty finishing touch. 



12 Magna Carta in Salishwy Cathedral Library. 

Was Bishop Richard Poore at Runnymede ? 

Our Bishop Herbert Poore was not (I believe) at Runnymede himself. 
He was (I imagine) now an aged man, and was drawing near his end. His 
day of conflict had been some 16 years earlier, when he had rallied to the 
side of the more famous Bishop Hugh of Lincoln, Hugh the 1st, St. Hugh 
of Avalon, in resisting as a statesman the taxation and demands of King 
Richard and his justiciar. Archbishop Hubert Walter, a strenuous Crusader, 
who had been Herbert Poore's immediate predecessor at Old Sarum [and 
himself consecrated him at St. Catherine's Chapel, Westminster, 5th June, 
1194]. 

Old Bishop Herbert Poore's brother, Richard Poore, to whom our city 
owes at least a two-fold debt, was of course living in those momentous days 
of the King's and the barons' negotiations at Runnymede. Richard Poore's 
name does not appear among those seven Bishops whose names come next 
to those of Stephen Langton and Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin, 
as advisors and (by reference to them at the end) as witnesses to the Charter, 
on the face of it. But it occurs to me to ask : " Was Richard Poore not 
possibly one of the multi alii who are said to have been present?" One 
fact in history seems to me to suggest that he was. 

True, he had not at one time been a persona grata to William Longespe, 
Earl of Salisbury, having had a quarrel against him while he had been Dean 
under Bishop Herbert for 16 or 17 years at Old Sarum, although they were 
to become excellent friends in Earl William's last days, ten or twelve years 
after Runnymede, when Richard Poore was Bishop of this newer Cathedral. 
He had been consecrated Bishop for Chichester not quite five months before 
the Charter was sealed. Very soon the Barons chose their five-and-twenty 
representative Barons (all laymen) to see the Charter executed and carried 
out according to their demands therein conceded. But soon again King 
John had the opportunity of complaining that the time had come when the 
Barons should fulfil their obligation, as promised, to issue lesser charters in 
their respective baronies, and they had neglected or refused to bind them- 
selves in that manner. 

Apparently the churchmen were called in to say whether this was just 
and right. These two Archbishops and the seven Bishops (with Pandulph 
to represent Pope Innocent's point of view) were as independent a body of 
men as could be found at the time. They were clerks, and most, if not all 
of them, had judicial and administrative experience, and the Church of 
England had her independence and liberty of elections secured, as far as 
chartered freedom could efifect it, by the earlier charter in John's name 
under the seal delivered by the Lord Richardus de Marisco, his Chancellor 
at the New Temple in London, 21st November, 1214, and confirmed in the 
preamble and the 63rd chapter of the Great Charter itself, in June, 1215, 
They appear to have been required at least on two occasions to give their 
opinion of the conduct of the 25 Barons chosen almost without exception 
from those more hostile to the King than William, Earl of Salisbury, or 
even most of the original advisory witnesses on the part of the Barons. 
On both occasions the Archbishops of Canterbury and Dublin concurred 



By Canon Christo'pher Wordsiuorth, F. R. Hist. Soc. 13 

with six or seven other Bishops, who had witnessed Magna Carta, to 
formulate a protest against what the Barons had done or refused to do and 
the two protests were duly recorded on the rolls. Benedict de Sansetun, 
who had been head justice for the four home counties, Bishop of Rochester, 
was the one who did not take part in these protests. However, on the 
second occasion, two others brought the number of ecclesiastics protesting 
up to nine. One of these was a Bishop newly risen to the bench, Richard 
(Poore) of Chichester, the other, Pandulph, the Pope's sub-dean and familiar, 
who certainly had been one of the original witnesses at Runnymede. As 
the terms of this protest contain the phrase " the Barons made such and 
such a promise to the King nobis presentibus et audientibus " — ' in our 
presence and our hearing ' — does it not seem on the face of it most likely 
that Richard Poore was at Runnymede that memorable day 1 

[Although, unhappily, I cannot find my memorandum now, in 1929, I 
believe that there are some letters, &c., dated by Bishop Poore, in 1215, 
from Runnymede, while John and the Barons were there.] 

Although Richard Poore was not specifically named among the 27 wit- 
nesses at Runnymede, soon after becoming Bishop of Chichester, in 1215, 
it is interesting to notice that his name occurs, 12th November, 1216, as 
Richard, Bishop of Chichester, among the witnesses to the first re-issue of 
the modified Charter after the accession of Henry III. In the third or 
final re-issue of that reign, 11th February, 1224 — 5, when the young King 
was pronounced to be of age, Richard Poore's name re-appears as Saris- 
heriensis, as one of the 65 witnesses. Among these were Stephen Langton, 
11 Bishops, and 20 Abbots. W. Longespe's name again occurs among the 
Earls. We may believe that the fine copy of this Great Charter of Henry 
III. (1225), now among the Talbot collection at Lacock, was taken home by 
the Earl, and was among the trophies cherished by Ela, so soon to become 
his widow. The Countess herself may have had occasion to refer to it 
when (as I am reminded) she was Sheriff of Wilts in the interval before she 
went to end her days in her abbey at Lacock. [W.A.Mag., iii., 194—5; 
W. L. Bowles, Lacock, 168, 357, n.]. 

I mentioned the various spellings of the place names Runnymede and 
Windsor in the four copies extant of the Charter, and I might have added 
that our scribe wrote ' Stane " instead of ' Stanes ' which Cotton Charters 
and Lincoln write clearly Stanes, while Cotton MS. Augustusha.s Stan' with 
a mark like an apostrophe. 

Sir John Charles Fox, of Goring, Master of the Supreme Court, Chancery 
Division, whose writings on the Laws of England are well known, has with 
great courtesy sent me a typed- copy of his careful collation of the various 
readings of all four copies. I hope that Sir John Fox is getting his collation 
printed and will be able to tell us what those who are best qualified by 
experience in comparative textual criticism may be able to divine as to the 
provenance and mutual relationship of the four exemplars of Magna Carta 
and our Wiltshire copy in particular. Sir John has noted 73 words or 
phrases where he has found variety of reading between any one copy and 
one or more of the other three. In themselves the variations are quite 
trivial, and none of them, apart from the well known corrections at the foot 



14 Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library. 

of the British Museum copies, really affects the substance of the Charter 
as known to students through the Cotton MS. Augustus text, printed by 
Dr. Stubbs and by Professor McKechnie in his admirable book on Magna 
Carta, from which I quote some sentences, and to it I am constantly in- 
debted. 

[Sir J. C. Fox's collations were printed on pp. 330, 331 of his article On 
the Originals of the Great Charter ^ in the English Historical Review, pp. 
321—336, in vol. 39, No. 155]. 

Four Exemplars of the Charter. 

You know that there are in existence in England four exemplars of 
Magna Carta, each of them with a fair claim — which living experts, I believe, 
allow to be a just claim — to have been written in the lifetime of King John, 
and not improbably in June, 1215, while Richard of the Marsh (de Marisco), 
King John's Chancellor of England, held in his custody the great seal of the 
Kingdom. Of these four exemplars not one has the great seal remaining 
attached to it. One of the pair (now) in the British Museum Cotton 
Charters, XIII., 31 A, retained its seal until 1731 (23rd October), when the 
fire, alas ! broke out in Ashburnham House, Westminster, where the 
Cottonian library was for the time deposited. Some of the MSS. were 
sadly scorched, among these an early Court Book of Ogbourne, and one of 
these rare exemplars of King John's Great Charter. Its seal is now a 
formless lump of wax. The other (national) exemplar (now British Museum 
Cotton Augustus 11., 106, the bust of the Emperor Augustus ornamenting 
its original bookcase) like that in Lincoln Cathedral Library, and our one 
at Salisbury, has lost entirely the seal which once it had. 

The exemplars belonging to the two sister Cathedrals, Lincoln and 
Salisbury, never had more than one seal, but judging from the holes for its 
attachment still discernible in both of them, it was a Great Seal in either 
instance. I am sorry to think that our own exemplar looks as if it had had 
its edges trimmed rather close, the vellum is as frail as egg- shell and pre- 
sumably was found to be frayed and ragged round the margins when it 
was re-discovered about 1820. It must once have had an inch or so of extra 
margin at the foot up-turned or folded upwards, so as to give a better 
stability to the cords of silk by which the seal was appended. But the 
three holes, though cruelly rent and damaged when the seal itself was torn 
away (possibly by a thief, possibly by a tidy person if the wax was hope- 
lessly shattered), are still discernible in what was once covered by the up- 
turned edge. One of the two British Museum copies (Cotton MS. 
Augustus) has at some time been shorn even more cruelly close than ours, 
so that no sign of upturned lower margin now appears on the very service- 
able facsimile issued by direction of the Trustees and procurable at the 
Museum or the Oxford Press with a copy of the text in modern type, for a 
very modest charge. It was recorded that 'Cotton Augustus^ once had 
two slits — not roundish eyelet holes for plaited cords, as in the two Cathedral 
(Lincoln and Sarum) copies, but slits for strips of vellum. The facsimile 
of MS. Augustus shows three slits, apparently, the one to your right hand 



By Canon Gkristopker WortUworth, F. IL Hist. Soc. 15 

being narrower than the other two, as if for a very modest signet being 
attached. 

A seal (or more seals than one) were attached by means of a long narrow 
slip of vellum passed through a slit in the folds at the bottom of the charter, 
and the two ends of the slip then doubled together to pass through the 
chafed and softened lump of wax to be impressed at front and back simul- 
taneously. The wax (virgin daffodil yellow, or bleached white, or coloured, 
perhaps green with verdigris) was left to cool and harden. This method of 
attachment, being common to them both, may be thought to classify the 
two British Museum exemplars together, while the other method of attach- 
ment through roundish or diamond-shaped holes, cut with the point of a 
knife or dagger, the holes being still noticeable in those of Lincoln and Old 
Sarum (now brought down into our newer Cathedral in the well-watered 
meadow), is sufficient, prima faciei for classifying these two Cathedrals' 
exemplars together, tentatively. 

There is this slight indication, as to seal attachment, which the two 
Museum copies share with the original preliminary, " Articles of the Barons," 
a document which happily retains a considerable portion of its seal. Like 
other great seals down to the present day, the seal appended to the pre- 
liminary " Articles of the Barons " represents the King on his throne of 
rule and justice on what must have been intended for its obverse side, 
while the reverse displays him riding forth to do battle and has (or had) 
the remainder of his style or titles after the criss-cross and his name re- 
peated. The collotype facsimile shows the text of the Articles and the re- 
verse seal apparently attached to it. The older engraving by James Basire 
shows, however, the obverse to the fore as was most natural. Besides their 
method of attachment, the Museum copies have another point in common 
together. Each of them has more or less in the way of correction written 
in a line (or two lines) at the foot. 

"In June, 1215." 

We are invited to hear Mr. Engleheart's lecture on Stonehenge to- 
morrow evening in the Salisbury, South Wilts and Blackmore Museum, in 
the south part of the town, Whatever the south part of the town was 
called at the opening of the thirteenth century, it had not yet given shelter 
to the poor friars of St. Francis. 

In June, 1215, the month of Runnymede and Magna Carta, St. Dominic 
had still six years to live, and St. Francis of Assisi more than eleven years. 
Here was the poor quarter of St. Martin's in Milford, near our Lady's 
mead. By the time the first Friars were beginning to make it " The 
Friary," about 1225, the new Cathedral walls were rising high in the field 
to the west ; and Master Elias de Dereham had already built the aula and 
the camera for Bishop Richard Poore's palace a little further south, with 
the help of oak beams granted by the young King Henry III. from Gilling- 
ham Park and Milcethawe. But ten years earlier, i.e., in June, 1215, 
his father, King John, still held the crown and throne ; and the 
ground so soon to be occupied by our Cathedral Church, the place where 
St. Thomas of Canterbury may once have alighted from his horse to kneel 



16 Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library. 

and pray, such was the legend written in a later century, but at all events 
the place where St. Edmund of Abingdon, and Salisbury, and Canterbury, 
certainly spent hours in the Lady Chapel when it was built, was yet a fair 
meadow known to a few as " Merefield." King John's half-brother, William 
Longespe, who was Earl of Saresburie, in the right of his Countess Ela, 
had ridden by that time (June, 1215) from Sarum on the hill, perhaps with 
other nobles and barons, and was already in another meadow amid other 
waters, between Staines and Windsor on the 15th, on which day the 
extended truce and safe conduct would expire. John's " headquarters 
were at Windsor (Professor McKechnie tells us) from Monday, June 15th 
(the morrow of Trinity Sunday), to the afternoon of Tuesday, the 23rd (St. 
John Baptist's Day at Midsummer)." On seven at least of these nine days 
(the possible exceptions being Tuesday and Wednesday, the 16th and 17th) 
John visited Runnymede to confer with the Barons. Writs dated from 
Windsor on all nine days are entered on the Close and Patent Rolls, while 
on each of the seven days in the same period, as already indicated, others 
(one or more each day) are dated from Runnymede. John himself declared 
that Friday, June 19th, was the day " in which peace was declared between 
the king and his barons." That was four days after the date which the 
Great Charter itself bears in its concluding sentence. 

You all know that there were two documents, relating to the liberties of 
the Barons and other the King's liegemen, to the sealing of which King 
John was constrained to assent, in those momentous days. You recollect 
that the former of those documents is known as the Articles of the Barons^ 
though bearing neither date nor place upon it, but having the King's seal 
appended, while the latter is the Great Charter itself, as finally concluded, 
and that it opens with the words " Johannes Rex Anglie " and concludes 
with the statement that it was " Given by our hand in the meadow which 
is called Runimede betwixt Windelsore and Stanes. On the 15th day of 
June in the 17th year of our Reign." 

Two Documents. 

Now what became of these two documents ? 

The Articles of the Barons, while it bears in Latin the simple heading 
Ista sunt Capitula que Barones petunt et dominus Rex concedit (These be 
the articles which the Barons crave and the Lord King doth grant), has the 
impression of John's great seal obverse enthroned and reverset on horseback 
militant, appended at its foot, after the long final paragraph of fourteen 
lines containing the Form of Security. These forty-nine articles or heads 
and terms of agreement, had been in debate— many of them at least — since 
April 27th of the same year. 

The original Articles of the Barons, with the greater part of King John's 
seal attached to it, is now in the British Museum. It appears to have been 
kept by the Archbishops of Canterbury, successors to Stephen Langton. 
But, in December, 1640, it was conveyed from Archbishop Laud's study at 
Lambeth by his friend J. Warner. Bishop of Rochester. Subsequently 
Gilbert Burnet (Bishop of Sarum, 1689 — 1715) acquired it, and seemed to 
boast that it was the Great Charter itself, whereas it was the preliminary 



By Canon Christo'pher Wordsiuorth, F. B. Hist, Soc. 17 

agreement. Philip, second Earl Stanhope, purchased it, and gave it to the 
British Museum in 1769. 

Accepting the argument which Professor William Sharp McKechnie, of 
Glasgow, brings forward in his great commentary on Magna Carta, ed. 2, 
1914, that it was not sealed until the eventful 15th of June, at Runnymede, 
I hazard the opinion that the Primate of all England, Stephen Langton, 
took charge of it then and there. How else could it have got to Lambeth 
in after years 1 I do not know that there was ever a second copy made of 
the Articles of the Barons, or that it was seriously studied — not even by 
Bishop Burnet — until Sir W. Blackstone, M.P. for Hendon and for West- 
bury, worked at the Great Charter about 1759, soon after he had become 
the first Professor of English Law at Oxford. A facsimile was issued in 
1800 in appendix cc. to the First Report of the Record Commission, and by 
the Second Commission (of 1806) in 1812 ; also in Statutes of the Realm, 
vol. I., pp. 6 — 7, in 1810, and again in Rymer's Fcedera, I., 131, in 1816. 
The more recent British Museum collotype I dare say you know. 

It is an interesting document historically and deserves to be kept (as it 
is) as the property of the nation. It was an all important document for the 
Barons in 1215, but only until the full Charter had itself been sealed. The 
more crafty and politic among the Barons might even judge it wisest that 
it should be kept in safe hands and not scrutinised too minutely when they 
had secured a formal charter comprising 63 chapters instead of 49, even 
though some of them may have involved concession to the King's require- 
ments in their negotiations. 

They had certainly won a victory, although the King would presently, 
with Pope Innocent III. on his side, discount it as far as possible and 
cause the Barons to be proclaimed as rebels ; and their charter void. They 
would lose no time to get it circulated and published in safe hands as widely 
and as speedily as they could. Capable Norman scriveners were set to work 
to multiply copies, possibly by dictation, so that they might be " distributed 
throughout the land, to be preserved in important strongholds and among 
the archives of the chapters of cathedral churches." The scribes did their 
work well, and if not too handsomely, yet with care and deliberation. 

If we have the good fortune to have any among us this evening fresh 
from the study of English History and charters of the second decade of the 
thirteenth century, there are a few questions which some of us would like 
to put to them. If there were an examiner in the History Schools I might 
perhaps even venture from a respectful distance to ask first of all, " Has 
any candidate for an academical degree in your subject ever offered or pre- 
sented a thesis on the names and personages mentioned ? Has Dr. Round, 
or Miss Kate Norgate, perhaps, gone thoroughly into this already ? " 

The Episcopal Inspeximus. 

There seems to be no question but that Archbishop Langton of Canter- 
bury, and Henry, Archbishop of Dublin, with the seven Bishops of Sees in 
England, together with Master Pandulf, Pope Innocent's sub-deacon and 
familiar — i.e.., all the clerics named in the preamble of the Charter, with 
VOL. XLY. — NO. CLII. C 



18 Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library, 

the exception of Eymeric, Master of the Knights of the Temple — were com- 
missioned under the authority of chapter 62nd to issue letters testimonial 
patent of pardon and remission to the clergy and laity who had been at 
variance with the King. It is, moreover, an established fact that the form 
in which these ten dignitaries in their joint names issued the patents of re- 
mission and immunity as commissioners with assurance of the terms con- 
ceded, took the form of an inspeximus citing {i.e.) the great Charter in ex- 
tenso, only not as a separate and substantive document, but like a very long 
quotation sandwiched in. First their own address or opening " To all 
Christ's faithful servants," followed by the inspeximus clause, which, by 
the way, gives an interesting brief statement or description of the general 
intention of the Magna Carta. 

The inspeximus clause ran thus ; " Know ye that we have examined a 
charter which our lord John the illustrious King of England hath made for 
the earls, the barons, and his free men (liberis hominibus suis) of England, 
concerning the freedom of holy church and their own franchises (libertati- 
bus) and free customs, under the form following : "John by the grace of 
Grod King of England . . . [the entire charter from preamble to end- 
ing clause inclusive], and at the end of it their own confirmatory assurance : 
"And lest anything should be added thereto, or anything taken or sub- 
tracted from the same, we have to the present writing set our seals." 

That such an inspeximus by these clerical commissioners was issued in 
1215, and presumably several of them to various sheriffs in the counties of 
England — seems indubitable ; for a clerk of the exchequer must have had 
the thing actually before him when he performed his laborious task of copy- 
ing it in full into the Red Book of the Exchequer, a record which has been 
attributed to Alexander of Swereford, who was about 40 years of age when 
King John was bargaining with the Barons at Runneymede. 

But Salisbury's is not an Inspeximus. 
However, to bring the matter nearer home, if a stranger meets you and 
says, " Sir (or Madam) you have been to Salisbury Cathedral and have seen 
the Charter of King John : don't you think it a mere inspeximus — or a copy 
made later in the thirteenth century ? " — I hope you will answer, " Inspexi- 
mus, ? not a bit of it." For there is no inspeximus clause, and the only 
date is the Latin of " Given by our hand in the meadow which is called 
Runingmed betwixt Windesore & Stane, on the Fifteenth day of June, in 
the year of our Reign the Seventeenth." And that is all, except that three- 
quarters of an inch below the last line of writing and in the very centre of 
the lower margin of the document there are the vestiges, certainly of two 
and not improbably three roundish holes, two and one close together like 
points of an inverted equilateral triangle — " points " (I admit) so substantial 
as to have shocked Euclid terribly, but a triangle with sides not more than 
one inch in length. Anyone who has seen a case of great seals such as they 
can show you in Salisbury Cathedral Library knows that that was one way 
in which a great seal royal was attached — and so it was a great seal which 
someone, long ago, tore away with most ruthless determination. Yes ! I 
know that the earliest of such seals as are preserved at Salisbury dates only 



By Canon Christopher Wordsworth, F. R. Hist. Soc. 19 

so far back as 1232, and that they may have made two holes serve for the 
cord of the comparatively small document to which Henry III.'s seal is still 
attached. Also that the fashion of piercing the three holes later in the 
thirteenth century and onwards was to make them in a triangle right side 
up, like the mathematician's symbol for the word " therefore," and not in- 
verted as in the case of our Salisbury exemplar, like the sign for the word 
*' because," But when you next visit Lincoln and ask to see their fine ex- 
emplar, please see whether my recollection is not right, that the holes from 
which their great seal has been more carefully reft away are arranged just 
like ours at Salisbury. You might do well to look at the same time more 
<jlosely and particularly at the concluding date, to see how the names are 
spelt in the Lincoln copy. Among the four extant copies of the Charter 
which can claim to be contemporary, no two spell the Latin name for 
Windsor alike. This, I think, among trifling discrepancies goes to prove 
that three (if not all four copies) were written from dictation. Next, we 
have to look elsewhere to see whether the great seal was sometimes attached 
as early as King John's time exactly as the holes in our Salisbury Magna 
Carta, and I think also the Lincoln one, suggest. It is possible that you 
may be able to find the three holes (two and one), like the symbol for be- 
cause, at the foot of some document earlier than 1215. But in any case 
there is nothing in this little detail of the holes for attaching the great seal, 
to shake our belief that our copy as that at Lincoln is as old as 1215. 

The Lincoln (!^athedral copy, being available when the search for Records 
of national interest was on foot, about 1800, has been more than once en- 
graved in facsimile. Our Salisbury copy ought to have been forthcoming 
but in 1800 — 1806 it could not be found. It was re-discovered in 1820, 
The very drawer where it ought to have been found is indicated on the old 
endorsement. 

Its Endorsements. 

On the back of every document in the muniment room there is noted 
generally a short title or description of the nature or contents of the docu- 
ment, sufficient to identify it. Some letters or numerals are added to 
indicate the place where it should be deposited and kept when folded up 
and prepared for putting away. In the course of ages a fresh custodian 
may have had occasion to re-arrange the documents or add to the descrip- 
tions. So, different handwritings appear on the endorsements. 

The earliest note written at the back of our .Magna Carta appears to me 
to have been written at first, with room left for its completion, in the 
following form, written about an inch above the holes made through from 
the front side for appending the Seal r — Primi inclusorij ascendendo . 

The scribe who was writing this,— or some other penman of the same period 
(which I think may be at least as late as 1400), — knew doubtless that there 
were amongst the muniments some other Cartae Regis Johanms (e.g., a 
charter of June 3rd, 1200, and an inspeximus of June 4th ; also July 18tli, 
1213, and Jan. 15th, 1213 — 14). He must therefore distinguish this last 
^nd greatest grant of 1215, by adding descriptive words in the spaces left in 
the first line and below it, so that anyone might be able to see at a glance 
^hich document he had before him without unfolding it. So he filled in 

C 2 



20 Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library. 

and completed the description thus : — " Carta Regis Johannis de libertatibus 
ecclesie anglicane et omnium Legioruni Regis dupplicat'." 

It must have been a great deal later when another writer prefixed the 
usual descriptive adjective " Magna " to the first description. 

An inch above the title a neat, scholarly, but rather formal hand has 
noted (perhaps in 1590, or later) the date " Anno dni, 1215." 

Another, who must have been sorting the piles of Cartae into packets or 
parcels, according to their subject, notes that Magna Carta, concerns the 
Dean and Chapter : — " Tang D' et Cap.'^ In the lower left hand corner of 
this fold (and consequently not more than half an inch away from the hole 
through which one of the cords of the Great Seal passed) there is written 
the old press-mark of the muniment-house: — " C/2/." Underneath this 
initial there are the distinctive numerals ** 24," but altered to " 39." A 
document thus endorsed and put away, might easily, when taken out and 
unfolded, be, afterwards, put back back into the wrong receptacle, and so 
remain hidden, to elude a search made in 1799 or 1806. It appears that the 
letter C was employed in our muniment-room to indicate a large genus of 
grants and other documents, whether written on skin or on paper, which were 
all classed under C as " Chartae^ Too numerous to be all placed in one or 
two drawers or pigeon-holes or parcels, they were distributed in no less 
than eleven divisions, viz. : besides " C " pure and simple, ten others, each 
distinguished by some jot or tittle inscribed, superscribed, or otherwise 
appended to the capital letter C, for instance, "°C"and"oC." In the 
chapter-clerk's office in the 18th Century we find a fuller use made of 
several letters of the alphabet : A. serving for Acquittances and .Appropri- 
ations ; B. for ^onds ; L. for ^itterae or Zetters ; iVl. for i/emorabilia ; O. 
for Obits (and Chantries) ; and W. for PFills (testamentary) and in- 
ventories. E. had indicated evidences or evidentiae before Latin was 
getting out of use. The Greek letters a (3 T (&c.) were sometimes found 
useful, and a limited use was made of some others : — n=a Book of Surveys ; 
X=a Deed of Antiquity ; and * to mark one concerning a tenement within 
the City of Salisbury ; and <l>=within the Close. And finally a sort of trefoil 
was devised to mark the back of an indenture relating to Fabric Land in 
Fisherton or elsewhere. 

A few words were needed to complete the earliest endorsement as origin- 
ally written, so that it might indicate the destination of Magna Carta in 
that division of the old Muniment-house or Upper Treasury which was 
described by the phrase ** primi inclusorii ascendendo." With some 
hesitancy I interpret this as indicative of the first division or compart- 
ment, cupboard, press, or section, from the bottom. Having ascertained by 
counting which one it really was, the scribe wrote-in the two words, which 
now have become almost illegible, in the space which he had left vacant 
for the purpose, '' receptaculo vndecimo" i.e., in the 11th drawer (or nest) 
of the first section : counting from the bottom. This might be written 
briefly "I. 11." The method of numbering from the floor, upward, still 
prevails in our XVth Century Library over the cloisters for distinguishing 
the bookshelves. 



By Canon Christopher Wordsworth, F. R. Hist. Soc. 21 

Dates of the Four Exemplars. 
What is the date when the four extant exemplars were written ? 
They cannot be later, in any case, than 12th November, 1216, when a new 
Charter was issued after the accession of Henry III. and the appointment 
of William Marsh (Earl of Pembroke) as rector regis et regni in the young 
King's minority. This revised Charter was issued under two seals, those of 
the Earl of Pembroke and Cardinal Gualo. Richard, Bishop of Chichester, 
i.e., our Richard Poore, now appears among the Bishops named in the pre- 
amble. His brother, Herbert Poore, was still living as Bishop at Old Sarum 
when King John died (19th October, 1216), but was within three months of 
his own departure [oh. 7th January, 1217 ; died, 6th Febr.], when " Henry, 
King of England, Lord of Ireland," and bearing the rest also of his father's 
titles, issued the revised Charter of liberties, and gave as the reason for 
issuing it with two seals, (viz., the Cardinal Gualo's and his guardian's) 
** because we have not yet had our own seal our self ^' {Quia vera sigillum 
nondum hahuiinus). 

Surely no responsible person such as the Chancellor of the Realm, or a 
clerk under his control, would have consented to impress a great official 

; seal upon such a document as the Charter of King John after the death of 

1 that monarch in 1217. The document might be transcribed as it stood into 
a formal register of records. But the Magna Carta issued under a seal, and 

I as a substantive charter, after that date would contain a different version 

I of it, as issued by Henry III. or Edward. 

I Who would have cared or dared to issue the Charter of Runnymede after 
the day when the seals of Gualo and William Marshall had been attached 
to King Henry III.'s Charter of Bristol ? We might even narrow down the 
period during which a great seal could be attached by its responsible 
custodian. We should be obliged to fix the period within the date of the 
Restoration of Peace and Concord (19th June, 1215) and the day when the 

[ custodian of King John's great seal in England became certified that 
Innocent III. had, by his Bull of St. Bartholomew's Day (24th August, 
1215) forbidden under his anathema the enforcement of the Charter. I 
should in fact have the courage to say that any exact exemplar of John's 
Charter, pure and simple, which had a seal attached to it, and had been in 
existence before the time of George III. was a forgery ; which ours is not. 
The actual seal and the office of making impressions of it in wax when 
required so to do by the King or under his authority, was in the hands of 
the King's Chancellor, i.e., Richard Marsh, de Marisco, Chancellor at that 
time. Archdeacon of Northumberland, and subsequently Bishop of Durham^' 
when a later Pope confirmed him in retaining the Chancellorship {Cal. Papal 
Letters, i., pp. 44, 48, 52, 62). He had ere then been over to the Papal Court, 
but apparently not until three months after the Runnymede proceedings. 

These articles, points of demand, capitula or heads of the matters in dis- 
pute, having been thus enlarged (or reduced) to 49 in number, were— at 
Runnymede presumably — on or about the 14th or 15th of June "rapidly, 
though carefully written out in a running hand," in the course of a few 
hours by one of the clerks of the Royal Chancery. One point which had 
presumably been discussed and debated, we may suppose, when the Barons 



22 Magna Carta in Salisbury Cathedral Library. 

had audience of the King at the first visit which he paid to their camp at 
Runnyrnede on Monday, the 15tli, was interlined on the Articles of the 
Barons at the last in the space which was available over against the ends 
of the 45th and 46th of the Barons' demands. These concerned the restor- 
ation of hostages, including a son, and charters which the King of England 
had held from Lewelin, King of Wales, and the hostages, including his 
sisters (Margaret and Isabel), who had been kept at Corfe Castle, etc , from 
the previous reign, from Alexander II., the Scottish King, with an extension 
to the latter of the English liberties. This marginal addition embodies 
King John's requirement that the Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen 
Langton, with any counsellor he should request to help him, should first look 
into the documents to see whether the stipulations could be rightfully con- 
ceded. The Archbishop appears to have given the captives their liberty, 
but this did not prevent Wales and Scotland being thorns in the side of the 
unhappy King of England. Llewelyn and his son at once commenced 
hostilities, and Gualo put all Wales under an interdict. 

The nobles and barons having now secured their preliminary articles of 
grievances with the promised method of redress, and the great seal appended 
to it by a doubled strip of vellum as you may see it now at the British 
Museum or in the collotype facsimile published by order of the trustees for 
2s. 6d.; had in the next place to procure that the 49 requirements should 
be re-cast into proper charter form, in the King's own name, in the 
preamble, as coming from his concession and signed (not indeed by his own 
handwriting, but) with his seal as King of England, as given under his 
hand, and dated as to place and time. 

The two Scottish princesses had been wards in custody of King John for 
17 years, since his accession, and were virtually prisoners for a while in 
Purbeck. 

Two summers before Magna Carta — and I trust the order was repeated 
in the interval— the Mayor of Winchester was instructed, by King John's 
command, to despatch in haste to Corfe Castle for the use of his Majesty's 
niece, Eleanor (sister of Prince Arthur), a prisoner for her life, and for the 
Scotch princesses (Margaret and Isabel), tunics and supertunics of dark 
green, with capes of cambric and fur of minever, also 23 yards of good linen 
cloth, and light shoes for summer wear. 

[McKechnie, p. 461, refers to Ramsay, Anjou. Empire, 421.] 

At one time King John thought of one these Scottish princesses becom» 
ing his daughter-in-law. However, about five years after John's decease, 
their brother, Alexander II., married John's elder daughter, Joan. 

When drawn up in charter form the 49 points (48, i.e.t plus the long 
forma secut^itatis at the end), extended to 63 chapters without reckoning 
the fairly long preamble which names the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Dublin, nine other dignitaries of the Church (including Pandulph, Pope 
Innocent's subordinate, and Eymeric, the Master of the Templars in 
England), four earls, the constable of Scotland, the seneschal of Poitou, and 
ten other barons, the King's liegemen, 27 names of clergy and laity in all, 
as having recommended the charter to be made. They are declared to be 
also witnesses of the charter in its concluding chapter. It is a mere 



By Canon Ghristo'pher Wordsivorth, F. R. Hist, Soc. 23 

coincidence that the number of the advisory witnesses to Magna Carta (five 
and twenty) was so nearly the same as the number of barons, the special 
body of guardians, custodians or executors of the terms conceded by the 
King. McKechnie has described them as " the revolutionary committee " 
(p. 476), " five and twenty over- Kings " (p. 475)i, " a body which received 
no proper organisation " (p. 470). 



' Matt, Paris ii. E. II., cited by Miss Norgate, Lackland^ 25, as noted 
by Dr. McKechnie, p. 43, n. 3, of. 475, 477. 



24 



EEPORT ON THE BIRDS OF WILTSHIRE FOR 192 9. 

By M. W. WiLLSON (S. Martin's Rectory, Salisbury). 



Contributor, 




District. 


Viscount Bolingbroke and St. John 


(B.) 


Lydiard Tregoze. 


Dr. R. C. Clay 


(R.C.C.) 


Fovant 


J. H. Clark 


(J.H.C.) 


Poulshot 


Miss M. Crowdy 


(M.C.) 


Grittleton 


Rev. Canon Goddard 


(E.H.G.) 


Clyffe 


Miss Grover 


(G.M.G,) 


Calne 


Rev. D. P. Harrison 


(D.P.H.) 


Lydiard Millicent 


P. A. D. Hollom 


(P.A.D.H.) 


Bruton,Som. 


Rev. Canon Knubley 


(E.P.K.) 


Steeple Ashton 


Miss Livingstone 


(LH.L.) 


Brink worth 


R. S. Newall 


(R.S.N.) 


Wylye 


E. M. Nicholson 


(E.M.N.) 




L. G. Peirson (on behalf of the Marl- 


(L.G.P.) 


10 miles radius round 


borough College Nat. Hist. Soc.) 




Marlborough 


B. J. Ringrose 


(B.J.R.) 




W. D. Shaw 


(W.D.S.) 


Marlborough 


Major J. St, Maur Sheil 


(J.S.) 


Salisbury 


A. F. Smith 


(A.F.S.) 


Swindon 


Rev. Wm. Sole 


(W.S.) 


Crudwell 


R. Tanner 


(R.T) 


Chippenham 


G. N. Temple 


(G.N.T.) 


Warminster 


T. H. Thornely 


(T.H.T.) 


Devizes 


W. F. Trumper 


(W.F.T.) 


Devizes 


Capt. H. Ward 


(H.W.) 


Purton 


Rev. A. J, Watson 


(A.J.W.) 


Upavon 


M. W. Willson 


(M.W.W.) 


Salisbury 


Rev. Canon Woodall 


(T.J.W.) 


Salisbury 


H. G. Woodall 


(H.G.W.) 


Salisbury 


Capt. N. K. Worthington 


(N.K.W.) 


Highworth 


J. F. Wynne 


(J.F.W.) 


Tisbury 



The number of contributors and the volume and general interest of the 
local reports are all satisfactory features of the first year of the scheme, but 
there are still several districts not covered by any observer. In the south 
a broad strip of the Plain from Westbury and Heytesbury in the west to 
Amesbury and Enford in the east, the Warminster, Mere, and Tisbury dis- 
tricts have not as yet been reported on, but in the north, which has the 
majority of observers, only the triangular district between Chippenham, 
Malmesbury, and Wootton Bassett remains without one. It is hoped that 
these deficiencies will be supplied during the coming year. 

1929 was remarkable as a year of extremes of weather, and these were 
not without a considerable effect on bird life. The very severe frost of 
February caused heavy mortality among many of our birds : of our resi- 
dents, the Long-tailed Tit, Marsh Tit, Gold-Crest, and Tree-Creeper seem 



Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929, 25 

\ 

to have suffered most. The Redwing was the chief victim among the 
winter visitors, many dying, and many apparently moving further south. 

The spring drought and its adverse effect on plant and insect life may be 
taken as the chief cause of the comparative scarcity of summer visitors, 
which was noted in all parts of the county. If it had not been for this 
spring drought, the long spell of hot weather during September and the 
unusual mildness of the early autumn might have been expected to produce 
a crop of late departures of summer visitors. As it was, the only effect of 
the mild autumn was to defer the arrival of winter visitors, Fieldfares, Red- 
wings, and Rramblings, all being about a month late in this part of the 
country. 
Raven. Cor v us corax corax. 

Not uncommon as a breeding species many years ago, now only a very ■ 

occasional visitor. 
Three seen flying over Lydiard Millicent, October 10th, 1929 (D.P.H.). 
Carrion Crow. Corvus corone corone. 
Very common and well distributed. 
Hooded Crow. Corvus cornix cornix. 

Fairly common winter visitor in N. Wilts ; less often seen in S. Wilts. 
Between Everleigh and Pewsey, Autumn 1929 (W.F.T,). 
Near Marlborough, March 28th, 1929 (L.G.P.). 
Rook. Corvus f. frugilegus. 
A very abundant resident. 

Information with regard to nesting pairs in a given area has been re- 
ceived from a few districts. It is hoped that farther information of 
this nature will be collected. 
Jackdaw. Corvus monedula spermologus. 

A very abundant resident. 
Mag-pie. Pica p. pica. 

Plentiful locally. 
Jay. Garrulus glandarius rufitergus. 

A very common resident. 
Starling". Sturnus v. vulgaris. 

A very abundant resident, whose numbers are swelled enormously in 

winter by visitors from North Germany and the Baltic countries. 
A bird ringed in Salisbury, December 27th, 1927, was picked up dead 
near Deutsch Krone, W. Prussia, Aug. 15th, 1928 (M.W. W.). (British 
Birds, vol. xxii., p. 177). 
Considerable information has come to hand with regard to roosting, 
places. It is hoped that further information of this nature will be. 
collected. 
Golden Oriole. Oriolus o. oriolus. 
A very rare spring visitor. 
A pair in Lydiard Park, April, 1916 (D.P.H.). 
A pair between Barford St. Martin and Compton Chamberlain, 1925 

or 1926(R.C.C,). 
One seen at Luckington, near Malmesbury, April, 1928 (per E.M.N.). 



26 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929. 

Hawfinch. Coccothraustes c. coccothraustes. 

A not uncommon resident. There is some evidence that it is increas- 
ing in numbers. It is most commonly observed in the Devizes — 
Trowbridge area (E.P.K.). (W.F.T.). (J.H.C). 
Goldfinch. C. carduelis brittanica. 

A common resident, which has increased considerably during the last 

few years. 
Flocks of 30 or more seen in 1929 (D.P. U.). ( W.S.)- (M.W. W.). (J.H.C). 
Siskin. Spinus spin us. 

An occasional and irregular visitor. 
Seen in some numbers in 1928 (E.P.K.). (B.). 
Tree Sparrow, Passer m. montanus. 

A scarce resident. Very few breeding records for Wiltshire. 
Seen at Fyfield, February 1st, 1928 (W.D.S.); near Highworth, Novem- 
ber 6th, 1928, and October 10th, 1929 (N.K.W.); near Allington, 
Amesbury, December 27th, 1928 (M.W.W.). 
Brambling. Fringilla montifringilla. 

A not uncommon winter visitor, somewhat irregular in appearance and 

numbers. 
Near Marlborough, November 15th, 1928 (W.D.S.). 
Near Salisbury, December 27th, 1928, and January 2nd, 1929 (M.W. W.). 
Etchilhampton, Devizes, February 14th, 1929 (T.H.T.). 
Wootton Bassett, February 24th, 1929 (A.F.S.). 
Near Salisbury, December 21st, 1929 (H.G.W.). December 22nd, 1929 

(M.W.W.). 
Also three records for the Salisbury district, January, 1930 (M.W.W.). 
Lesser Redpoll. Acanthis linaria cabaret. 
An uncommon resident. 
Savernake, February 17th, 1927 (L.G.P.). 

Manton Corner, near Marlborough, October 11th, 1927 (L.G.P.). 
Aldbourne, July 20th, 1929 (A.F.S.). 
Near Poulshot, winter, 1928 — 1929 (J.H.C). 
Seen regularly in small numbers near Wootton Bassett (B.). 
Also two birds near Britford, January 22nd, 1930 (M.W.W.). 
Twite. Acanthis f. fiavirostis. 
A very rare visitor. 
No records 1927 — 8—9. 
Bullfinch. P. pyrrhula nesa. 

A fairly common resident, but decreasing. 
Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra curvirostra. 
An irregular and uncommon>isitor. 

Seen in small parties near Swallowcliflfe and Fovant in 1927 on Sept- 
ember 23rd, October I6th and 29th, and on November 19th, 192S 
(J.F.W.). 
Harnham Hill, Salisbury, winter, 1927—8 (per M.W.W.). 
Near Devizes, December, 1928 (J.H.C). 
Potterne, February 8th, 1928 (per E.H.G.). 



By M. W. Willson. 27 

Corn Bunting. Emberiza c. calandra. 

A common resident. 

A nest with three fresh eggs found August 15th (E.H.G.). 
Cirl Bunting". Emberiza cirlus. 

A somewhat uncommon resident, which seldom breeds. 

Records from Marlborough district for 1921, 1922, 1924, 1926 (L.G.P.). 

Observed several times by E.P.K. 

Reported nesting in Charlton Osier Bed, 1928 (I.M.L.). 

Seen near Salisbury January 14th and November 14th, 1929 (M.W.W.). 
Reed Bunting. Emberiza s. schoeniclus. 

A fairly common resident. 
Snow Bunting. Plectrophenax nivalis. 

A rare winter visitor. No records since 1908. 
Woodlark. Lullula arborea, 

A scarce resident. 

Recorded for Marlborough district for 1926, 1927, 1928 (L.G.P.). 

Seen near Chippenham, summer 1929. (R.T.). 
White Wagftail. Motacilla a. alba. 

A scarce visitor, probably overlooked. 

Last recorded 1925 (D.P.H.). 
Grey Wagftail. Motacilla c. cinerea, 

A fairly common resident, increasing its numbers and range as a breed- 
ing species. 
Blue-headed Wagtail. Motacilla f. flava. 

A rare summer visitor. 

Last recorded 1927 (L.G.P.). 
Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla flava rayi. 

A fairly common summer visitor. 

Particularly abundant on migration, 1929, in N. Wilts (B.). 

Arrival April 27th. Departure second week in September (D.P.H.). 
Tree Pipit. Anthus t. trivialis. 

A rather scarce summer visitor. 

Arrival 24th April, at Poulshot. Frequents railway embankments 
(J.H.C.). 
Meadow Pipit. Anthus pratensis. 

An abundant resident. 

1 929. Unusually large flocks seen September, near Salisbury (M. W.W.). 
Tree Creeper. Certhia familiaris brittannica. 

A common resident. 

Below normal, 1929, probably owing to the hard winter. 
Nuthatch, Sitta europoea affinis. 

A common resident. 
Croldcrest. R. regulus anglorum. 

A not uncommon resident. 

Suffered from effects of severe winter, 1928—1929. 
Coal Titmouse. Parus ater brittanicus. 

A fairly common resident, more or less confined to fir-woods. 



28 Rej)OTt on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929. 

Marsh Titmouse. Parus palustris dresseri. 
A common resident. 
In greater numbers than the Long-tailed and Coal Tits in most parts 

of the county. 
SufiPered winter, 1928—29, in some districts. 
Willow Titmouse. Parus atricapillus kleinschmitdi. 

A rare resident, overlooked ; no records since 1920. 
Long-tailed Titmouse. Aegithalos caudatus roseus. 

A common resident, which suffered severely in some districts during 
the severe winter of 1928—29. 
Great Grey Shrike. Lanius e. excubitor. 
A rare winter visitor. 
Last recorded December, 1922 (W.D.S.). 
Red-backed Shrike. Lanius c. collurio. 
A rather scarce summer visitor. 

Slightly increasing in S. Wilts (R.S.N.). (P.A.D.H.). 
Slightly decreasing in N. Wilts (B). 
Waxwing". Bombycilla garrulus. 

An uncommon visitor ; very irregular in its appearance. 
Seen in the county during the winter of 1913— 1914. (L.G.P.)- (D.P.H.). 
In Savernake Forest in 1926 (L.G.P.)- 
Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa s. striata. 
A common summer visitor. 

Arrival May 10th (T.H.T.). Departure Oct. 9th (E.P.K). 
Arrival May 9th (B). 
Pied Flycatcher. Ficedula h. hypoleuca 
An uncommon passage migrant. 
April 30th, 1927, Savernake Forest (L.G.P.), 
July 26th, 1928, Coate Reservoir (L.G.P.). 
April, 1928, Britford (J.S.). 
Lesser Whitethroat. Sylvia c curruca. 
A fairly common summer visitor. 
Arrival April 28th, Shalbourne (A.F.S.). 
Garden WarMer. Sylvia borin. 

A not uncommon summer visitor. 
Not so common as usual, 1929. 
Blackcap. Sylvia a. atricapilla. 

A fairly common summer visitor. 
Arrival April 14th, Ogbourne (A.F.S.). 
Departure September 7th (D.P.H.). 
Dartford Warbler. Sylvia undata dartfordiensis. 

A rare and local resident, increasing in numbers in autumn. 
Two records for South Wilts, 1928 and 1929 (R.C.O.). (M.W.W.). 
One record for North Wilts, 1927 (per I.H.L.). 
Grasshopper Warbler. Locustella n. naevia. 

An uncommon summer visitor, nesting regularly in a few suitable locali- 
ties. 
Nested near Highworth, 1928 (N.K.W.), Lydiard Plain (LH.L.). 



By M, W. Willson. 29 

Seen near Marlborough, May, 1928. Two or three haunts in the ex- 
treme north-west of the county were occupied in 1929 (W.S.). 
Reed Warbler. Acrocephalus s. scirpaceus. 
A not uncommon summer visitor. 
The most favoured Cuckoo-fosterer near Salisbury (M.W.W.) 

Marsli Warbler. Acrocephalus palustris. 
An uncommon summer visitor. 
Usually nests near Warminster (G.N.T.). (E.P.K.). 
Nested near Rowde, 1929 (W.F.T.). 

Se^ge Warbler. Acrocephalus schoenoboenus. 

A fairly common summer visitor. 
Willow Warbler. Phylloscopus t. trochilus. 

A very abundant summer visitor. 

Arrival April 16th, Devizes (T.H.T.)., March 29th (E.P.K.). 

April 17th, Lydiard Millicent (D.P.H.). 

April 18th, Fovant (R.C.C.). 
Wood Warbler. Phylloscopus s. sibilatrix. 

A not uncommon summer visitor. 

Three seen near Bruton, May 30th, 1929 (P.A.D.H.). 

Fovant, May 5th. Scarce this year. (R.C.C). 

Records from Poulshot (J.H.C ), Longleat (E.C.S.). 

Purton (H.R.W.), Whiteparish (M.W.W.), Marlborough (L.G.P.). 

ChifFchaff. Phylloscopus c. collybita. 
An abundant summer visitor. 
Arrival March 19th, near Malmesbury (A.F.S.). 
March 20th, at Lydiard Millicent (D.P.H.). 
Singing, October 9th, at Calne (G.M.G.). 

Mistle Thrush. Turdus v. viscivorus. 
A common resident. 

Redwing. Turdus musicus. 

A fairly common winter visitor. 

Suffered considerably in the severe frost of February, 1929. 

Very late in arrival, Autumn, 1929. 

First seen November 17th (E.P.K.). (M.W.W.). 

Fieldfare. Turdus pilaris. 

A not uncommon winter visitor. 

Arrived late Autumn, 1929. November 15th. (E.P.K.). 
Ringf Ouzel. Turdus torquatus torquatus. 

An uncommon passage migrant, usually seen in April or October. 

Male bird, Lydiard Park, near Swindon, April, 1929 (B.). 
Redstart. Phoenicurus ph. phoenicurus. 

A scarce summer visitor, much decreased in numbers. 

A few pairs near Bruton, Som. (P.A.D.H.). 

Two males seen near Chippenham , April 15th (R.T.). 

Three pairs seen in Devizes district (J.H.C). 



30 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929. 

Black Redstart. Phoenicurus ochrurus gibraltariensis. 

A rare winter visitor. 

Swallowcliffe, October 31st to November 4th, 1927 (J.F.W.). 

Harnham Hill, Salisbury, late November, 1929 (T.J.W.). 
H'iglitingfale. Luscina m. megarhynca. 

A not uncommon summer visitor to S. Wilts, rather scarce in N. Wilts 

Scarce throughout the county in 1929. 

Reported during the past two years from Homington and Laverstock 
(M-W.W.), Fovant (R.G.C), Ramsbury (A.F.S.) and (W.D.S.), 
Urchfont and Stert (T.H.T.), Thick wood, Allington, Hardenhuish, 
Frogwell, near Chippenham (R.T.), Braydon Woods (D.P.H.). 

Arrival April 26th (B.). 
Stonechat. Saxicola torquata hibernans, 

A rather scarce resident. 

Seen in water-meadows in hard weather. 
Whincliat. Saxicola r. rubetra. 

A rather scarce summer visitor. 
Wheatear. Oflnanthe oe. oenanthe. 

A fairly common summer visitor to the Downs. 

Fifield Bavant, March 20th (H CO.). 

Near Salisbury, October 5th (M.W. W.). 
Greenland Wheatear. Gi^nanthe oenanthe leucorhoa. 

A pair with Common Wheatears May 14th, near Marlborough (L.G. P.). 
Dipper. Cinclus cinclus gularis. 

An uncommon resident. Breeds locally throughout the county. 

1929. Two pairs near Castle Combe and Weavern (M.C.). (E.H.G.). 
(R.T.). 

A pair just inside Wiltshire, near Brutou (P.A.D.H.). 

A pair at Compton Chamberlain (R.S.N.). 

Reported from Enford (A.J.W.) and from Bishopstone, near Salisbury, 
(per M.W W). 
Swallow. Hirundo r. rustica. 

A very common summer visitor. 

Arrival end of March (L.G.P ) Departure October 9th (G.M.G.), Oct- 
ober 17th (E.P.K). 
House Martin. Delichon u. urbica. 

A plentiful summer visitor, seen in increased numbers, 1929. 

Arrival April 13tb (R.T.). Departure October 7th (M.W.W.). 
Sand Martin, lliparia r. riparia. 

A very common summer visitor, though local. 

Arrival 31st March (J.H C)., 1st April (H CO ). 
G-reat Spotted Woodpecker. Dryobates major anglicus. 

A rather scarce resident. 
lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dryobates minor comminutus. 

A not uncommon resident, much overlooked. 
Green Woodpecker. Picus viridis virescens. 

A fairly common resident. 



By M. W. Willson. 31 

Wryneck. Jynx t. torquilla. 

An uncommon summer visitor. 

Five records for Marlborough district since 1918 (W.D.S.). 

Nested in Devizes in 1926, and seen there 1929 (W.F.T.). 

Seen at Lydiard Millicent, May 10th, 1929 (D.P.H.). 

Rraydon Wood, Spring, 1929 (I.H.L.). 
Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus canorus. 

A fairly common summer visitor, local in its distribution. 

Rather scarce in South Wilts, 1929 (R.CC.) 

Arrival April 19th (B.). (E.P.K.). 
Swift. Micropus a. apus. 

An abundant summer visitor, which is increasing locally. 

Arrival April 21st (J.H.O.). Departure August 29th (D.P.H.), Sept- 
ember 7th (M.W.W.). 
Nightjar. Caprimulgus e. europaeus. 

A rather scarce summer visitor, which appears to be decreasing. 
Hoopoe. Upupa e. epops. 

A very rare summer visitor. No records for its appearance since 1900 
have come to hand. 
Kingfilsher. Alcedo atthis ispida. 

A not uncommon resident, in spite of persecution. 
Barn Owl. Tyto a. alba. 

A fairly common resident. 
Iiong'-eared Owl. Asio o. otus. 

A not uncommon resident. 

Nests regularly near Devizes (W.F.T.). 
Short-eared Owl. Asio f. flammeus. 

Occasional winter visitor, formerly more frequent. 

Records from Chilmark and Fifield Bavant, 1927 (R.C.C.). 

Near Bramshaw, Downton, December, 1929 (B.J.R.). 
Tawny Owl. Strix aluco sylvatica. 

A common resident. 
Little Owl. Carine noctua mira. 

A fairly common resident, but unevenly distributed. 
Hen Harrier. Circus cyaneus cyaneus. 

Formerly seen fairly frequently on the Plain, now a rare visitor. 

Reported on Salisbury Plain, summer and autumn, 1929 (per W.F.T.) 
and (T.H.T.), and near Salisbury, October, 1929 (JS.). 
Common Buzzard. Buteo b. buteo. 

An occasional visitor. 

Swallowcliffe, October 3rd, 1927 (J.F.W.). 

Clyffe, September 6th, 1929 (E H.G.). 

Nursteed, Devizes, March 29th, 1929 (T.H.T.). 
G-olden Eag-le. Aquila chrysaetus chrysaetus. 

A bird possibly of this species (?) was seen in Savernake Forest for 
several days in autumn, 1929 (per E H.G.). 
Sparrow Hawk. Accipiter n. nisus. 

A fairly common resident, but unevenly distributed. 



32 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929. 

Peregrine Talcon. Falco p. peregrinus. 

Still a regular visitor in spite of persecution. 
Common on autumn passage in South Wilts. 

Seen daily late summer 1928 between Imber and Warminster (T.H.T.). 
Seen attacking a heron near Marlborough, Feb. 16th, 1928 (L.G.P.). 
Hackpen Hill, near Marlborough, July, 1929 (E.H.G.). 
Nested Salisbury Cathedral, 1928. A pair seen daily, autumn 1929 
(M.W.W.). 
Hobby. Falco s. subbuteo. 

An uncommon summer visitor. Still breeds in a few localities. 
Fairly common in S. Wilts on migration. 
Merlin. Falco columbarius sesalon. 

A rare visitor. 
Kestrel. Falco t. tinnunculus. 

A common resident. 
Wild Geese. 

1929. G-rey-lag" Creese were seen at Allington, near Devizes, between 

February 15th and 18th (T.H.T.) 
Passing over Lydiard Millicent in October (D.P.H.). 
5 Canada Geese seen at Poulton, April, 1927 (W.D.S.). 
One or two flocks of unidentified geese seen near Highworthj winter, 

1928— 29(N.K.W.). 
The most common goose on the Severn Estuary is the White-fronted, 
and flocks of unidentified geese, of which there are many records for 
N. Wilts, must often be of this species. 
Rnddy Shelduck. Casarca ferruginea. 

A single duck on the Avon near Longford Castle, April, 1928, which 
stayed for a few days. As it was comparatively easy to approach, 
it had probably escaped from some ornamental lake. {British Birds t 
vol. xxii., p. 24). 
Gadwall. Anas strepera. 
A very occasional visitor. 
One shot near Highworth 1926 (N.K.W.). 
Teal. Querquedula c. crecca. 

A winter visitor to our lakes and rivers in small parties. 
Wigeon. Mareca penelope. 

A rather occasional winter visitor. 
Shoveler. Spatula clypeata. 
An occasional visitor. 

Seen on Westbury Pond in recent years (E.C.S.). 
A duck and two drakes near Marlborough on March 31st, 1924 (W.D.S.). 
Pochard. Nyroca f. ferina. 

A number appears regularly on large ponds during the winter. 
Tufted Duck. Nyroca fuligula. 

A fairly common winter visitor which has recently come to breed. 
The first Wiltshire nesting record was at Wilton Water, N. Wilts, 
1926. In 1928 and 1929 two pairs were seen there (W.D.S.) (L.G.P.). 



By M, W. Willson. 33 

Goldeneye. Glaucionetta c. clangula. 
An occasional visitor. 
Stitchcombe, Feb., 1922 (W.D.S.). 
Coate Reservoir, Feb. 1927 (W.D.S.). 

Heron. Ardea c. cinerea. 

A considerable decrease noted during the last two or three years. 

Common Bittern. Botaurus s, stellarif. 

Making a gallant effort in face of senseless persecution to re«est ablish 

itself after the lean years at the beginning of the century. 
Reported from nine localities during 1928 — 9 ; three birds are known 

to have been shot during that period. 

Stone Curlew. CEdicnemus a. oedicnemus. 

A not uncommon summer visitor, breeding in limited numbers on the 

Downs. 
Breedingl^records for 1928 and 1929 from N.K.W., T.H.T., AJ.W., 

W.F.T., L.G.P. 
Flocks seen on| migration in August, September, and October by 

A.J.W., R.C.C., and M.W.W. At least 70 birds are known to have 

passed through S. Wilts during these Imonths. 

Woodcock. Scolopax r. rusticola. 

A fairly common winter visitor, some staying to breed. 

Seen regularly near Marlborough on migration (L.GoP.) (W.FbT.). 

Common Snipe. Capella g. gallinago. 

A fairly common resident. Increasing. 

Jack Snipe. Lymnocryptes minimus. 

A not uncommon winter visitor|in some localities. 
1929. Water-meadows Enford'(A..J. W.). 
Numerous at Coate Reservoir (T.G.P.). 

^®4^B??l-_ Tringa totanus totanus. 

A fairly common summer visitor and partial resident. 

Increasing as a breeding species on the Kennet and Salisbury Avon 
Common Sandpiper. Tringa hypoleucos, 

A not uncommon passage migrant, some staying to breed (L G.P.). 

Seen in recent years at Westbury (E.C.S.), Devizes (W.F.T.), Poulshot 
(J.H.C.), Lydiard»(D.P.H.). 

Green Sandpiper. Tringa ochropus. 
A not uncommon winter visitor. 
Always 2—6 pairs from October to March (D.P.H.) 
Regular visitor to water-meadows near Salisbury (M.W.W.) 

Curlew. Numenius a. arquata. 

An uncommon visitor, which may nest on the Plain. 

5 near Devizes, Spring 1929. 3 seen March 2nd (T.H.T.). Small 

parties seen flying over Sept. 15tb, Nov. 1st (D.P.H.). 7 flying over 

Nov. 6th (W.S.). 

VOL, XLV. — NO. CLII. D 



34 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1929. 

Oolden Plover, Pluvialis a. apricarius. 

Fairly common on the Downs in winter. 

Kegularly seen in the Wylye (R.S.N.) and Nadder (R.C.C.) valleys. 
Coate Oct. 7th, 1928, Etchilhampton Oct.,14th, 1929 (T.H.T.), Ailing- 
ton, near Chippenham, March, 1929 (E^iT.). 
6 flying south at Lydiard Tregoze, Nov. 1st, 1929. 
A pair about for several weeks in nesting season, 1929 (B) 

Iiap'wing'. Vanellus vanellus. 

A common resident which is increasing as a breeding species in many 
parts of the county. 

Common Tern. Sterna h. hirundo. 

Coate Water, a bird probably of this species was seen for one day only 
in January, 1930 ( a very rough day) (L.G.P.). 

Iiittle]Tern. Sterna a. albifrons, 

Coate Reservoir, July 1927 and 1928 (L.G.P.). 

Britford, March, 1928 (J. 8.). 
Sandwich Tern. Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis. 

Braydon Pond, 2 fishing August 1922 (W.S.). 

This is the only Wiltshire record which has come to my notice (M.W. W,). 
Black Tern. Chlidonias n. niger. 

Coate Reservoir August 1928 (L.G.P.). 
Little Ank. AUe alle. 

One found in Rood Ashton Wood Jan 2nd, 1930, after a fierce gale. 
Identified by (E.P.K.). 
Great Crested Grebe. Podiceps c. cristatus. 

A regular breeding species in suitable localities, which is increasing. 

1929. 9 breeding localities reported with at least 21 breeding pairs. 

Westbury Pond, Shearwater, Longleat (E.C,S.). 

Charlton Pond and Braydon Pond, near Malmesbury (A.F.S.). 

Fonthill Lake(J.F. W.). 

Coate Reservoir (W.D.S.). 

Bowood (per E.H.G.). 

Crudwell(W.S). 

Buscot, Berks border (^.K.W.). 
Iiittle Grebe. Podiceps r. ruficollis. 

A common resident in suitable localit ies. 
Water Rail. Ballus a. aquaticus. 

A rather scarce resident in N. Wilts, though not uncommon in the 
southern half of the county. 
Spotted Crake. Porzana porzana. 

Not uncommon on migration in spring and autumn. 

Seen in February and October, 1929, Lydiard Millicent (D.P.H.). 
land Rail. Crex crex 

Scarce as a breeding species, but fairly common on Autumn and Spring 
migration in North Wilts ; in South Wilts, after a period in which 
it was rarely, if ever seen, the bird seems to be on the increase. 



By M: W. Willson. 35 

Two near Olyffe Pypard, Sept. 1st, 1928 (E.H.G.). 

Reported breeding at Great Somerford and near Rodbourne, Swindon 
in 1929 (per I.H.L.) 

In the Chippenham district, not so'commonly heard in 1929 as in the 
two previous years (H.T.). 

Seen autumn 1929 near Rowde, Devizes (W.F.T.). 

Heard near Trowbridge, June 17th, 1929 (E.C.S.). 

A few pairs in the Wylye Valley in 1927 and 1928 (R.SfN".). 

In the Nadder Valley a few^were reported for 1928 (R.C.C.). 
Coot. Fulica a. atra . 

A ver y common resident, 
Stock Dove. Columba oenas. 

A common resident which is on the increase 
Turtle Dove. Strep topelia t. turtur. 

A common summer visitor. 

Arrival May .3rd (T.H.T.) (J.H C), Devizes area. 
Red-Legged Partridge. Alectoris r. rufa. 

A not uncommon resident. 
Quail. Coturnix c. coturnix. 

A rare summer visitor. 

Winterbourne Stoke 19 27 (R.S.N.) 

Nesting near Aldbourne, 1929 (W.F.T.). 



D 2 



36 



WILTSHIRE WILLS, Etc., STILL PRESERVED IN THE 
DIOCESAN REGISTRY, SALISBURY. 

By C. H. Everett. 

From time immemorial, except for a brief period during the Common- 
wealthy the Ecclesiastical Courts throughout the country exercised the 
right of granting Probates, etc. In 1857 an Act of Parliament abolished all 
such powers and established the Supreme Court of Probatet Under it, all 
records held by the Courts in question were supposed to be handed over to 
the new authority, but experience showed the impracticability of such an 
arrangement and only in a few cases was the transfer made, Salisbury being 
one of them. Incidentally, the policy of decentralisation is receiving in- 
creased support, and it may be anticipated that, |in course of time the 
County Councils, already the custodians of County Records, will also have 
in their charge other records of a local character. It may also be hoped 
that the possessors of valuable manuscripts and documents, for the preser- 
vation and care of which the public owe them a debt of gratitude, will, 
if satisfied that they will be properly housed and cared for, deposit them, 
either by gift or on permanent loan, with the County Authority. Adequate 
accommodation for the County of Wilts has, however, still to be provided, 
and it is to be trusted that the plans for new County Offices will include a 
muniment room large enough to meet all the demands likely to be made 
on it. 

Under the Act in question all the Probate Papers belonging to the old 
Sarum Courts were presumed to have been sent to Somerset House. In 
recent years, however, many having been met with among Diocesan Records, 
Mr. William E. Bigg, the DiocesanJ^egistrar, was instrumental in causing 
a systematic search to be made which brought to light numerous Wills 
Administrations, Accounts, and Inventories, originals or copies, many dated 
in the sixteenth century, most of which are in a good state of preservation. 
A number of them are, in either form, already at Somerset House, but the 
majority were previously unknown. Members of the Society will cordially 
appreciate Mr. Bigg's action in thus preserving from oblivion these valuable 
records of past centuries. 

The following list includes all Wiltshire documents as also those relating 
to Hurst and Wokingham, formerly in this county, arranged alphabetically. 

The list of those belonging to Berkshire and Dorsetshire is being printed in 
the magazine of the Society of Genealogists. All the documents in question 
are at the Diocesan Registry, Salisbury, where enquiries should be made by 
those desirous of referring to them. 

The abbreviations employed are : — W' ==Will : A=Administration : h/c 
= Account : I=Inventory : Inter=iInterrogatories : D of G— Deed of Gift : 
Ass= Assignment. 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



37 



1665 


Abbott 


James 


New Sarum 


I. 


1551 


Abbott 


John 


Marlborough 


W. 


1540 


Abbott 


Martin 


Tisbury 


W. I. 


1676 


Absolan 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


1764 


Acutt 


Robert 


Cricklade 


A. 


1761 


Adams 


Elizabeth 


Milton 


I. 


1555 


Adne 


Nicholas 


Easton 


W. 


1674 


Adye 


Jewell 


Seagry, Chippenham 


A/c. 


1616 


Adye 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1564 


Aldens 


Richard 


Amesbury 


I. 


1600 


Aldridge 


Agnes (widow) 


Bratton 


A/c. 


1618 


Aldridge 


Edith 


Bishop's Cannings 


W. 


1618 


Aldridge 


Thomas 


Wokingham, Berks. 


A/c. 


1609 


Aldridge 


William 


Bratton 


A/c. 


1717 


Alexander 


Thomas 


North Newton, Hilcott I. 


1674 


Alford 


Edward 




A/c. 


1620 


Alforde 


Thomas 


Mere 


A/c. 


1733 


Allen 


Jane 


Titherton Kelloway 


W. 


1573 


Alright 


Matthew 


Hurst 


I. 


1762 


Allright 


William 


Tinhead, Eddington 


I. 


1632 


Ames 


Ann 


Durnford 


I. 


1685 


Ames 


Samuel 


New Sarum 


I. 


1541 


Amys 


Lawrence 
(husbandman) 


Semley 


W. I. 


1760 


Andrews 


Mary (spr.) 


Durrington 


I. 


1760 


Andrewes 


Mary 


Collingbourne Ducis 


I. 


1551 


Andrewes 


Henry 


Trowbridge 


w. 


1724 


Andrews 


Stephen 


Fovant 


A. 


1632 


Andrews 


Thomas 


Collingbourne Ducis 


W. I. 


1619 


Anecre 


Dorothea 


New Sarum 


I. 


1632 


Annes 


John th'elder 

(husb.) 


Martin 


W. I. 


1632 


Annettes 


William 


Collingbourne Ducis 


A. A/c. I 


1621 


Anstey 


John 


Broughton Gifford 


W. 


1598 


Antram 


Alice 


Burcombe 


A. 


1621 


Antram 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1670 


Antram 


Joan 


New Sarum 


I. 


1593 


Antram 


Robert 


Wilton 


W. A. I. 


1670 


Antram 


William 

(clothier) 
William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1677 


Antram 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1594 


Appleford 


Stephen 


Ramsbury 


W. 


1540 


Appleby 


John 


Codford St. Mary 


W. 


1606 


Arch 


William (yeo.) 


Notton 


w. 


1755 


Archarde 


Ann 


Castle Combe 


I. 


1809 


Archer 


William 


Cricklade 


W. I. 


1595 


Arden 


Thomas 


Highworth 


A/c. 


1666 


Arnold 


Nicholas 


Milton, New Sarum 


I. 


1674 


Arnold 


Thomas 


Malmesbury 


A/c. 


1640 


ArnoU 


Joan (widow) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1592 


Asheleye 


John, (weaver) 


Wilton 


W. 


1674 


Ashley 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. A/c. 


1585 


Ashwell als 










Carter 


Henry 


Wokingham 


I. 


1678 


Atkins 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1593 


Audley 


Maude (widow 


Bradford 


W. A. I. 


1570 


Avenell 




Highworth 


W. 


1631 


Avice 


Thomas 


Wokingham 


A/c. 


1637 


Awdry 


John, (clerk) 


Melksham 


I. 



38 



Wiltshire Willsy etc. 



1682 


Bacon 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1564 


Bacon 


Richard 


Quidhampton 


I. 


1706 


Baily 


Richard 


Compton Chamber- 
layne 


T. 


1629 


Baker 


Joan 


Stapleford 


A/c. 


1769 


Baker 


Thomas 


Melksham 


A. I. 


1597 


Baker als Poole John 


Studley, Calne 


A. 


1554 


Baker als 

Smyth 


John 




W. 


1680 


Ball 


George 


Swindon 


A/c. 


1628 


Baldwin 


Alexander 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1674 


Ballard 


Anthony 


Ramsbury 


A/c. 


1609 


Ballard 


John 


Bratton 


W. I. 


1722 


Ballard 


Philip 


Bratton 


I. 


1639 


Banning 


Alice 


New Sarum 


I. 


1588 


Bannock 


John 


Bratton 


I. 


1600 


Barber 


Edmund 


Combe (Bissett) 


I. 


1625 


Barber 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1704 


Barford 


John 


Warminster 


W. A. 


1771 


Barker 


Henry 


Westbury 


A/c. I 


1734 


Barley 


John 


Great Bedwin 


A. 


1601 


Barley 


Thomas 


Lavington Forum 


W. I. 


1678 


Barnard 


Edward 


Escott 


A/c. 


1760 


Barnard 


George 


Malmesbury 


I. 


1678 


Barnard 


Ralph 


Sutton Benger 


A/c. 


1671 


Barnard 


Rebecca, (sp.) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1683 


Barnes 


Elinor 


Lyneham 


I. 


1702 


Barnes 


John (sen.) 


New Sarum 


Ren. 


1696 


Barnes 


John 


Urchfont 


I. 


1631 


Barnes 


Richard 


Great Bedwin 


W. I. 


1675 


Barnes 


WilHam 


New Sarum 


I. 


1613 


Barratt 


Edmond 


Arch of Wilts 


W. I. 


1721 


Barratt 


Robert 


Steeple Ashton 


A. I. 


1674 


Barratt 


Anthony 


All Cannings 


A/c. 


1680 


Bartlett 


Anthony 


All Cannings 


A/c. 


1611 


Barton 


William 


Fittleton 


W. 


1587 


Batt 


John 


East Grafton 


A. I. 


1705 


Batt 


John 


Urchfont 


W. 


1632 


Batt 


Richard (yeo.) 


CoUingbourne Ducis 


W. I. 


1624 


Batt 


Thomas 
th' elder 


Little Bedwin 


A. I. 


1626 


Batten 


Thomas 


Blackland 


I. 


1664 


Batter 


George 


New Sarum 


I. 


1618 


Batter 


Gyles 


Winterbourne Earls 


A/c. 


1629 


Baverstock 


Thomas 


Porton 


A/c. I 


1564 


Bawden 


Nicholas 

(hus.) 


Chisenbury Priory, 
Enford. 


I. 


1578 


Baxxeter 


William 


Mere 


A/c. I 


1616 


Bayley 


John 


Upton Lovel 


A/c. 


1610 


Bayley 


Nicholas 


Tilshead 


W. 


1553 


Bayley 


Thomas 


Tilshead 


W. 


1659 


Beach 


Nicholas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1637 


Beale 


Richard 


Calne 


I. 


1585 


Bealys 


Edmund 


Swallowcliffe 


A. I. 


1581 


Beat 


William 


Bodenham, Nunton 


W. 


1606 


Beayne 


William 


Poulton 


W. 


1637 


Bedford 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1619 


Bedford 


William 


Calne 


W. 


1766 


Bell 


William 


West Grimstead 


I. 


1674 


Bendrie 


Francis 


Christian Malford 


A/c. 



Bfi C, E. Everett 



Bengeman 


Robert 


Wylye 


W. 


Benger 





Woodford 


A. 


Benger 


John 


Little Woodford 


A/c. 


Benger 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


Bennet 


Edward 


Broadchalke 


A/c. 


Bennet 


John 


Ashton Keynes 


A/c. 


Bennet 


John 


Codford St. Mary 


A/c. 


Bennet 


Mary 




I. 


Benet 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


Bennett 


William 


East Winterslow 


I. 


Benngy 


Thomas 


Imber 


A. 


Berkley 


Thomas 


Ludgershall 


A. 


Best 


Edmund 


Mere 


A/c. 


Best 


Matthew 


Fisherton Anger 


I. 


Better ton 


John 


Cricklade 


W. 


Beviett ( ?) 


Robert 


Idmiston 


B. 


Beyley 


Henry 


West Ashton 


I. 


Beyne 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Bigge 


Edward 


Easton 


W. I. 


Biggs 


Anthony 


Durnford 


I (2) 


Biggs 


Henry, 
(yeoman) 


Great Woodford 


I. 


Biggs 


Joan (widow) 


Great Bedwin 


A. I. 


Biggs 


John 


Great Woodford 


W. 


Biggs 


John 


Codford St. Peter 


I. 


Biggs 


John 


Codford St. Peter 


T. 


Biggs 


Robert 


Durnford 


I. 


Biggs 


Thomas 


Fisherton Anger 


I. 


Biggs 


Whitfield 


Bramshaw 


W. 




Bourn (gent.) 




Bishop 




Brixton Deverill 


A/c. 


Bishop 


Humphrey 


Calne 


A/c. 


Bishop 


John 


Calne 


A. 


Bishop 


Margaret 


Calne 


A. 


Bishop 


Margaret 


Calne 


A/c. I 


Bishop 


Walter 


Calne 


I. 


Bisse 


John 


Cricklade 


I. 


Blackhead 


John (sen.) 
Yeoman 


New Sarum 


I. 


Blackmore 


John 


Collingbourne Ducis 


A. I. 


Blackmore 


Richard 


Collingbourne Ducis 


A. I. 


Blagdon 


Elizabeth 


Marlborough 


I. 


Blake 


Catherine (sp.) 


Wootton Rivers 


A/c. 


Blake 


Joan (widow) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Blake 


John th'elder 


Etchilhampton 


I. 


Blake 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


Blake 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Blake 


William 


Mere 


A/c. 


Blakewell 


Humphrey 


Kemble 


A/c. 


Blanchard 


Thomas 


Bradford 


A/c. 


Blanchard 


Walter 


Bromham 


A/c. I 


Blandford 


Alice (widow) 


Semley 


W. 


Blandford 


Margaret 
(widow) 


Toyde Farm, W^ilts 


I. 


Blandy 


Benjamin 


Grafton 


I. 


Blandy 


Charles 


Pewsey 


W. 


Blyet 


Thomas 


Liddington 


I. 


Bodington als 


John 


Hilmarton 


A/c 


Tuck 








Bond 


William 


Calne 


I. 


Bonham 


John 


New Sarum 


J. 



40 



Wiltshii^e Wills, etc. 



1552 


Bonnam 


William, (cleric) Grimstead 


W. 


1675 


Borrough 


Thomas 


Woodford 


I. 


1635 


Boswell 


William 


Little Bedwin 


A. 


1600 


Boucher 


Henry 


West Ashton 


I. 


1674 


Boucher 


Roger 


Chilton Folliatt 


A/c. 


1670 


Boulter 


Hugh, (tailor) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1556 


Bowater 


Alys 


Donhead St. Mary 


W. 


1758 


Bowden 


John 


Bishopston 


I. 


1631 


Bowyer 


Ann 


Calne 


I. 


1637 


Boxe 


Walter 


Calne 


I. 


1556 


Boys 


John 


Fyfhead (Fifield) 


w. 


1674 


Boys 


Thomas 


Little Somerford 


A/c. 


1619 


Brabant 


Roger, (butcher) Calne 


I. 


1593 


Bracher 


Lawrence 


Tisbury 


I. 


1729 


Bradbury 


Zachariah, 


Bremhill 


W. I. 


1718 


Bracher 


Martha (widow) Tisbury 


w. 


1716 


Bradford 


John 


Elcombe, Wroughton 


I. 


1585 


Bradford 


William 


Hurst 


A. 


1541 


Brampton 


John 


Broadchalke 


W. I. 


1616 


Brethers 


Thomas 


Poulshot 


A/c. 


1619 


Brethers 


William 


Chute 


A. I. 


1564 


Brethers 


William 


Melksham 


I. 


1619 


Briant 


William 


Durnford 


W. 


1624 


Brice 


John 


Durrington 


A/c. 


1623 


Brice 


John 


Redlynch 


A. 


1723 


Brice 


Mary (widow) 


Heytesbury 


I. 


1585 


Bridges 


William (gent.) 


Highworth 


T. 


1770 


Bright 


Francis 


Berwick St. John 


I. 


1634 


Brind 


John 


Highworth 


W. 


1631 


Briner 


Philip (widow) 


Calne 


I. 


1619 


Brinsden 


Thomas 


Collingbourne Ducis 


W. 


1685 


Bristow 


John 


Clarendon Park 


A/c. 


1634 


Bristow 


William 


Chilton Foliat 


A. 


1593 


Brittain 






W. 


1743 


Brittain 


Elizabeth 

(widow) 


Devizes 


W. 


1629 


Brotherton 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1689 


Brown 


Ann (widow) 


Cherhill 


A/c. I 
Inter. 


1586 


Brown 


Elner 


Mere 


I. 


1756 


Brown 


Henry 


Steeple Ashton 


I. 


1682 


Browne 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


1554 


Browne 


John 


Somerford 


W. 


1639 


Brown 


John 


Calne 


A/c. I 


1634 


Brown 


Nathan 


Little Bedwin 


W. I. 


1618 


Browne 


Robert 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


W. I 


1679 


Brown 


Robert 


Hankerton 


A/c. 


1632 


Browne 


Roger, (tailor) 


Little Bedwin 


W. I. 


1554 


Browne 


Thomas 


Sutton Veny 


W. 


1606 


Browne 


Thomas 


Tyneham 


w. 


1679 


Brown 


William 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


1667 


Brown John 


Thomas 


Heytesbury 


I. 


1721 


Brunsden 


William 


Amesbury 


A. 


1680 


Bull 


Edward 


Westbury 


A/c. 


1613 


Bundy 


John 


Chirton 


A/c. 


1744 


Bungey 


Thomas 


Fisherton Anger 


I. 


1773 


Bunning 


James 


Dauntsey 


I. 


1596 


Burde 


William 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1674 


Burges 


Hannah (sp.) 


New Sarum 


W. 


1558 


Burgys 


John, (cleric) 


Christian Malford 


W. 


1554 


Burges 


John, (yeoman 


) Cricklade 


w. 



By G. R, Everett. 



41 



1620 


Burges 


John th 'elder 


Bradford 


W. 






(broadweaver) 




1600 


Burke 




Wokingham 


A/c. 


1552 


Burland 


Richard 


Potterne 


W. 


1640 


Burley 


John 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


A. I. 


1612 


Burnet 


William 

(vytler) 


New Sarum 


A/c. I 


1760 


Burrow 


John 


Bower Chalke 


W. 


1763 


Burrow 


John 


Bower Chalke 


W. 


1721 


Bush 


John 


Fisherton Anger 


A. I. 


1753 


Bush 


Margaret 


Christian Malford 


W. 


1670 


Butler 


George 


Damerham 


W. I. 


1564 


Butler 


Robert 


Compton Chamber- 
layne 


I. 


1663 


Butler 


Thomas 
Th'elder 


Bishopston 


W. I. 


1734 


Butt 


Edward, 
(linen weaver 


Mere 

■) 


W. 


1712 


Butters 


James 


Ditchridge 


A. Rei 


1594 


Cabell 


Christopher 


Upton Scudamore 


W. I. 


1618 


Caldwell 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1695 


Calley 


Ann 


Hilmarton 


W. 


1612 


Candy 


Christopher 


Bishopstrow 


A/c. 


1632 


Captayne 


William, 
(innholder) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1621 


Card 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1541 


Card 


Ralph 


Tisbury 


W. 


1679 


Carden 


William 

(cordwainerj 


New Sarum 


I. 


1593 


Carpenter als 
Wheeler 


John 


Bodenham, p 
Nunton 


B. 


1597 


Carpenter 


Thomas 


West Dean 


A. 


1624 


Carr 


John Th'elder 


Cowley 


W. 


1674 


Carraway 


John 


Forest of Pewsham 


A/c. 


1675 


Carraway 


Stephen, (yeoman) Forest of Pewsham A/c. 


1714 


Carter 


(widow) 


Durnford 


I. 


1707 


Carter 


Edward 


Durnford 


I. 


1722 


Carter 


Gyles 


Orcheston St. George 


A. 


1585 


Carter als 
Ashwell 


Henry 


Wokingham 


I. 


1553 


Carter 


John, (parson) 


Sherrington 


W. 


1598 


Carter 


John 


Imber 


W. 


1688 


Carter 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


1674 


Carter 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1564 


Carter 


John 


Tilshead 


I. 


1585 


Carter 


Thomas, 
(husb'man) 


Hurst 


I. 


1724 


Carter 


Walter 


Tinhead 


I. 


1720 


Carter 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1667 


Carter 


William 


Durnford 


I. 


1635 


Carter als 
Williams 


Nicholas 


Durnford 


I. 


1634 


Cary 


John 


Grimstead 


W. I. 


1598 


Catringham 


Thomas, 
(pewterer) 


Wokingham 


W. 


1659 


Chafyn 


Charles 


New Sarum 


I. 


1670 


Chamberlain 


Susanna 


Cricklade 


w. 


1786 


Chambers 


William, 

(cordwainer) 


New Sarii 


W. 



42 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1721 


Chandler 


Edmund 


Netherhampton 


A. Ren. 


1638 


Chandler 


Prudence 




T. 


1637 


Chandler 


Thomas 


Calne 


I. 


1632 


Chapeman 


Edmond, 

(weaver) 


Blackland 


I. 


1597 


Chapman 


Richard 


Calne 


W. 


1710 


Chapperlin 


Sarah (widow) 


Malmesbury 


I. 


1593 


Chater 


Rafe 


Damerham 


W.I. 


1676 


Chepney 


Thomas 


Tidcombe 


A/c. 


1760 


Child 


Sarah 


Fisherton Anger 


A/c. I. 


1635 


Chilvester 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1799 


Chipp 


Isaac 


Bratton 


W. 


1638 


Chiselden als 
Hellier 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


1617 


Chislet 


Elinor (widow) 


Mere 


W. I. 


1674 


Chivers 


Dorothy 

(widow) 


New Sarum 


A/c. Dep. 


1719 


Chivers 


Robert 


Bradford 


I. 


1553 


Chivers 


William 


Somerford 


W. 


1722 


Christopher 


William 


Fisherton Anger 


A. 


1634 


Church 


Nicholas, 
(yeoman) 


Burbage 


W. 


1675 


Church 


Thomas 


Tockenham Wick 


A/c. 


1679 


Clare 


Edward 


Warminster 


A/c. 


1615 


Clare 


Philip 


Ditchampton 


A/c. 


1634 


Clarck als 

Patie 


Jane 


Calne 


A. I. 


1629 


Clark als 
Paty 


William 


Calne 


I. 


1638 


Clarke 


Agnes 


Wilton 


I. 


1590 


Clark 


Harry 


Wylye 


W. 


1636 


Clark 


Joan 


Calne 


I. 


1552 


Clarck 


John 


West Bedwin 


W. 


1674 


Clarke 


John 


Easton 


A/c. 


1675 


Clarke 


Robert 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


1634 


Clement 


Robert 

(tanner) 


Mere 


I. 


1631 


Clement 


Robert 


Mere 


D of G. 


1576 


Cleve 


William 


Kingston Deverill 


I. 


1677 


Clifton 


Thomas 


Overton 


A/c. 


1551 


Clothman 


Richard 


Calne 


W. 


1763 


Cockell 


Richard 


Westbury 


A/c. I. 


1705 


Cockey 


W^illiam 


New Sarum 


Decl. 


1564 


Coffyn 


Dorothy 


South Wraxall 


I. 


1675 


Cokett 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1557 


Cole 


Robert 


Marlborough 


W. 


1619 


Coleman 


Robert 


Durnford Magna 


A. 


1678 


Coleman 


Walter 


Langley Burrell 


A/c. 


1624 


Collane 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1639 


CoUarne 


Robert 


Ogborne 


W. I. 


1554 


Colles 


William 


Cholderton 


W. 


1668 


Collet 


Nathan 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1721 


Colley 


Thomas 


Trowbridge 


A/c. I. 


1765 


Collier 


Edward 


Sutton Veny 


A/c. I. 


1768 


Collier 


Edward 


Sutton Veny 


re estate 


1610 


CoUings 


Dorothy (widow) Tollard Royal 


I. 


1540 


CoUings 


John 


Purton (Porton) 


W. 


1625 


Collins 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1776 


Collingborn 


Elizabeth 
(widow) 


Dauntsey 


W. 


1540 


Colyns 


William 


Broadchalke 


W.I. 



I 



Bji G. R, Everett. 



43 



Combe 


Awdry 


Mere 


I. 


Combes 


Robert 


Burbage 


A. 


Combe 


Thomas 


Tisbury 


A/c. 


Coombes 


William 


Chute 


W. I. 


Conslayde 


Moses 


New Sarum 


I. 


Cooke 


Anthony 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Cook 


Henry 


Sutton Veny 


A/c. 


Cooke 


Henry 


New Sarum 


I. 


Cooke 


Henry 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Cook 


Jane 


Amesbury 


I. 


Cooke 


John 


Wilton 


I. 


Cooke 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Cook 


Thomas 


Bishop's Cannings 


Dof G. 


Cooke 


William 


Ramsbury 


A/c. 


Coole 


Philip 


Norton Bavant 


W. 


Coop 


Martin 


Charlton 


A/c. 


Cooper 


Humphrey 


Ham 


I. 


Cooper 


John, (carryer] 


1 Corsley 


W.A/c. I. 


Cooper 


Nathan 


Bishop's Cannings 


W. 


Cooper 


Robert 


Charlton 


I. 


Cooper als 


Richard 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Rogers 








Corbet 


John 


Wishford 


W. 


Corneyree 


Henry 


Crudwell 


W. 


Corsley 


William 


Hurst 


I. 


Cosen 


John (sen.) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Cotes 


James 


Downton 


A. I. 


Cotterell 


Simon 


Bulford 


W. I. 


Cottrell 


Anthony 


Bulford 


I. 


Courtlowe 


Thomas, 


New Sarum 


W. 




(clothworker) 




Coventree 


Thomas 


Rodborne Cheney 


A/c. 


Coventry als 


Ann' 


Lydiard Millicent 


A. 


Smart 


- 






Coward 


Robert 


Berwick Basset 


A. 


Coward 


William 


Sedgehill 


A. I. 


Cowldwell 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Cox 


Joan 


Bishopstrow 


W. I. 


Cox 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Cox als 


Thomas 


Cricklade 


W. Inter. 


Randall 








Coyleswell 


Steven 




A/c. 


Crane 


Andrew 


New Sarum 


I. 


Craste als 


Philip 


Ashton Gitford, 


I. 


Simpkins 




Codford St. Peter 




Creedy 


Bennet 


New Sarum 


I. 


Cretan 


Richard 


Wokingham 


A. 


Cricksbye 


Nicholas 


Bishop's Cannings 


A. 


Crippes 


Alice 


Berwick Bassett 


A. I. 


Crippes 


Matthew 


Hurst 


A/c. 


Crook 


Thomas 


Burbage 


A. I. 


Crooke 


Thomas 


Wraxall 


W. 


Croome 


John, (yeomar 


l) Bratton 


I. 


Croome 


Walter 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Crosse 


Dorothy 


Bulford 


W. 


Crowche 


John 


Great Bedwin 


A. 


Cully 


Robert 


New Sarum 


I. 


Cundytt 


Edith 


Steeple Ashton 


W.I. 


Cunditt 


Richard, 


Durnford 


I. 


Cunningdon 


John 


Great Bedwin 


W. 


Curtes 


Richard, (coope 


>r) Downton 


w. 



44 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1599 


, Curtis 


John 


Kingston Deverill 


I. 


1639 


Cuttle 


William 


Calne 


A/c. 


1636 


Cuttle 


William 


Calne 


I. 


1599 


Curteyse 


Thomas 


Whiteparish 


W. A. 1 


1676 


Dagoe 


John 


Collingbourne 
Kingston 


A/c. 


1634 


Dance 


Anthony 


Great Bedwin 


W. I. 


1624 


Dance 


John 


Great Bedwin 


W.I. 


1630 


Dance 


Margery 

(widow) 
Richard 


Great Bedwin 


A. I. 


1597 


Dangerfield 


Calne 


A/c. 


1589 


Davies 


Ann 


Chicksgrove 


A./C. I. 


1773 


Davies 


Ann 


Chicksgrove 


A/c. I. 


1589 


Davies 


Thomas 


Durrington 


A. I. 


1606 


Davis 


Ann (widow) 


Westport 


W. 


1677 


Davis 


Edward 


Teffont Evias 


I. 


1676 


Davis 


George (gent.) 


Notton (Nunton) 


W. 


1631 


Davis 


Joan 


Stratford sub Castle 


I. 


1721 


Davis 


James 


Maiden Bradley 


A. 


1632 


Davis 


Mary 


Great Bedwin 


W. I. 


1674 


Davis 


Mary 


Great Sherston 


A/c. 


1541 


Davis 


Robert 


Maiden Bradley 


W. I. 


1554 


Davis 


William 


Bedwin 


W. 


1541 


Davys 


Jone (sometime religious woman 


w. 




within the 


monastery of Amesbury ) 




1610 


Daye 


Robert 


Landford 


I. 


1675 


Deacon 


William 


Heytesbm-y 


A/c. 


1600 


Deane 


Edward 


Warminster 


W. A. ] 


1623 


Deane 


Elizabeth 
(widow) 


Great Bedwin 


A. I. 


1623 


Deane 


John 


Great Bedwin 


W. I. 


1680 


Dee 


David 


New Sarum 


I. 


1678 


Deighton 


William 


Minety 


A/c. 


1724 


Dench 


Edward 


Idmiston 


A. I. 


1559 


Dennett 


Richard 


St. Peters, Marlborough W. 


1552 


Deverell 


Elizabeth 
(widow) 
William 


Bradford 


W. 


1620 


Dick 


Fyfield, Enford 


A/c. 


1670 


Dike 


Ann 


New Sarum 


I. 


1684 


Dismore 


Elenor 


Crofton 


I. 


1641 


Dixon Th' 
elder 


Ann (widow) 


Ogbourne St. George 


W. 


1722 


Dixon 


Thomas 


Bremhill 


W. 


1634 


Dobbes 


Richard 


Netheravon 


W.I. 


1634 


Dobson 


Richard 


Netheravon 


w. 


1596 


Dodington 


William 


Mere 


A/c. 


1614 


Dominicke 


Thomas 


Edington 


A/c. 


1540 


Domynyk 


Alice 


Chilmark 


W. I. 


1720 


Dorchester 


William 


All Cannings 


w. 


1616 


Dowdinge 


Maud 


Urchfont 


A/c. 


1671 


Dowling 


William 


Durnford 


I. 


1602 


Downe 


John 


Warminster 


I. 


1590 


Downe 


Robert 


North Tidworth 


A. I. 


1747 


Downton 


Samuel 


Winterbourne Stoke 


w. 


1717 


Drew 


Joan (widow) 


Liddington 


I. 


1711 


Drewett 


John 


Box 


w. 


1756 


Drinkwater 


Mary 


Yatton Keynell 


A. Ren 


1760 


Drinkwater 


Sarah (widow) 


Semington 


A/c. 


1762 


Drinkwater 


Sarah (widow) 


Semington 


A/c. I. 



By C. R Everett. 



45 



1621 


Druce 


Drewe, (yeoman) Bradford 


I. 


1574 


Duey 


Margaret 


Homington 


W. 


1610 


Dugo 


Robert 


Durrington 


I. 


1656 


Duke 


George 


Whiteparish 


A/c. 


1641 


Duke 


Isaac 


Durrington 


W. 


1671 


Dupe 


Christopher 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1540 


Durdanns 


John 


Donhead St. Mary 


W. I. 


1725 


Durvile 


William 


Great Bedwin 


I. 


1564 


Dyffeased 


Jone 


Urchfont 


I. 


1593 


Dyke 


John 


Westwood 


A. 


1676 


Dyke 


Thomas 


Woodborough 


A/c. 


1553 


Dysonson 


Richard 


Marlborough 


W. 


1610 


Eadney 


John 


Amesbury 


I. 


1639 


Eames 


George 


Calne 


I. 


1627 


Earlie 


Anthony 


Little Bedwin 


A/c. 


1608 


Eastman 


Walter 


Nunton 


Def. 


1670 


Eastwell 


Joshua 


Winterbourne 


I. 


1635 


Eaton 


George 


New Sarum 


I. 


1677 


Eavines 


George 


New Sarum 


I. 


1634 


Edmunds 


Thomas 


Ogbourne St. 
Andrews 


A-il. 


1615 


Edridge 


John 


Sherrington 


A/c. 


1621 


Edridge 


Margaret 
(widow) 


Sherrington 


W. L 


1744 


Edwards 


Thomas 
th'elder 
(yeoman) 


Little Hinton 


W. 


1719 


Edwards 


William 


North Tidworth 


I. 


1668 


Edwards 


William 


Wanborough 


I. 


1740 


Eley 


Cornelius 


Enford 


A/c. I, 


1693 


Ellaway 


Jone 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1629 


Ellyott 


Edmund, 
(innholder) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1612 


Elliott 


Elizabeth 


New Sarum 


I. 


1587 


Elliot 


James, 
( labourer) 


Heytesbury 


A. I. 


1641 


Elliott 


Richard 


Barford St. Martin 


W. I. 


1596 


Elliot 


Robert 


Great Wishford 


W. I. 


1772 


Elloway 


Elizabeth 
(widow) 


Warminster 


A.L 


1655 


Ely 


Mary 


Chippenham 


A/c. 


1750 


Embry 


Thomas 


Ashton Keynes 


A/c. L 


1582 


Erburie 


John 


Warminster 


A. 


1632 


Erby 


Nicholas 


Little Bedwin 


W.I. 


1567 


Erie 


EHsabeth 


Burbage 


A. 


1585 


Erley 


Thom.as 


Great Bedwin 


A. 


1701 


Ernly 


Thomas 


Westbury 


Def. 


1681 


Errington 


Gerrard 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1677 


Essington 


Charles 


Kingston S. Michael 


A/c. 


1670 


Etwall 


Joseph 


Berwick Bassett 


A. 


1573 


Evans 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1596 


Eve 


Alice (widow) 


Great Wishford 


W. I. 


1585 


Eve 


Henry 


Heytesbury 


A. L 


1560 


Eve 


William 


Heytesbury 


I. 


1678 


Evenese 


George 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1680 


Ewer 


Christopher 


Clarendon Park 


A/c. 


1612 


Evered 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1616 


Exton 


Francis 


Tisbury 


A/c. 


1716 


Exton 


John 


Britford 


I. 



46 



Wiltshii^e Wills, etc. 



1616 


Eyer 


John 


Seend 


W. 


1629 


Eyre 


Cuthbert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1629 


Eyre 


Giles 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1610 


Eyre 


John 


Seend 


I. 


1638 


Eyre 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1629 


Farmer 


William 

(husbandman 


Collingbourne Ducis 

) 


W. I. 


1564 


Far 


John 


Chirton 


I. 


1634 


Farr 


John 


Horningsham 


A. I. 


1754 


Farrington 


Charles, (yeo.) 


Ashton Keynes 


A/c. I. 


1619 


Feathorne 


Roger 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1590 


Feltham 


Thomas 


Woodford 


I. 


1621 


Fennell 


Andrew 


Steeple Ashton 


W. 






(husbandman) 




1597 


Ferrett 


Thomas 


Calne 


W.A. 


1763 


Ferris 


Robert, (yeo.) 


Sutton Benger 


A/c.I. 


1680 


Ferrebe 


Edmund 


Poulton 


A/c. 


1597 


Fettiplace 




Fisherton Anger 


W. I. 


1609 


Fielder 


Tobyas 


Rushall 


A. 


1722 


Figard 


John, the 
younger 


Tisbury 


A. 


1678 


Fijcott 


Joan 


New Sarum 


I. 


1597 


Fillis 


John 


Warminster 


A. 


1687 


Finham 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1632 


Fishe 


Seymour, 

(tailor) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1639 


Fisher 


Adam 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1687 


Fleman 


Elizabeth 

(widow) 


Stockton 


W. 


1691 


Flood 


John 


Cricklade 


W. 


1611 


Flower 


Bartholomew 


Urchfont 


A. 


1600 


Flower 


Richard 


Keevil 


W.B. 


1632 


Floyd 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1695 


Foorth 


Nathaniel 


Durnford 


I. 


1770 


Foott 


Joseph, (glover) Tollard Royal 


I. 


1556 


Ford 


John 


Keevil 


A. 


1611 


Ford 


Oswald 


Tinhead, Westbury 


W. 


1770 


Ford 


William 


Stapleford 


A/c. 1 


1675 


Forman 


Arthur 


Calne 


A/c. 


1630 


Forman 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1679 


Forman 


Thomas 


Rodborne Cheney 


A/c. 


1600 


Forman 


William 


Calne 


A/c. 


1586 


Forrester 


William 


Ramsbury 


I. 


1587 


Forsburye 


Lionell 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1640 


Forward 


Stephen 


Mere 


A/c. 


1715 


Fowle 


Alice 


All Cannings 


W. 


1635 


Fowler 


Mary (widow) 


Calne 


I. 


1632 


Fowler 


Richard 


Calne 


I. 


1760 


Francis 


John 


Hanging Langford 


W. 


1563 


Frank 


John (" Sir ") 


Idmiston 


I. 


1554 


Franklyn 


Ann 


Downton 


w. 


1630 


Franklin 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1749 


Franklin 


Jonathan 


Corsham 


I. 


1631 


Freeman 


Thomas Th' 
elder 


Ramsbury 


A/c. 


1743 


Freemantl© 


George 


Lower Wallopp 


A. 


1671 


Frend 


Robert 


New Sarum 


I. 


1538 


Freston 


William 


Kingston Deverill 


W. 


1592 . 


Fricker 


Mary 


Co. Wilts. 


I. 



B^j C. R. Everett. 



47 



1674 


Friend 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1717 


Frowd 


James 


Durnford 


I. 


1683 


Frowde 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1682 


Frowde 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1602 


Frowde als 
Parsons 


John 


Sedgehill 


A/c. 


1707 


Fry 


John, (mason) 


Little Somerford 


I. 


1664 


Fry 


Samuel 


Warminster 


W. 


1812 


Fry 


William 


Cricklade 


W. 


1609 


Frycarde 


Lawrence 


Tisbury 


W. 


1554 


Frydaye 


Thomas, 
(yeoman) 


Cricklade 


w. 


1652 


Fryer 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1603 


Fryer 


Walter 


Knoyle Magna 


A. 


1541 


Fylde 


John (sen.) 


Kingston Deverill 


W. 


1541 


Fylde 


John 


Kingston Deverill 


I. 


1598 


Gaisford 


William 
Th' elder 


Bulkington 


W. 


1540 


Gaysford 


Edmunde 


South Newton 


W.I. 


1678 


Gale 


Thomas 


Elcombe, Wroughton 


A/c. 


1741 


Gale 


William 


Corston 


I. 


1680 


Gale 


WiUiam 


New Sarum 


I. 


1722 


Gardiner 


Richard 
Th^elder 


Britford 


A. 


1674 


Gardiner 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1564 


Garnett 


William, (Vicar) Fisherton do la Mare 


I. 


1593 


Garrett 


Edmund 


Marten 


A. I. 


1554 


Garrett 


Joan (widow) 


Fonthill Giffard 


W. 


1570 


Gary 


William 


Amesbury 


W. 


1630 


Gates 


Robert, 
(yeoman) 


Wokingham 


W. I. 


1541 


Geofrey 


John ? 


Ebbesborne Wake 


W. 


1621 


George 


William 


Bulkington, Keevil 


W. I. 


1540 


Gerrard 


Gregory 


Tisbury 


I. 


1722 


Gerrard 


John 


Ansty 


A.I. 


1598 


Gerryshe 


Alice 


Broughton Gifford 


A. 


1733 


Gerrish 


Henry 
(yeoman) 


Bromham 


I. 


1728 


Gerrish 


Richard 


Melksham 


I. 


1617 


Gerrish 


Richard 


Shaw 


A. A/c. I, 


1597 


Gibbins 


John 


Bishopston 


W. A. I. 


1558 


Giddings 


Christopher 


Worton, Potterne 


W. 


1598 


Gildon 


Edward 


Mere 


A/c. I. 


1712 


Giles 


Zachary 


Cricklade 


I. 


1682 


Gilloe 


William 


New Sarum 


Ren. 


1694 


Gillmore 


Thomas the 
younger, 
(tailor) 


Wroughton 


I. 


1678 


Gingell 


Elinor 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


1674 


Gingell 


Walter 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


1631 


Girdler 


Phillis (widow] 


1 New Sarum 


A/c. 


1677 


Glasse 


Godfrey 


Durrington 


I. 


1564 


Goddard 


Elizabeth 


Sedgehill 


I. 


1680 


Goddard 


William 


Highworth 


A. 


1632 


Goden 


Thomas 


Calston 


I. 


1731 


Godwin 


Susanna 
(widow) 


Stratton St. Margaret 


A. 


1674 


Godwin 


Thomas 


Stanton St. Bernard 


A/c. 


1593 


Goldiker 


Elizabeth 


Cholderton 


W. A. I. 



48 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1553 


Golding 


John, (parson) 


North Tidworth 


W. 


1586 


Goldinge 


Mar j orie( widow )Ramsbury 


A. I. 


1596 


Golle 


Margaret 
(widow) 


Broadchalke 


W. I. 


1553 


Good 


John 


Fugglestone 


W. 


1710 


Good 


Thomas 


Yatesbury 


W. 


1621 


Goodale 


John 


Allington 


A/c. 


1685 


Goodfellow 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1558 


Goodnowe 


John (jun.) 


Potterne 


W. 


1633 


Goodyer 


Dorothy (widow) Mere 


I. 


1564 


Goord 


Thomas 


Semley 


I. 


1568 


Gorge 


John, (miller) 


Deverill Longbridge 


I. 


1632 


Gorway 


Agnes (widow) 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1606 


Gorway 


William, 

(yeoman) 


Wootton Bassett 


W. 


1631 


Goswell 


Ralph 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1558 


Gowringe 


Moses 


Potterne 


W. 


1681 


Grace 


William 


BritfordJ 


A. 


1607 


Grant 


John 


Holt 


I. 


1597 


Grape 


Robert 


Wokingham 


I. 


1677 


Grafton 


Mary (widow) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1674 


Grafton 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1675 


Grafton 


Richard 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1676 


Gray 


Henry 


Chisledon 


A/c. 


1760 


Gray 


John 


Fisherton Anger 


A/c. I. 


1599 


Grey 


William 


Wilton 


W. 


1600 


Grene 


Thomas 


Ogbourne 


A/c. 


1634 


Greene 


Thomas 


Great Bedwin 


A. 


1741 


Greenhill 


John 


Westbury 


A. 


1742 


Greenhill 


John 


Westbury Leigh 


A/c. I. 


1585 


Gregory 


Alice (widow) 


Great Bedwin 


A. 


1669 


Gregory 


Mary 


New Sarum 


T. 


1645 


Greye als 
Sinpson 


(widow) 


Wilton 


W. 


1622 


Griffin 


Edward 


Porton 


W. 


1667 


Griffin 


John Th'elder 


Tytherton Lucas 


A/c. I. 


1705 


Grindy 


Giles 


Charlton 


A. Ren. 


1613 


Grundy 


Nicholas 


Norton 


A. 


1587 


Guy 


Thomas 


Little Bedwin 


I. 


1561 


Gybbes 


Alexander 


Long Newnton 


W. 


1553 


Gye 


George 


Calne 


W. 


1600 


Gyll 


Christopher 


Great Cheverell 


W. I. 


1632 


Hale 


John 


Blackland 


I. 


1540 


Halford 


Edmund 


South Newton 


W. L 


1731 


Hall 


Henry 


Great Bedwin 


I. 


1586 


Hall 


John 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1634 


Hall 


John 


Hurst 


W. A. I 


1733 


Hancock 


George 


Steeple Ashton 


I. 


1658 


Hancock 


Thomas 


Harnham 


I. 


1665 


Hardekin 


Simon 


Seend 


A/c. 


1766 


Hardeman 


James 


Tisbury 


I. 


1766 


Hardeman 


William 


Tinhead, Edington 


I. 


1676 


Harding 


Robert 


Crudwell 


A/c. 


1586 


Hardy 


Robert 


Mere 


A. 


1624 


Hargell 


George 


Fisherton Anger 


A/c. 


1769 


Harlen 


Luke, (cooper) 


Hindon 


W. 


1597 


Harolde 


Anthony 


Great Bedwin 


A/c. 


1606 


Harper 


William 


Rowde 


W. 


1627 


Harris 


John 


Little Bedwin 


W. 



By C. R. Everett 



49 



1631 


Harris 


John 


Berwick Bassett 


W. 


1673 


Harris 


John 


Ramsbury 


I. 


1596 


Harris 


Lewys 


Winterbourne Earls 


A. 


1588 


Harris 


Owen 


Bishopston 


I. 


1606 


Harrison 


Richard 


Brokenborough , 
Charlton 


W. I. 


1540 


Harryson 


John 


Farley 


w. 


1580 


Harroway 


WiUiam 

(tailor) 


Amesbury 


W. 


1610 


Harte 


Johan 


Edington 


W.I. 


1750 


Hart 


Thomas 


Melksham 


A/c. I 


1770 


Hart 


Thomas 


Melksham 


A/c. I 


1634 


Hartford 


John 


Woodford 


W.I. 


1634 


Harvest 


Margaret 


Combe Bissett 


A. I. 


1593 


Haskins 


Edith 


Warminster 


A. 


1619 


Hatch 


Margery 


Hurst 


A. I. 


1760 


Hatch 


Sarah 


Bramshaw 


A. 


1674 


Hatchett 


Thomas 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


1621 


Haward 


Alice (widow) 


Swallowcliffe 


I. 


1722 


Hawkins 


Richard 


Warminster 


A. 


1606 


Haye 


Robert 


Sherston Magna 


W. 


1570 


Haylyne 


James 


FonthiU 


W. 


1666 


Hayes 


John 


New Sarum 


Ren. 


1554 


Hayley 


Humphrey 


Somerford Keynes 


W. 


1678 


Hayns 


Edward 


Figheldean 


I. 


1666 


Haynes 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1660 


Haynes 


Joseph, (collar 
maker) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1542 


Hayowe 


James 


Fonthill 


W. 


1556 


Haysell 


Agnes 


Aldbourne 


W. 


1556 


Hayter 


Alice 


Tisbury 


W. 


1670 


Hayter 


Henry 


Clarendon Park 


A/c. 


1541 


Hayter 


William 


Tisbury 


W. 


1729 


Hayter 


William 


Downton 


I 


1616 


Hayward als 


John 


Westwood 


A/c. 




Friend 








1677 


Haywood 


William 


North Newnton 


A/c. 


1680 


Head 


William 

(yeoman) 


Easton 


W. L 


1619 


Heathe 


Agnes 


Wokingham 


W. 


1628 


Heathe 


Katherine 


Sevenhampton 


A/c. 


1679 


Heath 


Robert 


Stratton St. Margaret A/c. 


1606 


Heath 


Thomas 


Swindon 


W. 


1563 


Hed 


John 


Stapleford 


I. 






(husbandman) 




1633 


Hed 


Lucy (widow) 


Wilsford 


W.I, 


1634 


Hed 


Lucy 


Wilsford 


w. 


1675 


Hed 


William 


Pitton 


I. 


1540 


Hedd 


Roger 


Teffont Donyngton 


w. 


1606 


Hedges 


Agnes (widow) 


Wroughton 


w. 


1630 


Heely 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1677 


Heieron 


William 


Rodborne Cheney 


A/c 


1677 


HeUier 


Anthony 


Wootton Rivers 


A/c. 


1678 


Helher 


Francis 


Beachingstoke 


A/c. 


1607 


Helher 


Henry 


Westbury 


A. 


1630 


Hellyer 


Henry 
(yeoman) 


Wokingham 


W. 


1622 


Hellier 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1597 


Heher 


John 


Highworth 


A. I. 


[1638 


Helher 


Thomas 


Calne 


I. 


JVOL. XLV.- 


—NO. CLII. 






E 



50 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1638 


Hellier als 
Chiselden 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


1636 


Hellier 


William 


Calne 


I. 


1681 


Helps 


William 


Rowde 


A/c. 


1626 


Hendy 


Edward 


Mere 


W. 


1610 


Hendy 


Sybell 
(widow) 


Mere 


W. 


1680 


Henley 


Alexander 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


1586 


Henton 


Walter 


Tytherington 


A. 


1770 


Henwood 


John 

(blacksmith) 


Steeple Langford 


I. 


1687 


Heve 


Elin 


Wilton 


W. 


1618 


Hewlett 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1599 


Hewlett 


Richard 


Heytesbury 


A/c. 


1619 


Hiberd 




Barford St. Martin 


A/c. 


1630 


Hiberd 


Michael 


South Burcombe 


A/c. 


1653 


Hibberd 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1681 


Hibberd 


Thomas 
(helher) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1606 


Hill 


Christopher 


Cheverell Magna 


A. 


1640 


Hill 


Edward 


Netherhampton 


I. 


1750 


Hill 


John 


Devizes 


W. 


1666 


Hill 


Matthew 


New Sarum 


I. 


1681 


Hill 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 






(parchmant maker) 




1634 


Hillary 


John 


Netherhampton 


W. A. 


1681 


Hillary 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1672 


Hillary 


Richard 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1669 


Hinckley 


Hester (widow) New Sarum 


A/c. 


1620 


Hinton 


William 


Warminster 


A/c. 


1675 


Hiscock 


John 


Hilmarton 


A/c. 


1713 


Hiscock 


John 


Sutton Veny 


W 


1689 


Hiscock 


Rosamund 
(widow) 


Redhill, Bowood 


W. 


1596 


Hitherthorne 


William 


Wishford 


W.A.I 


1674 


Hmes 


Thomas 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


1646 


Hobbs 


John 


Enford 


I. 


1615 


Hodges 


Thomas 


Netherhampton 


I. 


1762 


Hodges 


Thomas 


Market Lavington 


I. 


1637 


Hodson 


George 


Calne 


I. 


1634 


Hollis 


James 


Wokingham 


W. 


1634 


Hollis 


Thomas 


Wokingham 


I. 


1679 


HoUister 


Timothy 


Lacock 


A/c. 


1674 


Holmes 


John 


Figheldean 


I. 


1600 


Holloway 




Corsley 


A/c. 


1680 


Holloway 


Robert 


Kingston St. Michael 


A/c. 


1639 


Holton 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1712 


Hood 


Richard 


Bremhill 


W. 


1726 


Hooper 


Robert 


Durnford 


I. 


1703 


Hooper 


Robert 


Durnford 


I. 


1645 


Hopgood 


Thomas, (felt- 
maker) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1718 


Hopgood 


William 


Stapleford 


I. 


1579 


Hopkins 




Burbage 


W. 


1587 


Hopkyns 


Henry 


Mere 


A. I. 


1588 


Hopkyns 


John 


Mere 


W. 


1588 


Hopkins 


John 


Mere 


A/c. 


1634 


Home 


John 


Hurst 


A. I. 


1586 


Home 


John 


Heytesbury 


A. I. 


1618 


Horsey 


William 


Hurst 


W. 


1606 


Horte 


Maude (widow) 


Hilmarton 


AV. 



By C. R. Everett. 



51 



1679 
1595 

1630 



Hosie 


John 


Great Bedwyn 


W. 


Hoskins 


WiUiam 


Overton 


A/c. I. 


Hosse 


John 


Christian Malford 


W. 


Houghton 


John 


Colerne 


A. Ren 


Houghton 


Thomas, (clerk) Ludgershall 


W. 


Howell 


Christopher 


Bradford 


A/c. 


Hull 


George 


Mere 


A/c. 


Hull 


Richard 


Hill DeveriU 


I. A/c. 


Humble 


, (clerk) 




W. 


Humby 


John 


Downton 


I. 


Humby 


William 


Rodborne Cheney 


I. 


Humphries 


Mary 


Broad Hinton 


A/c. 


Humphries 


Thomas 


Keevil 


W.I. 


Humphry 


Richard 


Yatton 


A/c. 


Hunt 


Denis (widow) 


Pitton 


A/c. 


Hunt 


Edward 


Chiseldon 


A/c. 


Hunt 


Joseph, 

(bricklayer) 


St. John (Devizes) 


W. 


Hunt 


John 


Chiseldon 


A/c. 


Hunt 


Sibble 

(widow) 
Thomas 


Amesbury 


W. I. 


Hunter 


Wokingham 


A/c. 


Hunter 


Thomas 


Lyneham 


I. 


Huntley 


Robert 


Winsley 


I. 


Hurlbatt 


Francis, th'elder Marlborough 


I. 


Hurlbatt 


John, th'elder 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


W. I. 


Hurlbatt 


John 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


W. 


Hurle 


Edward 


Calne 


A/c. 


Hurle 


Thomas 


Rushall 


I. 


Hutchens 


George 


Elcombe alias 
Wroughton 


W. 


Hutchens 


Jone 


Burbage 


I. 


Hynton 


John 


Enford 


A. 


Idney 


John 


Durrington 


I. 


lies 


Anthony 


South Wraxall 


W. I. 


Imber 


Edward 


. 


A/c. 


Ingram 


John, 

(carpenter) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Iredale 


William 


Enford 


A. I. 


Jackson 


George 

(innholder) 


Fisherton Anger 


W. I. 


Jackson 


Gylberd 


New Sarum 


I. 


Jacob 


John 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


Jacob 


Richard 


Lydiard Tregoze 


A/c. 


James 


George 


Calne 


A/c. 


James 


Judith 


Calne 


I. 


Jarves als 


Margaret 


Wilsford 


W. 


Reves 


(widow) 






Jarvis 


Simon 


Charlton 


A/c. 


Jarvis als 


Richard 


Wokingham 


Assig. 


Mariner 






Dep. I. 


Jay 


Thomas th' 
elder 


South Wilts 


W 


Jeanes 


John 


Calne 


A/c. 


Jeffery 


John 


West Harnham 


W. I 


Jeffery 


John 


West Harnham 


A. 


Jefferies 


Joan 


New Sarum 


I 



E 2 



oii 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1616 


Jeffery 


Peter 


Ebbesborne Wake 


A/c. A 


1596 


Jefferies 


Richard 


Maiden Bradley 


A/c. 


1670 


Jeffery 


Timothy 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1669 


Jeffery 


William, 

(carpenter) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1678 


Jeffery 


William 


Calne 


I. 


1754 


Jeffery 


William (gent.) Ashley, Box 


A/c.I. 


1598 


Jellen 


Hugh 


Mere 


I. 


1631 


Jelly 


" Richard and 
Merrie " 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1597 


Jenkins 


Thomas 


Studley 


I. 


1554 


Jenins als 
Pymkyns 


Agnes 


West Bedwyn 


W. 


1557 


Jennyns 


Thomas, (clerk 


) Sopworth 


W. 


1616 


Jennings 


William 


Melksham 


A/c. 


1585 


Jerret 


Edith (widow) 


Yatesbury 


I. 


1631 


Jes 


Elizabeth 


West Harnham 


I. 


1634 


Johnson 


Elinor 


Hurst 


W. A. 


1631 


Johnston 


Henry 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1634 


Johnston 


John 


Great Bedwyn 


A. I. 


1630 


Joliffe 


Richard, 
(yeoman) 


Downton 


I. 


1631 


Jolly 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1686 


Jonas 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1625 


Jones 


Robert 


Sutton Mandeville 


W. 


1628 


Jones 


Robert, 
(husbandman 


Sutton Mandeville 

) 


I. 


1665 


Jones 


Thomas 

(yeoman) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1677 


Jones 


William 


Fovant 


I 


1556 


Jordan 


William 


Rodbc urne Cheney 


W. 


1648 


Keate 


Elizabeth 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1648 


Keate 


John 


Ramsbury 


A. 


1658 


Keate 


Roger 


Kingston St. Michael 


W. 


1670 


Keep 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1600 


Kendall 


Richard 


Mere 


I. 


1615 


Kemble 


John 


Milton 


A/c. 


1585 


Kember 


Walter 


Great Bedwyn 


A. I. 


1611 


Keneson 


William 


Stourton 


I. 


1722 


Kenge 


Francis 


South Damerham 


A. 


1631 


Kentche 


Richard 

(yeoman) 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1677 


Kew 


Richard 


Avebury 


A/c. 


1603 


Keynds 


Thomas 


Box 


A. 


1556 


Keynes 


William 


Yatton Keynell 


W. 


1627 


Kindle 


Thomas 


North Bradley 


I. 


1563 


Kinge 


Bawdyn 


Hilperton 


I. 


1597 


King 


' David 


Donhead St. Mary 


A. 


1680 


King 


John, (cook) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1667 


King 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. I 


1563 


Kinge 


John 


Deverill Longbridge 


I. 


1593 


Kinge 


Matthew 


Alvediston 


W. I. 


!5;;5 


King 


Thomas 


Charlton 


A. 


1 606 


King 


Thomas 

(husbandman) 


Charlton 


W. 


1596 


King 


William 


Alvediston 


A. 


1614 


Kingingenton 


Thomas 


South Newton 


A/c. 


1663 


Kingman 


Nicholas 


Great Wishford 


A. 


1606 


Kingman 


Nicholas 


Great Wishford 


W. I. 



By G. U. Everett. 



53 



Kite 


William 


Urchfont 


W. 


Knight 


Thomas 


Warminster 


A. I. 


Knowls ais 


William 


West Bedwyn 


W. 


Raysse 








Kyppings 


Henry 


Wraxall 


L 


Lacy 


John 


New Sarum 


W. 


Ladd 


Edward (yeo.) 


Lacock 


I. 


Ladd 


Margaret 


Calne 


I. 


Lake 


Charles 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Lake 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Lamb 


Roger 


Coulston 


W. 


Lambe 


John 


Marlborough 


W. 


Lambe 


Mary 


New Sarum 


w. 


Lambe 


Roger 


New Sarum 


I. 


Lambert 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


R. 


Lamborne 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


Lanam 


Anne 


Martin 


A. 


Lane 


James 


Leigh Delamere 


W. 


Lane 


John 


Lydiard Millicent 


A/c. 


Lane 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Langford 


Thomas 


Calne 


I. 


Lanfrey 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


Langley 


Nicholas 


New Sarum 


I. 


Langley 


Thomas 


Norton Bavant 


A/c. 


Lawe 


John 


Bishopstone 


W.L 


Lawford 


Joan 


Boyton 


A. 


Lawley 


Henry 


Milton 


A/c. 


Lawrence 


Amys 


Semley 


W.L 


Lawrence 


George (yeoman) Hilmarton 


W. 


Lawrence 


John 


Warminster 


W. 


Lawrence 


John (clothier) 


Calne 


I. 


Lawse 


Hugh 


Enford 


I. 


Leach 


Thomas 


Porton 


W. 




(husbandman) 




Lealy 


Ambrose 


Devizes 


A/c. I. 


Leaver 


William 


Hurst 


A/c. 


Lee 


Charles 


New Sarum 


A. Ren. 


Lee 


Edward 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Legg als Rodway Wilham 


Limpley Stoke 


A/c. 


Legge 


John 


Hanging Stoke 


W. 


Legge 


John 


Netheravon 


W. 


Legge 


John 


Warminster 


I. 


Lewes 


John 


Roundway, Bishop's 

Cannings 


W.L 


Lewes 


John 


Crudwell 


W. 


Lewes 


Alicia 


New Sarum 


I. 


Lewis 


John 


Rowde 


A/c. 


Lewis 


William 


Roundway, Bishop's 
Cannings 


Assig. 


Levergage 


William 


Maiden Bradley 


A. 


Lewyn 


William 


Mere 


A. L 


Line 


Anthony 


New Sarum 


I. 


Littele 


John 


Melksham 


W. 


Litton 


Christopher 




I. 


Lobb 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Lock 


Henry 


Wylye 


A/c. I. 


Lomax 


Dorthiah 


Froxfield 


W. 


Long 


Elizabeth 


Cricklade 


I. 


Long 


James 


Potterne 


W. 



54 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1615 


Long 


Henrv 


Melksham 


A/c. 


1636 


Longyere 


William 


Mere 


A/c. 


1800 


Loveless 


Mary (widow) 


New Sarum 


A/c. I. 


1635 


Lucas 


James 


Mere 


A/c. I. 


1598 


Lucas 


John 


Mere 


L 


1615 


Lucas 


Robert (weaver 


■) North Bradley 


W. 


1610 


Luden 




Melksham 


W. 


1622 


Ludlow 


Jane (widow) 


Warminster 


A. A/c. 


1611 


Ludlowe 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


1597 


Lurgas 


Catherine 




L 


1540 


Lush 


John th'elder 


Donhead St. Mary 


W. 


1540 


Lush 


John 

the younger 


Donhead St. Mary 


W. 


1722 


Lush 


Richard 


Broadchalke 


A. 


1675 


Lydall 


John 


Wootton Bassett 


A/c. 


1635 (cir.) 


Lydge 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1590 


Lyghe 


Thomas 


Netherhampton 


B. L 


1598 


Lyne 


Nicholas 


■ Keevil 


A. 


1611 


Lynton 


John 


New Sarum 


1. 


1610 


Mainsale 


Humphrey 


Calne 


I. 


1564 


Maio 


John 


Dinton 


L 


1598 


Major 


William 


Combe Bissett 


I. 


1681 


Mallard 


Robert 


New Sarum 


L 


1605 


Mallard 


Thomas (tucker) Great Sherston 


I. 


1604 


Man field 


Hugh 




A. 


1540 


Manfield 


John 




W. 


1636 


Mann 


Thomas 


Avebury 


A. 


1773 


Mapson 


Robert 


Brinkworth 


A/c. I. 


1622 


Mapson 


Thomas 


Sevenhampton 


1. 


1595 


Mariner als 
Jarvis 


Richard 


Wokingham 


Assig. 
Dep. I. 


1684 


Markes 


Mary (widow) 


New Sarum 


W. 


1686 


Markes 


Mary (widow) 


New Sarum 


Ren. 


1596 


Markettman 


William 


Upton Lovel 


A.I. 


1596 


Marmyon 


Edmond 


Kingston Deverill 


A. 


1709 


Marsh 


Alexander 


Durnford 


I. 


1787 


Marsh 


Daniel 


New Sarum 


W. 


1771 


Marsh 


Sarah (widow) 


Warminster 


A/c. I. 


1620 (cir.) 


Marsh 


Stephen 


Maiden Bradley 


A/c. 


1686 


Marsh 


Thomas (junior 


) New Sarum 


L 


1616 


Marshall 


John 


Urchfont 


A/c. 


1632 


Marshall 


John 


Collingbourne Ducis 


W. L 


1597 


Marshman 


John 


Broadchalke 


A 


1621 


Marshman 


John(carpenter)Melksham 


W. L 


1564 


Marshman 


Roger 


Tisbury 


1. 


1773 


Marshment 


John (blacksmith) Warminster 


A/c. I. 


1619 


Marshment 


Robert 


Tilshead 


A/c. 


1687 


iMarten 


Edward 


New Sarum 


I. 


1600 (cir.) 


Martin 


Anthony 


Downton 


Interr, 


1604 


Martin 


John 


Bishop's Cannings 


W. 


1634 


Martin 


X'pher the 


Ramsbury 


W. A/c.L 






younger, (butcher) 




1707 


Martin 




Malmesbury 


B. 


1669 


Marven 


Maurice 
(carpenter) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1540 


Masey 


Helene (widow 


) Codford St. Peter 


W. 


1706 


Maskelyne 


Sarah (widow) 


Wootton Bassett 


1. ' 


1731 


Maslen 


Jeames 


All Cannings 


W. 



Bn C. E. Everett. 



55 



Mason 


Edward 





I. 


Masters 


William(yeo.) 


Dauntsey 


W. L 


Matby 


Mary 


New Sarum 


I. 


Matravers 


Elizabeth 


Hilperton 


A.I. 


Matron 


Stephen 


New Sarum 


W. 


Mathews 


Thomas 


Norton Bavant 


W. L 


May 


Henry 


Bishopstone 


I. 


May 


Israel the 
younger 


Malmesbury 


A/c. L 


Mayer 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Mayhew 


Thomas 


Tisbury 


W. 


Maylyn 


William 


Wylye 


W. 


Maynard 


Thomas th' elder, 






(husbandman) 


Hurst 


W. B. L 


Maynard 


Thomas 


Hurst 


A. 


Mayowe 


James 


FonthiU 


W. 


Meadcalfe 


Michell 


Ramsbury 


I. 


Meade 


Nicholas 


Beckhampton 


A/c. 


Meade 


Timothy 


Mere 


W. L 


Meatyard 


Martin 


Ansty 


A. 


Mellodge 


John (clothier) 


South Damerham 


W. 


Merewerder 


William 


Asserton, Berwick St, 
James 


. W. 


Merret 


Agnes 


Bulkington 


W. I. 


Merriot 


Robert 


Bishop's Cannings 


A. 


Mervin 


Margery (widow) New Sarum 


W. 


Meryweather 


Alice 


Great Cheverell 


I . 


Mew 


John 


Little Bedwyn 


W. 


Michell 


Joan (widow) 


Bishop's Cannings 


W. 


Michell 


John 


Tisbury 


A/c. 


Millard 


William 


Holt 


A. 


Milles 


Andrew 


Avebury 


A/c. 


Milles als 


Edmond 


Broad Hinton 


A/c. 


kSaunders 








Milles 


Erasmus 




T. 


Milles 


John 


Amesbury 


A/c. 


Milles 


John th' elder 


Barford St. Martin 


A/c. 


Milles 


X'pher 


Quidhampton 


I. 


Mogge 


Edith 


Upton Lovel 


W. 


Moncke 




Bradford 


W. 


Money 


Richard 


Hurst 


A/c. 


Montague 


Henry 


Wokingham 


W. L 


Montague 


John 


Tisbury 


W. L 


Montegewe 


Walter 


Dinton 


W. 


Moody 


John 


Upton Lovel 


W. 


Modye 


Richard 


Durnford 


I. 


Moore 


Edward 


Maiden Bradley 


W.A. L 


Moore 


Jacob 


Marlborough 


W. 


Moore 


Richard 


Potterne 


W. 


Moore 


Roger 


Heytesbury 


A/c. I. 


Moore 


X'pher 


Chilmark 


I. 


Moreing 


Grace 


New Sarum 


A/c. I. 


Morem 


James 


New Sarum 


I. 


Mooren 


James 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Mooryer 


Joan 


Broughton Gifford 


W. Dep. 


Mors 


Henry 


New Sarum 


A. 


Morse 


Robert th'elder, Burbage 


W. 




(husbandman) 






Mortymer 


Elizabeth (widow) Calne 


Ren. 


Mullens 


John 


Charlton, Donhead 
St. Mary 


I. 



56 



WtUsldre Wills, etc. 



1792 


Munday 


Edmond 


Great Bedwyn 


A. L 


1696 


Munday 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1597 


Munday 


Richard 




A/c. 


1716 


Munday 


Roger 


Winterbourne Earls 


I. 


1670 


Mussell 


Jerome 


Little Langford 


I. 


1635 


Mychell 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1634 


Mylam 


Richard (clerk) Wokingham 


W. L 


1600 


Myles 


John 


Keevil 


W. L 


1596 


Myles 


Thomas 


Wokingham 


A/c. 


1596 


Mvlls 


James 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1586 


Myllys 


Bernard 


New Sarum 


A. 


1575 


Mylward 


Geffray 


Hurst 


I. 


1556 


Myntye 


Richard 


Lavington Epi. 


W. 


1606 


Mysham 


Gabriel (mercei 


') Chippenham 


W. 


1634 


Nashe 


William 


Bishop's Cannings 


W. Dep 


1585 


Neale 


Elizabeth 




I. 


1770 


Neate 


Francis 


Sherston Magna 


W. 


1613 


Newe 


John 


Little Bedwyn 


W. 


1632 


Newe 


Silvester 


Great Bedwyn 


A. L 


1620 


Newe 


Thomas 


Sutton Mandeville 


A/c. 


1597 


Newe 


William 


Chisenbury 


A/c. 


1744 


Newhook 


Francis 


ToUard Royal 


A/c. 


1723 


Newman 


Elias (grocer) 


Calne 


W. 


1760 


Newman 


John 


Sherrington 


A/c. I. 


1615 


Newman 


Nicholas 


Downton 


A/c. 


1612 


Newman 


Robert 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1593 


Newman 


William 


Charlton 


W.I. 


1594 


Nicholas 


Ahce (widow) 


Calne 


Dep. I. 


1636 


Nicholas 


William 


Calne 


I. 


1682 


Nicols 


Mary (widow) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1601 


Noble 


Agnes 


Melksham 


W. L 


1601 


Noble 


Henry 


Edington 


A.I. 


1782 


Noke 


Ehzabeth 


Veny Sutton 


W. 


1550 


Norborne 


Humphrey 


Bremhill 


W. 


1670 


Norman 


Robert 


Bishop's Cannings 


I. 


1586 


North 


John th'elder 


Burbage 


I. 


1724 


Northover 


William 


Stapleford 


A. L 


1718 


Norton 


Samuel 


Hindon 


A. 


1717 


Norton 


Samuel junior 


Hindon 


I. 


1585 


Nott 


John th'elder 


Bishop's Cannings 


I. 


1639 


Notting 


WilHam 




L 


1617 


Noyes 


George 


East Grafton 


I. 


1614 


Noyes 


Hugh 


Downton 


A/c. 


1724 


• Noyes 


James 


Quidhampton 


A. 


1624 


Noyes 


Jane 


Great Bedwin 


W. L 


1639 


Noyes 


Mary 


Charlton, Downton 


W. 


1721 


Noyes 


Robert 


North Tidworth 


A. 


1554 


Noyes 


Thomas 


Great Bedwyn 


W. 


1670 


Noyes 


Thomas 


Wedhampton 


W. L 


1676 


Noyes 


Thomas 


Fulway 


A/c. 


1766 


Oake 


Anne (widow) 


New Sarum 


W. 


1680 


Oake 


William (weaver) New Sarum 


A/c. I. 


1619 


Oborne 


Thomas 


Tisbury 


A/c. 


1641 


Oddell 


Edward 


New Sarum 


I. 


1674 


Odye 


Joane 


Christian Malford 


A/c. 


1680 


Oke 


William 


New Sarum 


L 



By C. 11. Everett 



57 



Okeston 


John 


Coulston 


W. 


Olden 


Thomas 


Rushall 


A. 


Oldfield 


Dorothie 


Nethermore, 
Chippenham. 


A/c. 


Oran 


Robert 




A/c. 


Osborne 


Thomas 


Ramsbury 


A/c. 


Osborne 




Tisbury 


A/c. 


Ovens 


Arthur 


Hilmarton 


W. 


Page 


George 


New Sarum 


I. 


Paine 


Henry 
(husbandman) 


Bay don 


I. 


Paine 


John 


Tilshead 


A/c. I. 


Paine 


John 


Tilshead 


I. 


Paine 


Robert 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


A/c. 


Palmer 


John 


Calne 


I. 


Palmer 


John (yeoman) 


Combe 


I. 


Palmer 


John senior, 
(tanner) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Palmer 


Richard 


Forest of Savernake 


W.I. 


Palmer 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


Panter 


Walter 


Trowbridge 


W. 


Pardew 


John 


Orcheston St. Mary 


I. 


Parham 


Robert 




I. 


Parker 


Edward (gent) 


Great Wishford 


I. 


Parker 


Edward 


New Sarum 


A. 


Parker 


Ehzabeth 


Whiteparish 


I. 


Parker 


John 


Bremhill 


A/c. 


Parker 


John 


Knoyle Magna 


I. 


Parker 


Roger 


Whiteparish 


A. I. 


Parkes 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Parry 


Thomas 


Ogborne St. Andrew 


I. 


Parsons 


John 


Savernake 


A/c. 


Parsons als 


John 


Sedgehill 


A/c. 


Frowde 








Patey 


Timothy 


Purton 


A/c. I. 


Patie als Clark Jane 


Calne 


A. I. 


Paty als Clark 


William 


Calne 


I. 


Pavie 


John 


Stapleford 


I. 


Paviour 


William 


Westbury 


W. 


Pavy 


Joane (widow) 


Bremhill 


W. 


Pavy 


Thomas 


Plaitford 


I. 


Pavye 


Andrew 


Great Durnford 


A/c. 


Payne 


Edmund 


Berwick St. John 


I. 


Payne 


John 


Tilshead 


I. 


Pearce 


Elizabeth 


Ramsbury 


W. Inter. 


Pearce 


William 


Potterne 


W. 


Pearman 


Harry 


Knoyle 


I. 


Pearman 


John 


Knoyle 


W. A. I. 


Pearse 


Thomas 


Ramsbury 


A. A/c. I. 


Pearson 


Augustine 


Stapleford 


I. 


Penicote 


Thomas (clerk) 


Barford St. Martin 


I. 


Penny 


Alexander (tan' 


r)New Sarum 


I. 


Penny 


Hester 


Boy ton 


I. 


Penny 


Roger 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Perman 




Mere 


A/c. 


Perry 


Dorothy (widow) Mere 


W. 


Phillips als 


George 


Great Bedwyn 


W.I. 


Sweeper 


(husbandman) 





58 



Wiltshire Wilis, etc. 



1724 


Phillips 


Richard 


Fonthill Gifford 


A. 


1600 


Philips alsWebbRichard 


Amesbury 


A/c. 


1678 


Philpot 


Joane 


New Sarum 


I. 


1633 


Phipps 


Alice (widow) 


Durnford 


I. 


1712 


Pickett 


Roger 


Escott 


I. 


1631 


Pierce 


Ann (widow) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1621 


Pierson als 

Vargense 


Catherine 


Bapton, Fisherton 
de la Mere 


W.I. 


1586 


Pies 


William 


Great Bedwyn 


I. 


1624 


Pike 


John 


Little Bedwyn 


W. I. 


1619 


Pike 


Richard 


Whitley. Melksham 


A/c. 


1763 


Pike 


Richard (wheel- Milford 


W. 






Wright) 






1588 


Pike 


William 


Great Bedwyn 


A.I. 


1593 


Pildren 


Alice 


West Grimstead 


W. L 


1637 


Pilson 


William 


Mere 


A/c. 


1633 


Pinchen 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1613 


Pine 


Philip 


New Sarum 


I. 


1614 


Pine 


Phihp (brewer" 


) New Sarum 


A/c. 


1674 


Pines 


Thomas 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


1674 


Pinnell 


Henry 


Bremhill 


A/c. 


1573 


Piper 


John 


Great Bedwyn 


I. 


1639 


Pithouse 


Edmond 


Ogborne St. George 


W.I. 


1623 


Pitman 


Arthur 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1554 


Pix 


Robert 


West Bedwyn 


W. 


1620 


Plancke 


William 


Lavington 


I. 


1792 


Plank 


Edward 


Devizes 


W. 






(husbandman) 




1633 


Planner 


Henry 


Wokingham 


A.I. 


1633 


Planner 


Jerome 


Wokingham 


W.I. 


1540 


Player 


John 


Winsley 


I. 


1668 


Pleydell 


Walter 


Minety 


W. 


1637 


Plott 


Adham 


Burbage 


A/c. 


1682 


Plumer 


Francis 


Ramsbury 


A/c.] 


1718 


Plumer 


Edith 


Ramsburv 


I. 


1737 


Pococke 


Katherine 
(widow) 


Mildenhail 


W. 


1556 


Pole 


Richard 


Poole Keynes 


A. 


1679 


Pollowne 


Thomas 


Figheldean 


I. 


1676 


Ponting 


Robert 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


1722 


Ponton 


William 


Warminster 


A. 


1722 


Pool 


John 


Up a von 


A.I. 


1597 


Poole als Baker John 


Studley, Calne 


A. 


1677 


Poore 


Elizabeth 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1619 


Poore 


Mary (widow) 


Swallowcliffe 


I. 


1631 


Pope 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1587 


Pope 


Margaret (widow) Bishop's Cannings 


A. 


1622 


Pope 


Mary 


Bradford 


A. 


1596 


Porcher 


John 


Sutton Mandeville 


W.I. 






(husbandman) 




1550 


Porter 


Robert 


Marlborough 


W. 


1599 


Porter als Soper 


Great Bedwyn 


A/c. 


1621 


Poton 


George 


New Sarum 


I. 


1675 


Pottecary 


Edward 


Boyton 


I. 


1677 


Potter 


Ahce 


Ogbourne St. George 


A/c. 


1761 


Potter 


Joseph (mariner) New Sarum 


W. 


1637 


Potter 


Thomas 


Ogbourne St. George 


W.I. 


1649 


Pottinger 


Gregory 


Baynton (Coulston) 


Dep. 


1590 


Poynter 


Edith (widow) 


Miiston 


W. 


1580 


Poynter 


John 


Milston 


W. 



By C. R. Everett. 



59 



Povey 


John 




I. 


Powell 


Robert 


Bradford 


A/c. I. 


Power 


Isaac 


West Kington 


A/c. 


Prater 


John 





I. 


Prater 


William 


Whitley, Calne 


W. 


Presslej^ 


Henry 


Bishopstone 


A/c. 


Preston 


William 


Kingston Deverill 


W. 


Prince 


Henry 


Martin 


A/c. 


Pryor 


Robert 


Erlestoke 


A. 


Pryor 


Thomas 


Heytesbury 


A.I. 


Pyckerine 


John 


Bradford 


I. 


Pvke 


Mary 


Little Bedwyn 


A/c. 


Pyke 


Thomas 


Pewsey 


W. 


Pyke 


William 


Great Bedwyn 


I. 


Pytcher 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. I. 


Pytman 


Thomas 


Mere 


I. 


Pyne 


Thomas 


Wilton 


A/c. 


Rabbatt 


Henry 


Tollard Royal 


A. 


Rabbit 


- 




W. 


Randall 




New Sarum 


A/c. 


Randall 


Alice 


Nettleton 


W. 


Randall 


Henry 


Netherhampton 


A/c. 


Randall 


John 


West Codford 


W. 


Randall als Cox Thomas 


Cricklade 


W. Inter. 


Rastye 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


Rattew 


Thomas 


Durnford 


I. 


Rattue 


George 


New Sarum 


W. 


Rawlinge 


William 


Idmiston (?) 


W. 


Rawlins 





Fisherton 


I. 


Rayborne 


Robert 


Burbage 


I. 


Rayland 


William 


Bishopstone 


I. 


Raysse als 


William 


West Bedwyn 


w. 


Knowls 








Read 


Edward 


Amesbury 


A. 


Read 


Robert 


Colerne 


W. 


Reade 


Roger (clerk) 


Rodbourne Cheney 


A. 


Rebbeck 


Roger 


Wootton Rivers 


W. 


Rebbeck 


Roger 


Wootton Rivers 


I. 


Rebecke 


Thomas 


Bapton, Fisherton de 
la Mere 


I. 


Recks 


PhiHp 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


Redman 


Catherine 


East Harnham 


W. 


Redman 


Robert (lab'rer) Etchilhampton 


W. 


Rendell 


Wilham 


North Bradley 


I. 


Reene 


Henry 


Calne 


I. 


Reene 


Henry 


Calne 


A/c. 


Reeve 


Ruth" 


Dauntsey 


A/c. 


Reeve 


WiUiam 


Calstone 


A/c. 


Reeves 


Elizabeth (sp'tr) Enford 


A. 


Reeves 


John 


Enford 


A. 


Reeves als 

Jarves 
Reeves 


Margaret 


Wilsford 


W. 


Thomas 


Chitterne 


A. B. 


Rewe 


Henry 


Calne 


A. 


Reynolds 


Jane 





I. 


Reynolds 


Samuel 


North Bradley 


I. 


Reynolds 


Thomas 


Ramsbury 


A/c. 


Reynolds 


William 


Oaksey 


Declar. 


Ricard 


William 


Chute 


A. I. 



60 




WtltHhire Wil 


/s, etc. 




1630 


Rich 


Kathren 


Berwick Bassett 


I. 


1665 


Rich 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1542 


Richard 


John 


Bradford 


I. 






(husbandman) 




1600 


Richarde 


John 


Edington 


W. I. 


1606 


Richarde 


Jone (widow) 


Brokenborough 


W. 


1703 


Richards 


Timothy 


Lacock 


I. 


1557 


Richardson 


William (clerk) 


West Dean 


w. 


1585 


Richman 


Thomas 


Colerne 


A. 


1606 


Richwell als 
Hancock 


Thomas 


Wroughton 


W. 


1614 


Ring 


Edward 


Bishopstone 


A/c. 


1724 


Ring 


John 


Seend 


A.I. 


1620 


Ringe 


X'pher 


Broadchalke 


A/c. 


1627 


Rixe 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


1638 


Robbins 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1635 


Robbins 


Walter 


Calne 


I. 


1615 


Roberts 


Stephen (Vicar) 


Dinton 


A/c. 


1556 


Robyns 


Thomas 


Hullavington 


W. 


1621 


Rodway als 

Legg 


William 


Limpley Stoke 


A/c. 


1539 


Rogers 


Anthony 


Bradford 


W. I. 


1669 


Rogers 


Henry (minister) Heddington 


I. 


1622 


Rogers 


Hugh 


Corsley 


w. 


1542 


Rogers 


John 


Bradford 


w. 


1613 


Rogers als 
Cooper 


Richard 


New Sarum 


A/c. I 


1705 


Rolfe 


Grace 


Figheldean 


I. 


1533 


Romsey 


John 


Melksham 


W. 


1585 


Rooke 


Hugh 


Bishop's Cannings 


I. 


1766 


Rose 


Henry 


Marlborough 


I. 


1618 


Rose 


• WilHam 


New Sarum 


I. 


1709 


Rose 


William 


Whiteparish 


I. 


1583 


Rouse 


William 





I. 


1619 


Rowden 


Allen 


Steeple Langford 


A/c. 


1681 


Rowden 


John 


Bramshaw 


I. 


1758 


Rowden 


John 


Bishopstone 


A/c. I 


1554 


Rudge 


Richard 


Laverstock 


W. 






(husbandman) 




1717 


Ruming 


James (malster 


) Hilperton 


I. 


1629 


Rumsey 


Edmund 


Collingbourne Ducis 


A.I. 


1537 


Rumsey 


John (weaver) 


Marlborough 


W. 


1634 


Rumsie 


Myles 


Great Bedwyn 


W. I. 


1687 


Russall 


Christopher 


New Sariim 


A. 


1674 


Russe 


Walter 


Christian Malford 


A/c. 


1762 


Rutt 


Richard 


Devizes 


A/c. I 


1615 


Ryalls 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1541 


Saddlere 


Thomas 


Fisherton Anger 


W. 


1680 


Safe 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


1770 


Sahsbury 


Thomas 


Westbury 


A. 


1628 


Samways 


Simon 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1619 


Sandell 


Robert 


Stourton 


A/c. 


1671 


Sandell 


William 


Dinton 


I. 


1554 


Sanders 


Gregory 


Chilmark 


W. 


1664 


Saunders 


Richard 


Downton 


I. 


1627 


Saunders als 
Milles 


Edmond 


Broad Hinton 


A/c. 


1621 


Sanger 


Thomas 


Berwick St. John 


A/c. 



By C. R. Everett. 



61 



Sanger 


William • 


Tisbury 


W. A. I 


Saph 


Elizabeth 


Stapleford 


W. 


Saplin 


Richard 


New Sarum 


I. 


Savadge 


John 


Great Bedwyn 


A.I. 


Savage 


John th' elder 


Little Bedwyn 


W. 


Sawyer 


John (yeoman) 


Easton 


A.I. 


Scamal 


Humphry 


Durnford 


I. 


Scamell 


Thomas 


Ebbesborne 


I. 


Scott 


Thomas 


Chilmark 


I. 


Scott 


Walter 


Chippenham 


I. 


Scrill 


William 


Box 


A/c. I. 


Seale 


Robert (inn- 
holder) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Scaplehorne 




Fittleton 


A/c. 


Seiner 


William (gent) 


Laverstock 


W. 


Sellwood 


Thomas (yeom'n) New Sarum 


W. 


Semor 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


Senyer 


Ann (widow) 


New Sarum 


w. 


Sergant 


Thomas 


Manning's Hill 
(Bowood ?) 


I. 


Servant 


Thomas 


Calne 


A/c. 


Servington 


George 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Sevier als 


Nicholas 


Knoyle Magna 


A/c. 


Williams 








Sevior 


Thomas 


Martin 


I. 


Shadwell 


Thomas 


Burbage 


W. 


Shadwell 


William 


Great Bedwyn 


A/c. 


Shafflin 


Nicholas 


Corslev 


A. 


Shaill 


Nicholas (taylor)Homington 


I. 


Shefford 


Hamlett 


Wokingham 


A/c. 


Shelly 


Charles 


The Close, Sarum 


A. 


Shepard 


John 


Milton 


A. 


Shepard 


John 


Mere 


W. A. L 


Shepherd 


Ann 


Melksham 


W.I. 


Shepherd 


John (cooper) 


Mere 


W. 


Shergall 


John 


Stratford Tony 


A/c. 


Shergall 


Thomas 


Broad Chalke 


A/c. 


Shergell 


Agnes (widow) 


Wedhampton 


I. 


Shergold 


Thomas 


Broad Chalke 


I. 


ShergoU 





Urchfont 


W. 


Shilton 


Alexander 


Stanton Fitz Warren 


A/c. 


Shoard 


John 


Maiden Bradley 


W. 


Shoard 


John 


Maiden Bradley 


Citation 


Shoard 


John 


Maiden Bradley 


W. 


Short 


John (yeoman) 


Martin 


I. Inter. 


Shurley 


George 


Chippenham 


A.Citatn 


Sidnor 


John 


North Bradley 


A. 


Silvester 


lone 


Lacock 


W. 


Silvester als 


Thomas 


Lacock 


W. 


Davis 


(yeoman) 






Simes 


Hugh 


Bramshaw 


Dep. 


Simkins 


Francis 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Simmonds 


Catherine 


New Sarum 


A/c. T. 


Simpson als 


(widow) 


Wilton 


W. 


Greye 








Sirwen 


John 


Easton 


W. 


Skannell 


Alice (widow) 


Tisbury 


W.I. 


Skannell 


Mary (widow) 


Tisbury 


w. 


Skuse 


Edmund 


South Newton 


A. I. 


Skynner 


Alexander 


West Bedwyn 


W. 



62; 



Wiltsliire Wills, dc. 



1572 


Slaughter 


Walter 


Calne 


I. 


1674 


Sloper 


John 


Little Somerford 


A/c. 


1661 


Sloper 


William 


Titcombe 


A. 


1619 


Smalewell 


John 


North Bradley 


A/c. 


1683 


Smart als 
Coventry 


Ann 


Lydiard Millicent 


A. 


1704 


Smart 


John 


Pitton 


A. 


1669 


Smedmore 


John (gent) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1676 


Smith 


Christopher 


Woodborough 


A/c. 


1676 


Smith 


John 


Heddington 


A/c. 


1684 


Smith 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


1685 


Smith 


John 


Swindon 


W. 


1695 


Smith 


Mary (widow) 


Allington 


W. 


1684 


Smith 


Matthew 


Durnford 


I. 


1551 


Smith 


Robert 


Chippenham 


w. 


1675 


Smith 


Roger th' elder, 
(yeoman) 


, Aldbourne 


w. 


1675 


Smith 


Stephen 


Calne 


I. 


1635 {oir.) 


Smith 


Thomas 


East Overton 


A/c. 


1630 


Smith 


Thomas 


Wylye 


I. 


1635 


Smith 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


1550 


Smythe 


John 


Bradford 


w. 


1554 


Smythe als 
Baker 


John 




w. 


1679 


Smythe 


Peter 


Manningford Bruce 




1557 


Smythe 


Robert 


Chippenham 


w. 


1554 


Smythe 


Thomas 


Devizes 


w. 


1564 


Snelgar 


Thomas 


Venv Sutton 




1610 


Soane 


Joan (spinster) Wokingham 


w. 


1587 


Someldon 


Robert th'elder Britf ord 




1573 


Somerford als 
Somers 


Walter 


Calne 




1573 


Somers als 
Somerford 


Walter 


Calne 




1680 


Sommers 


Roger 


Calne 




1688 


Somner 


Christopher 


Steeple Ashton 




1609 


Sonton 


Thomasine 
(widow) 


Downton 


w. 


1593 


Sope 


Margaret 


Maddington 


I. 


1599 


Soper als Porter 


Great Bedwyn 


A/c. 


1672 


Sot well als 
Baron 


Emma 


Britford 


A. 


1620 


Southock 


Anthony 


Wilton 


A/c. 


1557 [cir.) 


Sowton 


Elizabeth 


Netheravon 


W. 


1596 


Sparke 


Margery 


Wilton 


W. 


1570 


Spelt 


John 





I. 


1787 


Spencer 


Emma 


Malmesbury 


A. 


1806 


Spencer 


George 


Tisbury 


I. 


1573 


Spencer 


Richard 


Horningsham 


I. 


1793 


Spragg 


Edward 


Alderbury 


I. 


1646 


Sprignewell 




New Sarum 


I. 


1593 


Spuringer 


John 


Downton 


I. 


1767 


Stagg 


Thomas (yeom'n) Easton 


A.I. 


1820 


Stanford 


James 


East Harnham 


W. 


1556 


Stanner 


William 


Preshute 


W. 


1585 


Stanter 


William 


Horningsham 


I. 


1775 


Staples 


Elizabeth 
(malster) 


New Sarum 


W. 


1632 


Stavely 


Christopher 


Hurst 


A/c. 


1718 


Stent 


John 


West Harnham 


R. 



By G. R. Everett. 



63 



Stephens 


Richard 


Patney 


A. 


Stephens 


William 


Donhead St. Andrew 


W.I. 


Stepto 


Alexander 


Wokingham 


A/c. 


Stevens 


Christian (widow) Alton Priors 


W. 


Stevens 


Grace 


East Harnham 


I. 


Stevens 


James 


Kemble 


I. 


Stevens 


John 


New Sarum 


A. I. 


Stevens 


John (tallow 
chandler) 


New Sarum 


I. 


Stevens 


Philip 


Corsley 


I. 


Stile 


Thomas 


Durnford 


I. 


Stiles 


William 


Lacock 


I. 


Stockden 


Richard (vicar 


Chirton 


A/c. 


Stokes 


Christian 


Titherton Lucas 


W. 


Stokes 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Stokes 


John 


Downton 


W. 


Stokes 


Nicholas 


Warminster 


I. 




(husbandman) 




Stokes 


William 


Seend 


W. 


Stokes 


William 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Stone 


Martin 


East Knoyle 


I. 


Stratton 


Edward th'elderMelksham 


I. 


Stratton 


John 


Brinkworth 


A/c. 


Street 


Benjamin jun. 


Devizes 


W. A/c 


Street 


Ehzabeth 


Durnford 


I. 


Street 


John 


New Sarum 


I. 


Street 


Mary (widow) 


Martin 


W. A. 


Stretch 


George 


Avebury 


Dep. 


Stride 


Walter 


Baverstock 


I. 


Stride 


William 


Downton 


A. 


Strong 


John 


Knoyle 


A. 


Strugnell 


John 


Upton Lovel 


A. 


Stump 


Richard 


Bromham 


I. 


Styell 


Susan (widow) 


Horningsham 


W. I. 


Style 


John 


Horningsham 


I. 


Suison 


Christopher 


Mere 


I. 


Sumpson 


Humfry 


Calne 


I. 


Swaine 


John 


Durnford Magna 


A. 


Swayne 


Clement 


Wokingham 


W. A. 


Sweeper als 


George 


Great Bedwyn 




Phillips 


(husbandman) 


W.I. 


Swift 


John 


Boy ton 


A. 


Swift 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


I. 


Sydeat 


John (clerk) 


Corsham 


W. 


Symes 


Richard 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Symmes 


Henry 


Maddington 


I. 


Symmes 


Henry 


Newton 


I. 


Symmerset 


William 


Bedwjm 


W. 


Symons 


Robert 


Burbage 


A. I. 


Tabers 


Anne (widow) 


Dinton 


A. 


Taber 


Anne 


Dinton 


I. 


Taber 




Dinton 


A/c. 


Tailor 


John 


Bishopstone 


W. I. 


Tailor als 


Thomas 


Tilshead 


A. I. 


Wolsford 








Talbot 


Anthony 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Talbot 


Stephen 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Tanner 


Elizabeth 


Great Bedwyn 


W.I. 



64 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1750 


Tanner 


John 


Fuggleston 


A/c.I 


1751 


Tanner 


John 


Fuggleston 


A/c. I. 


1679 


Tanner 


William 




A/c. 


1670 


Tapp 


Robert 


Hannington 


W. 


1676 


Tarrant 


William 


Milton 


A/c. 


1696 


Tayler 


Eleanor 


New Sarum 


I. 


1680 


Taylor 


James 


Langley Burrell 


A/c. 


1669 


Taylor 


John 


Calne 


I. 


1675 


Taylor 


John 




A/c. 


1676 


Taylor 


Margaret 

(spinster) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1633 


Taylor 


Thomas 


Calne 


I. 


1600 


Taylor als 
Wormestall 


William 


Patney 


W, I. 


1595 


Thomas 


Richard 


North Bradley 


I. 


1667 


Thompson 


Henry 


New Sarum 


I. 


1636 


Thomson 


Ralph (yeo.) 


Hurst 


I. 


1686 


Thomson 


Richard 


Woodford 


I. 


1564 


Thorne 


Agnes 


Martin 


I. 


1590 


Thring 


Thomas 


North Hinton 


w. 


1721 


Thurman 


John 


Collingbourne 
Kingston 


W.Ac. 
Dep. 


1632 


Tillinge 


John th' elder 


Seend 


W. 


1715 


Tinham 


Joseph (cloth- 
worker) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1831 


Titt 


William 


Chitterne All Saints 


I. 


1623 


Todd 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1677 


Tomson 


Robert 


Hankerton 


A/c. 


1557 


Topp 


William 


Heytesbury 


W. A. 


1712 


Toogood 


Joan 


Wilton 


W. 


1700 


Toogood 


Joan 


Wilton 


A/c. 


1639 


Toogood 


Robert 


Mere 


A/c. 


1597 


Toogood 


William 


Mere 


A/c. 


1542 


Tor 


Thomas 


Upton Lovel 


I. 


1585 


Townsend 


George 


Sevenhampton 


A.I. 


1606 


Townsend 


Thomas 


Heddington 


W. 






(husbandman) 




1629 


Townsend 


Walter 


Calne 


I. 


1610 


Trippocke 


John 


Berwick St. John 


I. 


1730 


Troke 


Debora 


New Sarum 


I. 


1553 


Troppnell 


Elnor. (widow) 





W. 


1675 


Tuck 


Adam 


Mildenhall 


A/c. 


1680 


Tuck als 
Bodington 


John 


Hilmarton 


A/c. 


1617 


Turgy 


Joan 


New Sarum 


I. 


1675 


Turk 


Richard 


WhitejDarish 


I. 


1675 


Turke 


Joan (spinster) 


Lydiard Tregoze 


W. 


1676 


Turke 


John 


Huish 


A/c. 


1669 


Turker 


Edward 


Devizes 


A/c. 


1614 


Turker 


Walter 


Bradford 


A/c. 


1732 


Turner 


Christopher 


Etchilhampton 


I. 


1739 


Turner 


Elizabeth 




I. 


1580 [cir.) 


Turner 


Humfrey 




A/c. 


1564 


Turner 


John 


Great Knovle 


I. 






(husbandman) 




1684 


Turner 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1596 


Turner 


William 


Great Knoyle 


A. 


1617 


Tuskye 


Margaret 


Warminster 


W. 


1668 


Tutt 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1563 


Tutte 


John 


Codford St. Peter 


I. 



By G. R. Everett. 



65 



Twogood Elizabeth Deverill Longbridge W. 

Tychborne Thomas (gent) New Sarum I. 

Tydcombe Peter th' elder Calne I. 

Tyler Margaret (widow) Calne A. 

Tynnye John Calne W. 

(husbandman) 

Tytt Robert SedgehiU W. 



Upton 



John 



Burbage 



All. 



1581 


Vaughan 


Roger (esquire) New Sarum 


I. 


1621 


Vargense als 
Pierson 


Catherine 


Bapton, Fisherton 
de la Mere 


W.I. 


1634 


Vennard 


William (gent) 


Calne 


W.I. 

Inter. 
I. 


1622 


Verman 


Francis 


New Sarum 


1625 


Very 


Thomas 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1686 


Vesy 


John 


Bromham 


I. 


1704 


ViUett 


John (gent) 


Swindon 


W. A. I 


1615 


Vincent 


Barbara 


Fovant 


A/c. 


1540 


Vincent 


Robert 




I. 


1581 


Vindell 


Elizabeth 


Edington 


W. 


1652 


Vine 


Christopher 


New Sarum 


I. 


1682 


Viner 


Jane (spinster) 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1737 


Vines 


Robert 




W. 


1587 


Vivashe 


Alice (widow) 


Bishop's Cannings 


A. I. 


1639 


Vurnsey 


Isaac 


Calne 


A/c. 


1610 


Vyncent 


Thomas 


Fovant 


I. 


1809 


Waine 


W— 


Latton 


A/c. I. 


1616 


Wake 


Thomas 


Alvediston 


A/c. 


1704 


Waldron 


Moses 


Brooke, Co. Wilts. 


I. 


1627 


Wallis 


John 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1721 


Wallon 


Robert 


Hindon 


A. R. 


1671 


Walshe 


John 


East Harnham 


A. 


1620 


Walter 


Francis 


Barford St. Martin 


A/c. 


1675 


Wansborough 


William (grocer) New Sarum 


A/c. 


1639 


Warde 


Alice 


Easton Grey 


W. 


1672 


Ward 


Edward 


Fisherton Anger 


I. 


1722 


Ward . 


Sarah (spinster) Enford 


A. 


1713 


Warman 


John 


Chisledon 


A. 


1676 


Wastfield 


Thomas 


Corsham 


A/c. 


1687 


Wastfield 


Walter 


Christian Malf ord 


A/c. 


1687 


Waters 


Edward 


Durnford 


I. 


1663 


Waters 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


!l735 


Waters 


William 


Durnford 


I. 


1677 


Watson 


Edward 


Bowerchaike 


I. 


1552 


Watson 


John 


Coulston 


W. 


1593 


Watt 


Richard 


West Grimstead 


W. 


1600 


Webb 


Catterene 


Figheldean 


A/c. 


1610 


Webb 


Christopher 


CherhiU (?) 


W. 


1594 


Webb 


Ehzabeth 


Bradford 


I. 


1590 


Webb 


George 


Barford St. Martin 


W.I. 


1559 


Webb 


James 


Devizes 


w. 


1770 


Webb 


Jane (widow) 


Warminster 


R. 


1600 


Webb als 
Phillips 


Richard 


Amesbury 


A/c. 


1615 


Webb 


Roger 


Downton 


A/c. 


IirOL. XLV.- 


—NO. CLII. 






F 



66 



Wiltshire Wills, etc. 



1637 


Webster 


Robert (clerk) 


New Sarum 


I. 


1685 


Weeb 


Robert 


Calne 


I. 


1677 


Weekes 




Donhead St. Mary 


A/c. 


1722 


Weekes 


Mary 


Odstock 


A. 


1556 


Welshe 


John 


Broadchalke 


A. 


1697 


Welsted 


Margaret 


Calne 


A. 


1634 


West 


Anne 


Netheravon 


W. 


1632 


West 


Ann 


Netheravon 


W. 


1770 


West 


Oswald 


Ebbesborne 


A/c. I. 


1707 


Weston 


George 


Winterbourne Stoke 


I. 


1733 


Wharton 


Andrew (carrier) Wootton Bassett 


I. Alleg 


1593 


Wheeler als 


John 


Bodenham 






Carpenter 




Nunton 


B. 


1593 


Wheler 


John 


North Bradley 


A. 


1614 


Whelply 


Thomas (fuller) 


Westbury 


I. 


1580 


Whetbredd 


Stephen 


Charlton 


A. 


1773 


Whicher 


John 




A/c. 


1634 


White 


Elizabeth (widow) Ramsbury 


W. 


1596 


White 


Henry 


Maiden Bradley 


A. I. 


1737 


White 


Isaac 


Bradford 


W. 


1648 


White 


Jeffery 


Hurst 


A. I. 


1675 


White 


John 


Highworth 


A/c. 


1638 


White 


Joseph 


Calne 


I. 


1788 


White 


Matthew 


New Sarum 


W. 


1674 


White 


Moses 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1721 


White 


Roger th' elder 


Upton Scudamore 


A. I. 


1586 


White 


Thomas th'elderMere 


A.I. 


1721 


Whitehart 


William 


Dinton 


A. 


1554 


Whitehors 


Thomas 


Calne 


W, 


1721 


Whiteing 


Richard 


Coulston 


A. 


1585 


Whithorne 


Thomas 


Nether Woodford 


A. I. 






(husbandman) 




1613 


Whitway 


George 


Burbage 


W.I. 






(husbandman) 




1639 


Whiteway 


William 


Great Bedwyn 


A/c. 


1805 


Whitlock 


Joseph 


New Sarum 


A/c. I. 


1600 


Whitmarshe 


John 


Stratford Tony 


W. 


1704 


Whittaker 


William 
th' elder 


Bratton 


Dep. 


1718 


Whittock 


John 


Warminster 


W. 


1554 


Whytehorse 


John 


Calne 


W. 


1616 


Wickham 


Henry 


Warminster 


A/c. 


1586 


Widley 


William 


Bromham 


A. I. 


1557 


Widnam 


Richard 


Marlborough 


W. 


1627 


Wijjon 


Edith (widow) 


Great Bedwyu 


W.L 


1550 


Wilkins 


James 


North Bradley 


W. 


1601 


Wilkins als 
Coles 


Simon 




W. 


1678 


Willen 


Christopher 


Calne 


I. 


1621 


Willens 


William 


Warminster 


W.I. 






(husbandman) 




1627 


Willet 


John 


Orcheston St. George 


W.I. 


1635 


Williams als 
Carter 


Nicholas 


Durnford 


I. 


1625 


Williams als 
Sevier 


Nicholas 


Knoyle Magna 


A/c. 


1668 


Williams 


Ralph 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


1720 {dr.) 


Williams 


Richard 


Wick, Potterne 


I. 


1631 


Willis 


Joan 


Blackland 


A/c. 


1679 


Willis 


Nicholas 


Norton Bavant 


A/c. 



By C. R Everett. 



67 



Willoughbv 


William 




W. 


Wilsher 


Alexander 


Hilperton 


A/c. 


Wilshere 


Robert 


Bradford 


A/c. I 


Wilson 


Robert 


Hurst • 


A. I. 


Wilson 


William 


Mere 


A. I. 


Wilton 


William 


Warminster 


A/c. 


Windsor 


Nicholas 


Shrewton 


I. 


Wise 


John (yeoman) 


Dilton 


A. I. 


Witnam als 


Alice 




I. 


Bryannte 








Wobourne 


Robert 


Knoyle 


W. 


Woodhouse 


Elizabeth 




A/c. 


Woodland 


John 


Durnford 


I. 


Woodley 


Christian 
(widow) 


Urchfont 


W. 


Woodman 


John 


Devizes 


I. 


Woodward 


Joan 


Great Wishford 


A. 


Woodroffe 


Mary (widow) 


Orcheston St. Mary 


W. 


Wolsford als 


Thomas 


Tilshead 


A. I. 


Tailor 








Woolridge 


William 


New Sarum 


I. 


Woollson 


Rowland 


Chute 


W. 




(husbandman) 




Woolson 


Wilham 


Chute 


I. 


Wormestall ak 


, William 


Patney 


W.I. 


Taylor 








Woulworth 


Alexander 


Warminster 


W. 


Wright 


John 


Highworth 


W. 


Wrinche 


Wilham 


Semley 


W. 


Wryght 


William 


Wokingham 


I. 


Wyatt 


George 


New Sarum 


A/c. 


Wyatt 


Richard 


Amesbury 


A/c. 


Wyatt 


Zacharchias 


Calne 


I. 


Wyllis 


Beatrice (widow) New Sarum 


I. 


Wytten 


Elizabeth (widow) — — 


I. 


Yeamans 


Maryan (widow) 


I. 


Yeats 


Cornelius 


Salisbury 


R. 


Yeates 


Cornelius (clerk) 


R. 


Yennard 


William (gent) 


Calne 


W. 


Yeomans 


Weare 


Stourton 


A. R. 


Yew 


Jane 


Somerford Magna 


I. 


Young 


Clement 


Marlborough 


W. 


Young 


Jane (widow) 


Stratford 


W. 


Young 


Mary 


New Sarum 


W. 



[N.B. — A line after a name does not mean that it is the same as in the line 
above, but that it is unreadable in, or missing from, the manuscript.] 



-p. 40. Brown, Thos. for Tyneham read Lyneham. 
p. 41. Care, John th'elder /or Cowley read Corsley. 



F 2 



68 



THE SACRAMENTS WINDOW IN CRUDWELL CHURCH. 

By G. McN. Kushforth, F.SA. 

The Seven Sacraments window in the north aisle of Crudwell Church 
belongs to a group of 15th century windows in which the subject is treated 
in the same manner. Round a central figure of the Saviour displaying the 
Five Wounds are arranged pictures on a smaller scale representing the 
Seven Sacraments. In a recent number of 2^he Antiquaries Journal (Vol. 
ix., 1929, 83ff) * I discussed all the windows and the history of the design, 
but as it was thought that Wiltshire people might like to know more about 
the Crudwell window than has hitherto appeared in print, I have, at the 
request of (Janon Goddard, drawn up the following statement giving the 
results of my study. 

The window, which, like the glass, belongs to the 15th century, has four 
lights and a rectangular head, the cusped heads of each of the main lights 
being finished oflf above by a pair of small spandrel openings. Most of the 
Sacrament windows have an uneven number of lights {e.g.^ three or five), 
allowing a symmetrical arrangement of the subject. But at Crudwell there 
are four (as was also the case at Great Malvern), so that the Christ has to 
be set in the 3rd light, with four Sacraments on His right, two on His left, 
and one under His feet. When John Aubrey saw the window (about 166(') 
it was, he says, " entire" ; and though he does not describe it in detail, we 
owe to him the text of the inscription recording the donor, which is now 
lost.=^ When it was described by the well-known antiquary, T. D. Fosbroke, 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1801,^ it appears to have been practically 
in the condition in which we see it to-day, so that the losses are due, as 
usual, to the neglect of the 18th century. The glass has been releaded in 
recent times, and may now be regarded as reasonably safe. 

Ihe contents of the first light (from the left), which must have been 
Baptism and the Eucharist, have disappeared, and our illustration (Fig. 1) 
is therefore confined to the remaining three lights, giving the illusory im- 
pression of a three-light window with the Christ in the centre, which, as we 
have seen, was not the case. V\ ith regard to the formal part of the design, 
it may be noted that the canopies in the heads of the lights are enlivened 
by angels looking out from the openings, except in the one above the 
Saviour, which had to be diminished on account of the height of the figure. 
The canopies above the lower scenes are, as usual, much curtailed. The 
coloured backgrounds of the scenes were alternately blue and red. As a 
rule the alternation started with red (in the top left-hand scene), but here, 

^The Society is indebted to the Society of Antiquaries for the loan of the 
two blocks illustrating this paper. 

2 Aubrey & Jackson, Wiltshire Collections, (Devizes and London, 1862), 
p. 215. 

3 Vol. Ixxi., part 1 (1801), p. 22. See also Ixxvi.. pt. 1 (1806), p. 210. 



II. 



in. 



IV. 











. 1. Crudwell Church. The three eastern lio^hts of the Sacraments Window. 





1. 




11. 






i 

"" 1 




: .IM 


IfilMlf 


& 




mmm 


iBftisftf 






l|,^|ft^ 




3^^. 




;'it ^i0lm jtmc «KFIIk ^^^'^^^ '*'* 1 


^mfSmt^^^^^^!^^ ' 






9 






i 


1- ••ItC^ f 


3' ^^hS^BHHP'j^ ' 




L 


^feii 








m .0 i 


Wstn 


1: 'IIP 


^ 1: 


^im% 


m^a^m^^-sA 




, f 


wm 


wn^ 


|Hg| 


m^^ mimmm 


^^■^aagr-a^i^^L- #i>.«i[^^^«— 


■liiiikjniJi Mim 


w 


w ^mt«99^m ■ 




mmssi^'ss 


pj 






h 1 






is 


I'il 




iS 


^iP 


1 
1 
1 


m^m^'B 




1 




1 





Fig. 2. Doddiscombsleigh Church (Devon). The Sacraments Window, the 
modern central figure being replaced bj the corresponding one at Cadbury. 



The Sacraments Window in Crudwell Church. 69 

as may be seen from the 3rd light, it began with blue, this order being de- 
termined by the figure of the Saviour in that light. The colour of the back- 
ground was always " counterchanged " or contrasted with that of the garment 
of the principal figure in the scene, and here Christ's purple-pink mantle 
demanded blue as a contrast. The background is diapered with small 
rosettes, a pattern frequently found in 15th century glass {e.g,^ in Great 
Malvern Church). It is seen again with the red background at the top of 
light 11. The coloured backgrounds of the other scenes, in any case very 
small in extent, have mostly disappeared, or been made up with modern 
glass. 

Turning now to the description of the Sacrament scenes,* we may supply, 
in imagination, the lost Baptism and Eucharist from the most perfect Sac- 
rament window we possess, that at Doddiscombsleigh Church, in Devon- 
shire (Fig. 2). The surviving scenes at Crudwell are so close in design 
and composition to the corresponding ones at Doddiscombsleigh that we 
may feel some confidence in supposing that this was also the case with the 
two lost ones. At Doddiscombsleigh the picture of Baptism occupies 
the middle of the third light. On the right, the priest in surplice and 
stole holds the infant over the font while (on the left) the godparents, two 
men and a woman, place their right hands on its head and renounce the 
devil and all his works, or, perhaps, pronounce the name that is to be given 
to the child. Facing the priest, the parish cleric, in his ordinary dress, 
holds open the service book. The Eucharist is, as usual, represented by the 
Sacrifice of the Mass (only rarely, and never in glass, do we find the Com- 
munion of the faithful), the moment chosen being the elevation of the host. 
On the right is the altar, with the chalice and a small reredos of the Madonna, 
but no candlesticks. In front of it stands the priest in a red vestment, elevat- 
ing the wafer. Behind him kneels a clerk in a sleeveless surplice or rochet, 
holding a torch and lifting the edge of the chasuble, while another clerk, 
similarly vested, rings a bell hanging from an iron bracket. Between them 
kneels the congregation. 

So much for the designs which the two lost Sacraments at Crudwell may 
have followed. Turning now to the existing scenes in the window, the first, 
in the upper part of light IL, represents the Sacrament of Orders. The 
picture, very similar to that at Doddiscombsleigh, and appearing with vari- 
ations in other Sacrament windows, represents three candidates for the 
priesthood wearing the mass vestments (the chasubles are purple-pink, blue, 
and red)^ kneeling before the bishop (right, blue chasuble ; the head is 

^ The details of the Sarum rite in each case may be conveniently followed 
in W. Maskell's Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae (2nd edition, 
Oxford, 1882). 

^ It may be worth while to remind readers (1) that colours in glass may 
generally be recognised in ordinary photographs if it be remembered that 
red comes out dark, and blue light, secondary tints such as purple-pink 
being between the two ; (2) that the colours of vestments have as a rule no 
liturgical significance, as they depend on the general scheme and alternation 
of colours in the window. 



70 The Sacraments Windoiv in Crudwell Church. 

damaged) who, with his crozier in his left hand, extends his right towards 
them. Facing him is a chaplain in a fur almuce holding the lid of the chris- 
matory, while another in the background holds the open service-book. A 
third attendant (in blue) holds what seems to be a staff. Perhaps he is a 
verger. The moment chosen is, no doubt, that of the climax of the rite, when, 
after the vesting in the chasuble, theanointing of the hands, and the delivery 
of the chalice and paten, the bishop pronounces the words Accipe Spiritum 
Sanctum: quorum rem^iseritis peccata, etc. ("Receive the Holy Ghost: 
whosesoever sins thou dost remit," etc.). In the better preserved panel at 
Doddiscombsleigh the bishop places his hand on the head of the nearest 
candidate. Finally we notice at the bottom on the right a scroll inscribed 
Ucce Sacerdotiu(m) (*' Here is priesthood "). Sacrament windows generally 
have descriptive titles for each scene, but the introductory ecce is peculiar 
to Crudwell. 

The lower part of the light contains the fragmentary remains of Gon- 
Jimation. It may be restored in imagination from the complete panel at 
Doddiscombsleigh, where the design is reversed. At Crudwell the bishop 
(on the left) has nearly disappeared except for the top of his mitre and his 
hand, with which he is anointing the forehead of a child (in pink) held by 
its father or godfather (in blue). Behind him is a woman holding another 
child. In the middle may be seen a fragment of the chrismatory carried 
by the clerk. The lower part of the panel is patched with glass from some 
other window, that replacing the bishop being taken from a figure of St. 
Laurence with his gridiron, standing on grass and flowers. The descriptive 
label is lost. 

The upper part of the third light is filled with the figure of the Saviour, 
which is the centre of the whole composition. The hands are raised, and 
the body, draped in a purple-pink mantle lined with ermine, exhibits the 
Five Wounds. Behind the head crowned with thorns is a large white-and- 
gold cross-nimbus or halo. The figure, almost identical with those in the 
Sacrament windows of Oadbury (Devon) and Melbury Bubb (Dorset), and 
no doubt at Doddiscombsleigh also (where it has been lost), belongs to the 
same type as that of *' Christ as Piers Plowman " or the " Christ of the 
Trades " (which, iiowever, is without the mantle, the symbol of the Saviour's 
glorification), to which Dr. Borenius and Prof. Tristram have lately called 
attention.' One feature, however, which appears in nearly all the other 
SacFament windows, e.g,, in that from Cadbury, reproduced in Fig. 2, is 
absent from the figure at Crudwell, and that is the narrow bars of red glass 
which connect each of the Sacrament pictures with the Five Wounds. They 
are meant for pipes or channels by which the virtue of the Precious Blood 
is conveyed to the various Sacraments. Their omission here looks as if the 
Crudwell window was somewhat earlier than the others— and in some cases 
this is obviously so — and that this materialistic presentation of the lesson 
intended to be conveyed to the spectators, viz., the Passion as the source of 
sacramental grace, was an afterthought. 

^English Medieval Painting^ by T. Borenius and E. W. Tristram (Florence 
and Paris, 1927). pp. 29—35. 



By G. McN. Bushforth, FS.A. 71 

In the lower part of the light the sacrament of Penance is represented. 
It is rather fragmentary, but can be restored from the similar scene at 
Doddiscombsleigh. On the ri^ht, the priest in a blue gown with the stole 
round his shoulders is seated before a table, pointing to an open book which 
lies upon it and probably represents the moral law of the Church or the 
table of penalties. His right hand is placed on the head of a man kneeling 
before him, to whom he is giving absolution. Behind are a woman (blue 
head-dress) and two other persons (heads lost) awaiting their turns. Of 
the descriptive label only Ecce remains, but we know from Aubrey that the 
other word was confe^sio ; not the usual penitentia. 

At the bottom, on either side, are the remains of the group of donors 
seen by Aubrey, when the window was perfect. On the left is a small 
kneeling figure of a man in a blue tunic of mid-15th century fashion. He is 
uttering the prayer inscribed on a scroll which rises from his mouth against 
the architectural pier supporting the canopy work : Jilii dei miserere nobfisj, 
"Son of God have mercy upon us." Facing him is a similar figure of a 
woman (also in blue) Below, "in the Limbe" (or margin) of the 
window, Aubrey read the inscription (perhaps extending through more 
than one of the lights) : Orate pro a(n)i{r)i)a Johannis Dow fahri et 
Johanne uxoris eius etjilior(um) suor(umJ, " Pray for the soul of John 
Dow, smith (or carpenter), and of Joan his wife, and of their sons." Here» 
then, we see John and Joan Dow. The name of Johannes inserted in front of 
the wife appears not to have formed part of this inscription, and may have 
been brought from elsewhere, when the window was patched with various 
fragments, and put here with the idea that it represented the name recorded 
by Aubrey.* The sons may have been kneeling behind thefather in the vacant 
space at the bottom of light II Nothing appears to be known about John 
Dow, and his connection with Crudwell. 

The picture at the top of the fourth light is devoted to marriage^, as its label 
states : ecce coniugiuni {matrimonium is the usual word). The essential 
part of the ceremony is represented, when at the door of the church, the 
lead roof of which is seen in the background, the priest joins the hands of 
the bridal couple as they plight their troth to one another in the presence 
of witnesses. Both bride and bridegroom are dressed in blue, and the 
former wears a head-dress of a kind usual with ladies of the middle class 
about the mid-if)th century, when men also clipped their hair in the fashion 
shown here and in the other scenes. The bride is being given away by 
(presumably) her father (pink tunic and yellow hose), who supports her 
right elbow with his hand. The priest wears an alb, apparelled amice, and 
crossed stole (all in white and gold), i.e., the mass vestments without the 
chasuble, which will be assumed later for the nuptial mass at the altar. In 
the background appear the heads of relations or friends : the one behind 
the bridegroom has a red hat. 

Below is a death -bed scene, described as Extrema Unctio (the second word 

^ Though such mistakes in glass do occur, it would be less satisfactory to 
say that it was the artist's error for Johanms or Johanne. The name was 
already here in 1801 (see Gents. Mag. cited above). 



72 The Sacraments Window in Grudwell Oliurch, 

has disappeared, but is vouched for by Aubrey), but actually representing 
the Last Communion. The priest on the right (probably in surplice and 
stole, as in the very similar scene at Doddiscombsleigh, but the old glass 
has perished) is putting the wafer into the mouth of the sick man, vi^ho, 
with hands joined in devotion, sits up in bed naked (night clothes were 
generally unknown to the Middle Ages), supported by his wife (in red). 
The bed has a patterned blue coverlet. Behind the priest, who holds the 
gilt paten from which he has taken the host, are two men (in pink), one of 
whom holds a lighted taper. In front of the bed on the tessellated floor 
kneels the clerk or acolyte, probably in a sleeveless surplice (lost : his arm 
is in pink) holding the open chrismatory, which has been previously used 
for the unction. Beside him is an arm chair with round back (yellow) of a 
type often seen in English medieval bedroom scenes. 

It remains to say a word about the shields of arms hanging by straps 
from the branches of flowering trees in the spandrel openings above the 
heads of the four lights. All but one survive, though one is seriously 
damaged, but not past recognition. They form four pairs, the arms being 
repeated in each case. The first is Hungerford : sable two bars and in 
chief three pallets argent, a mullet argent for difi"erence. The second, 
bendy wavy or and argent, still awaits a perfectly satisfactory explanation, 
but a plausible one was suggested by Fosbroke in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for 1801 (see above). Robert, third Lord Hungerford, of Farieigh 
Castle, married Eleanor, daughter and heiress of William de Moleyns, and 
in consequence of this important alliance was summoned to Parliament 
from 1445 onwards as Lord Moleyns,^ The Moleyns' arins were paly wavy 
or and gules, and Fosbrooke suggests that the Urudwell shield is either a 
mistake, or else the Moleyns bearings deliberately altered when they were 
taken over by the Hungerfords. It will be noticed that the arms are diS'er- 
entiated by a mullet, the mark of a third son. Robert, Lord Hungerford, 
had a third son, Leonard, but he is a mere name in the pedigree,^ and noth- 
ing seems to be known about him. We might conjecture that he held some 
property in Crudwell under Malmesbury Abbey, and that John Dow 
was a dependent of his, Aubrey's suggestion that the Hungerfords of 
Down Ampney, not far from Crudwell, are meant will not do, for this branch 
broke off" from the main stem in the generation before the Moleyns marriage, 
and had therefore no right to bear the Moleyns arms. 



^ The Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), vi., 618. He was beheaded after the 
battle of Hexham in 1464 

^ Uough, Sepulchral Monuments, ii, part 3, App. iii. Hoare, South Wilts, 

i., part 2 (Hundred of Heytesbury) pp. 94, 98, 117. Harleian Soc, xxi. 

(1885), 87. Visitation of Gloucestershire^ 1623. Cp. The Ancestor^ viii, 
167 ff. 



73 



A PROBABLE SOURCE OF THE MATERIAL OF SOME 
WILTSHIRE PREHISTORIC AXE-HAMMERS, 

By the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A. 

When in the summer of 1928 I was wandering along the seaward margin 
of Chesil Beach, where the pebbles are awash and their colouring shows 
clearly, the texture and remarkable colouring of one which is not uncommon 
there — a pale grey, close-grained stone with broad red markings as if a red 
liquid had been dropped on it— recalled a broken hammer-head in the 
Salisbury Museum of precisely the sanje appearance. I then found that 
three other Wiltshire axe-hammers which I had distinctly in mind could 
seemingly be matched exactly with pebbles from the same beach. I have 
numbered all four as follows : — (0 The Salisbury example, provenance un- 
known ; (2) A small, beautifully banded hammer-head found with a crema- 
tion on the inner edge of the Stonehenge rampart ; (3) A large implement* 
black, boldly veined with white, " from a barrow at E. Kennet," now lost, 
but figured in Archseologia., vol. 43, p. 410 ; (4) A very fine and perfect axe- 
hammer of red stone, found at Woodhenge, and now in Devizes Museum. 

I sent the four (Jhesil pebbles, correspondingly numbered, to Dr. H. H. 
Thomas, of the Geological Survey and Museum, jjondon, and received the 
following report : — 

" I have examined your four pebbles from the Chesil Beach and make 
them out as follows : — 

(1). Quartzite. Typical of the Budleigh Salterton Pebble Bed, and 
primarily derived from the Gre de Mai, Brittany. In your case probably 
washed along the coast from the Trias outcrop in Devonshire. 

(2). Banded black and white rock. The white bands are of quartz and 
the black bands owe their colour to finely divided tourmaline. Such rocks 
are common round the Devon and Cornwall granite masses. These are 
pebbles of western derivation, probably washed along the coast from the 
trias in which they occur in some quantity. They are very hard and dur- 
able. 

(3). Similar as to nature and source to 2. Less quartz and more tour- 
maline. 

(4). Granite. Small porphyritic crystals of salmon-coloured orthoclase. 
Similar pebbles, I believe, occur in the raised beach of S. coast. It is not 
from the W. of England but is comparable in type with some of the newer 
granites of the N. coast of France (Brittany and Normandy). Brittany 
seems a likely source. (Another pebble, apparently identical with this, was 
sent to Dr. Thomas who labelled it " tourmaline granite.") 

It would be difficult with a tool of stone or bronze to quarry material for 
an implement out of native rock, while a pebble of approximately the re- 



74 Materials of some Wiltshire Prehistoric Axe- Hammers. 

quired size and shape might necessitate only a moderate amount of fashion- 
ing. The counterpart, for instance, as regards kind of stone, of every 
primitive implement unearthed in the Channel Islands can be picked up 
on the beaches there. The tracing of practically all the foreign stones of 
Stonehenge to the rocks of one small region in Pembrokeshire led to the 
sure inference that they were brought from there, and it seems equally 
reasonable to infer that these, and probably other, axe-hammers were 
wrought from Chesil Beach pebbles, since the stone of at least four has 
been identified with that of four pebbles different in material but all found 
together. A trade may have been done in Chesil pebbles suitable for such 
tools, and their carriage to ISalisbury Plain would be easy along the Dorset- 
shire and Wiltshire downs. 

I should add that of axe-hammer No. 4 Dr. Thomas expressed a doubt 
whether a pebble large enough to make it could be washed up on the beach. 
The pebbles, however, on one part of the beach and high above ordinary 
tide-level are larger than elsewhere, and the Weymouth fishermen to-day 
make large net-sinkers, weighing several pounds, out of workable Chesil 
pebbles of a certain stone, shaping them to a rough triangle and boring a 
hole at an apex from both sides, so that if dug up on a prehistoric site 
they would certainly be taken for loom-weights. 



T& 



NOTES. 
The Witches " Scrag " (Tree) on Winklebury Hill. 

The Wiltshire Gazette of Nov. 14th, 1930, under this heading, recorded the 
fact that on Nov. 5th the members of the Berwick St. John Women's Insti- 
tute climbed the hill in the darkness and let off fireworks and lighted a fire 
near the " Scrag " on the anniversary of the planting of the "Scrag" in 1929, 
to replace the original " Scrag " which had rotted away, the object of which 
had been " 'J'he ensnaring of the witches as they rode over the hills on their 
brooms and so protecting the inhabitants of Berwick from their malignant 
influence." This seems to have caused a revival or invention (?) of witch 
stories in the neighbourhood, more particularly to the effect that the 
absence of the *' Scrag" caused sterility in man and beast. An enquiry as 
to this elicited from the Hev. W. Goodchild, Rector of Berwick St. John, 
the following very interesting reply :— " The only solid basis for the tale (as 
to sterility) is the fact that when General Pitt Bivers made his excavations on 
Winklebury in 1881 — 82, the cottagers of Berwick St. John objected very 
strongly to the opening of the barrows and Anglo-Saxon graves, said that 
they did not hold with the disturbing of dead men's bones," and when 
General I^itt Bivers' workmen uprooted the "Scrag" before exploring 
Barrow III. in which it was planted, much indignation was expressed. 
The local excitement was only allayed when a new dead yew tree was 
fetched up from Ashcombe and planted with much ceremony in the tumu- 
lus. I have never heard any particle of the story about sterilisation of man 
and beast. It must, I think, be very modern embroidery to the original 
tale. 

I'om Blandford, one of the old Feme workmen, and a kinsman of Mr. 
John Gane, junior, Rector of Berwick St. John, 1738 — i746, has a perfectly 
precise story, from tradition in the village, that the tumulus No. Ill, in 
which Gen. Pitt Rivers found no relics, was just the site of a great bonfire 
raised in 1820 to celebrate the 60th year of Geerge III.'s reign, and the 
" Scrag " was merely the last log brought up to keep the fire going. This is 
quite probably correct, but it does not preclude the possibility that the 
" Scrag " of 1820 replaced an earlier post, to which some degree of sanctity 
attached. There is plenty of evidence that the boundaries of the great 
estates belonging to the Abbeys of Glastonbury, Shaftesbury, and Wilton, 
were marked with posts or pillars, usually bearing some sacred effigy or 
emblem, but sometimes fitted up to serve as a gallows. 

The "Scrag" on Winklebury is on the boundary line between Berwick 
St. John and the tithing of Easton or Haystone, which until 1883 belonged 
to the parish of Donhead St. Andrew. Berwick St. John was the property 
of Wilton Abbey, Easton of Shaftesbury Abbey, and the Court Rolls of 
Berwick St. John show that in the 17th century great care was taken to 
preserve the boundaries in that part of Berwick from alteration or des- 



76 Notes. 

truction. Just as Christian Malford is " Ohristemal Ford," i.e.^ the ford 
protected by the image of our Lord, so Shermel Gate in Ebbesbourne is 
" Sciremal " gate, a gate protected by a image or crucifix, on the boundary 
of Wilts and Dorset. But the Steward of Glastonbury, who had charge of 
Damerham, a pleasant retreat for Glastonbury monks in time of sickness, 
had to complain to the Lord Abbot that the abominable woman, the 
Abbess of Wilton, had put up a gallows as a deterrent to poachers on 
the very boundary of the estates of the Lord Abbot. Possibly therefore 
the original " Scrag" on Winklebury was put there to assert the claims of 
the Abbess of Wilton, or Abbess of Shaftesbury, to " Infangenetheof " or 
right to take fines from thieves and poachers, or to hang them when fines 
were not forthcoming. Of course these ecclesiastical boundary posts and 
crosses often replaced landmarks of Roman date or earlier. There was a 
" Scyldustreowe," " post of Scyld, the shield or protector of the crops," on 
the western boundary of Berwick St. John and Donhead, and there was a 
" Wermundestreowe " serving the like purposes between Tisbury and Ans- 
tey. The Feme title deeds mention '* Sculdertrow Furlong " nearly opposite 
the north front of Feme House, on the down above Ashcombe. Another 
point on the boundary of Berwick St. John was Gallows Ditch in 1752, 
when Rector Rolle rode round the parish, though the name is now for- 
gotten. It seems likely enough that the Romano- British inhabitants of 
l>otherley village, which General Pitt Rivers explored, had an image of the 
God Terminus on their boundary on Winklebury and another not very far 
south of it, where in 965 the Abbess of Wilton's surveyor saw " the stone 
that lies on the (Ox)way," and Abbess Aelfgyth recorded in King Edwy's 
deed of gift her joyful acceptance of land so protected." 

Stone Coffin, apparently Roman, at Bradford-on- 

Avon. The workmen employed by the Bradford Urban Council whilst 
cutting a trench for the purpose of laying a sewer pipe on the Winsley Road 
came upon a stone coffin containing a skeleton. The matter was at once re- 
ported to the officers of the Wilts Arch. Soc, and Gapt.and Mrs. Gunnington 
visited the spot. Gapt. Cunnington reported " only part of the coffin is ex- 
posed, the remainder, i.e., the head, is still under the road and Sft, below the 
surface. I was able to measure 5ft. 9in. of one side. About 18in. of the top 
of the coffin is uncovered, all the rest is under the road. The covering was of 
large slabs of Bath stone. The coffin lies with the head to the N.E. and 
feet to S.W. It was sunk 1ft. into the solid rock below 1ft. of rubble." It 
was impossible to clear out the coffin without completely uncovering it. 
Captain Cunnington suggested that it should be left undisturbed (some of 
the bones of the feet had already been purloined), but that if the District 
Council decided to remove it, it should be placed in the Bradford Barn. 
The District Council decided to fill in the ground and leave it undisturbed 
as reported in the Wiltshire Times, Jan. 1 1th, 1930. 

Marlborough Bill of Pare, The following " Bill of Fare" 

is written out on the fly-leaf of a copy of " Britannia Depicta or Ogilby 
Improv'd," printed in London in 1736. A note in another handwriting at 



Notes, 17 

the end states " This Bill of Fare was printed and hung over the Chimney 
Piece of each Parlour in the Great Inn at Marlborough and copied in the 
year 1760." 

Each Person. 

Bread, cheese or butter 

Welsh Rabbit 

Beef-Steaks, Veal-Cutlets, Mutton or Pork-Chops 

Scotch-Collops 

Tripe boyl'd or fry'd 

Ditto Fricasey'd 

Eggs & Bacon 

Cold meat 

Servants' cold meat 

Servants' dinner or supper 

Breakfast, tea, coffee, or chocolate 

Servants' ditto, tea, coffee, cold-meat or hash 

Pidgeon roasted or boyl'd 

Ditto boyl'd, with bacon & greens 

Ditto stew'd 

Chicken or fowl reasted or boyled 

Ditto boyled with Mushrooms 

Ditto white & brown fricassey 

Ditto roasted with egg-sauce 

Ditto boyl'd with Bacon & Greens 

Duck roasted 

Ditto with Onions 

Capon roasted or boyl'd 

Wild duck & dressing 

Teal & dressing 

Wood-cock & dressing 

Eels & dressing (a pound) 

Trout & dressing (a pound) 

Craw-fish (a hundred) 

Ditto buttered 

Rabbit roasted or fry'd 

Ditto smother'd with Onions 

Neck of Mutton in Broth 

Ditto roasted 

Loyn of Mutton roasted 

Ditto in Chops 

Shoulder of Mutton & dressing 

Leg of Mutton & dress : 

All other joints of Beef, Veal, Pork, &c. : at 6 pence a pound dress'd 

A. Shaw Mellor. 

ShornCOte Church. Shomcote, until recently in Wilts is now in 
Gloucestershire, and the wall paintings in the Church are accordingly de- 



s. 


d. 





I 





2 





9 


1 








9 


1 








9 





8 





6 





8 





8 





6 





8 


1 





1 





2 





2 


6 


2 


6 


2 


6 


3 





2 





2 


6 


3 





2 


6 


1 


6 


2 


6 


1 


6 


2 





6 





8 





1 


6 


2 





3 


6 


2 


6 


2 


6 


2 


6 


3 


6 


4 






fS Notes. 

scribed in The Ancient Mutual Paintings in the Churches of Gloucester shire t 
by W. Hobart Bird, recently published, as follows, on p. 27:— 

" In the small N. transept there is an early niche in East wall which 
has remains of ancient red colour under a Saxon type of arch. 

Chancel— Norman light on N. has a most uncommon style of orna- 
ment in red, consisting of a series of radial lines with fan-like terminals 
under the arch-splay, simple but effective. The adjacent wall shows 
the double-line masonry pattern with unusually large eight-lobed floral 
centres. The same also are on the inner (E.) wall of chancel arch. 
These are in unusually good preservation for so early work (XIII. 
Century). Above this ornament is an exceptionally good frieze or 
border — a band of flowing ornament of delicate tendrils, flowers, etc. 
Over the chancel arch, high up, a small Royal Coat of Arms appar- 
ently, sculptured in stone in high relief and coloured various colours." 
There is a very good photo process illustration of the masonry pattern 
and elaborate border on the JN. side of the East face of the wall beside 
the chancel arch. 

The Wishford '*I«eg^eud" of Seven at a Birth. 

The story of the seven children of Sir Thomas Bonham born at one birth 
and brought to Church to be christened, in a sieve, has been generally re- 
garded as a myth, but an item of news from The Times, of November 5th, 
1929, given below, seems to prove the possibility of the story being true 
after all. " A young white woman of Malmesbury, Cape Province, has 
given birth to six boys, three of whom afterwards died. — Renter.^' The 
illustrated papers of March, 1930, also reproduced a photograph of four 
children born at a birth. 

The Corshani Miscellany. The existence of this weekly 
newspaper from 1854 to 1856 is re-called in Wiltshire Times, Oct. 5th, 1929, 
which quotes the score of a cricket match recorded in the issue of Sept. 2nd, 
1856. 

Great Stone Cannon Balls at Clyffe Pypard Manor. 

The Wiltshire Gazette of Oct. 24th and 31st, 1929, contained a note and a 
process illustration of two great stone cannon balls, standing on the lawn, 
just under the windows of Clyffe Manor House. The late Admiral William 
Wilson was, as Lieutenant in command H.M.S. Cygnet, in the Dardanelles 
and Sea of Marmora during the Uusso-Turkish War, when this country 
was waiting anxiously day by day for news of the Russian advance on 
Constantinople itself, days when the English language was first enriched by 
the .word "Jingo " 

" We don't want to fight, but by Jingo if we do, 
We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too " etc. 

At this critical juncture the Cygnet was sent up the Straits to reconnoitre 
with the instruction that her commanding oflScer was " to use his discretion 
as to what steps he took " if he found Russian troops established in the 



Notes. 79 

Straits. Happily he found no Russians, but he made friends with the 
Pasha in command at the Dardanelles who made him a present of these 
two balls and allowed him to make a water colour sketch of the bronze gun 
for which they were intended. This drawing still hangs in the library at 
the Manor and shows several shot marks on the muzzle of the gun, pre- 
sumably made when Sir John Duckworth's squadron forced the Dardanelles 
in 1807. On this occasion the good shooting was not all on one side for six 
of the British ships were struck by these great stone shot, the Repulse 
losing ten men killed and ten wounded by a single shot from the Asiatic 
side. One of these shots was 78 inches in circumference and weighed 760lbs. 
These and many other interesting particulars are given in a paper by Major- 
General J. H. Lefroy on " The Great Cannon of Muhammad II., A.D. 1464," 
in volume XXV., pp. 261—280 of the " Archseological Journal" (of the 
Institute). This paper contains a full account and illustrations of the gun 
recently moved from Woolwich to the Tower, which was given to Queen 
Victoria by the Sultan Abdul Aziz in 1866. Of these great guns, once much 
more numerous, there were in 1868 still 22 in existence, varying from 1.3^ to 
29j inches in calibre. The Tower gun is made in two sections, which screw 
together, (thephotographsiin the papers only show one section), each of which 
M^eighs eight or nine tons. It was cast in 1464. Its calibre is 25in. It is noted 
that the stone balls for it are granite, whereas the two at Clyflfe are of white 
marble, in all probability, I would suggest, cut from the drums of columns 
belonging to some ancient classical building. Their circumference is 73in., 
which gives a diameter of 24jin. Admiral Wilson noted that the gun which 
he sketched was still in position after the Great War, in 1919. On the 
other hand Major C.J. fifoulkes, F. 8. A., Curator of the Tower Armouries, 
writing on the 3rd December, 1929, says, " From all that I can gather the 
old guns have all been melted down and only the stone balls remain in large 
numbers at Killid Bahr." There is a similar stone ball of about the same 
size mounted on a base near one of the side entrances to Windsor Castle. 
There were apparently two other examples at the Tower before the arrival 
of the four which accompanied the gun from Woolwich. There were also 
in 1868 several on the piers of the entrance gates at Wear, near Exeter, the 
seat of Sir J. T. B. Duckworth, Bart. E. H. Goddard. 

Thirteenth Century Coffer in Salisbury Cathedral. 

JxiAncient Church Chests and Chairs, by F. Roe, 1929, the writer describes 
and illustrates a remarkable example in Little Canfield Church, Essex. 

" Its individuality consists in the peculiar formation of the front 
standards, or uprights, by which the coffer is supported. These at the 
base are perforated with semi-circular openings, fenced in by disengaged 
shafts somewhat in the position which a single string would occupy on 
an Egyptian harp. Three flat discs have projected from the standards 
in the circular openings, one each at the summits and bases of the 
shafts respectively, and one on the inner surface of the curves. . . . 
A very few coffers remain which exhibit such features. The largest is 
the super-giant in Westminster Abbey. One or two others certainly 
exist with their detached shafts broken off, and a few more in which 



80 Notes. 

the bases of the standards have been abbreviated or worn away, leaving 

only segments of the semi-circular perforations and portions of the 

shafts." In a footnote he adds : — " In a thirteenth Century coffer in the 

S.E. transept of Salisbury Cathedral the standards near the floor have 

a curious decoration very much like that on the Canfield example. The 

depending terminations have been spoken of as pendants, whereas from 

personal investigation I am convinced that these features are only 

portions of the cords of the bows which at some time have been broken 

away, the feet having been cut down, probably for some utilitarian 

purpose." 

The above remarke were printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, January 2nd, 

1930, together with an illustration of the Canfield chest and a drawing of 

the standard or foot of the Salisbury example showing its present condition 

and Mr. Roe's proposed restoration as it was originally. A note by the 

Editor of the Gazette mistakenly identifying this chest with the well-known 

great Cope chest in the Cathedral brought a letter from Canon Fletcher, 

printed in the Gazette, January 9th, 1 930, pointing out that the chest referred 

to by Mr. Roe has not hitherto attracted attention. He writes : — 

"It is in such good condition that, until we had carefully inspected 
it after Mr. Roe's visit, we should not have been inclined to give it the 
age that he does. In character it is very similar to the Little Canfield 
one, but larger, its dimensions being 4ft. 9in. high, 5ft. Ojin. long, and 
4ft. 6|in. broad. The lid is bound by eight iron bands (including the 
two larger ones which are connected with the hinges). The hasps are 
longer than the Canfield ones and measure 13 inches. There seem 
originally to have been five locks in addition to the two padlocks, but 
only the centre one remains. Small^iron quatrefoil plates have been 
placed in front over where the other four insertions for the keys were, 
I feel sure that Mr. Roe must be right in his conjecture that at some 
time or other the standards have been shortened, as suggested in his 
plan, and that originally they resembled the Canfield ones." 
Canon Fletcher mentions that this chest has been used as the receptacle 
for the bottles of wine used in the Holy Communion throughout living 
memory. 

■f 
'* Gospel Bush " at Calne. The Wiltshire Gazette of March 
20th, 1930, records the planting by the Mayoress of Calne (Mrs. C. H. Wilt- 
shire) at Upper Whitley, on the brow of the slope leading down to Fisher's 
Brook, of a white thorn tree, on the spot occupied by the white thorn tree 
under which the Baptists assembled for worship when forbidden to use their 
Meeting House by the Conventicle Act of Ch. II. The records of the 
Castle Street Baptist Church preserve the memory of the original '• Gospel 
Bush " on this spot, which has long since disappeared, 

Bradenstoke Barn demolished. The first news of the de 

struction of the Priory Barn came from a correspondent who happening to be 
at Bradenstoke, saw men at work on the barn roof, heard that it was to be 
taken down and transported to some distant locality, " probably America,' 



Notes, 81 

and wrote at once to the editor of the Wiltshire Gazette. Enquiries were at 
once made but nobody in the neighbourhood knew anything of the matter^ 
On May 8th, 1929, Capt. B. H. Cunnington went to Bradenstoke and inter- 
viewed the men at work on the barn. They did not know who had bought the 
place, but believed it was an American, and the orders they had received were 
to take the barn down and mark the timbers so that they could be re-erected 
elsewhere. A considerable portion of the timbers were already lying on the 
ground. Capt. Cunnington wrote at once to the Prime Minister and other 
influential persons, including the M.P's. for N. Wilts, asking if nothing 
could be done to stop this vandalism. The Wiltshire Gazette of May 9th, 
printed this letter with a strong protest against the proceedings at Braden- 
stoke. The Office of Works was appealed to to schedule the building 
under the Ancient Monuments Act, and the Society of Antiquaries' help 
was invoked. The reply from both was that it was too late, the mischief 
was done. The Times gave prominence to many letters of protest, but 
pointed out that owing to the privacy of the sale of the property, and the 
apparently intentional rapidity and secrecy with which the pulling down 
of the barn was begun, there was no opportunity for any public opposition. 
On May 13th, a letter from Mr. Lewis R. Farnell appeared in The Times 
advocating the need of further legislation to strengthen the Ancient Monu- 
ments Act, and prevent the exportation of ancient buildings to America or 
elsewhere, the Wiltshire Gazette and other county papers gave considerable 
promiijence to the subject, and the President of the Wilts Arch. Soc, Capt. 
B. H. Cunnington, had a further letter in The Times of May 18th, urging 
the strengthening of the Ancient Monuments Act so as to prevent the re- 
currence of such disasters in the future. The Wiltshire Gazette of July 25tb^ 
1929, following an answer by Mr. Macdonald in the House of Commons to 
a question put by Capt. Cazalet, M.P., made known that the destination 
of the timbers of the barn was St. Donats Castle, Glamorgan, recently 
bought by Mr. Randolph Hearst, the American newspaper magnate, where 
they were to be either re-erected, or used in some other way in connection 
with the castle. The Observer contained an article by Miss Alice Head, 
j Mr. Hearst's agent in England, who had bought Bradenstoke for him, stating 
that " Mr. Hearst is an antiquary of remarkable knowledge and discernment, 
and nothing will be done that will detract from the character of so precious 
a relic." The only good that has come out of this unhappy business is that 
the remaining medieval barns in Wilts and other medieval buildings other 
than churches and inhabited houses, have now been given such protection as 
the scheduling of them under the Act affords. 

Curious Carved Stone found at Bradenstoke. The 

N. Wilts Herald of July 26th, 1929, contained a letter with a photograph of a 
carved stone found at Bradenstoke. I visited Bradenstoke on July 27th, and 
was shown the stone by the finder, Mr. Uzzel, who told me he dug it up near 
the surface in the garden of his cottage in Bradenstoke Street about five years 
ago, and had kept it since, but no notice was taken of it until Mr. Wakefield 
saw and photographed it lately. It is an irregularly rounded lump of hard 
oolite, not freestone, about 10 inches in length (?) nearly globular at the top, 
jVOL. XLV. — NO. CLII. G 






82 Notes. 

but more or less pointed at the bottom, a globular egg shape in fact. On 
the front of it which seems to be worked smooth, are incised two faces, side 
by side, but separated by a furrow. The work is very rude, and not in 
relief at all. One of the faces appears to be smiling, the other looks gloomy. 
There is nothing else on the stone at all. The only suggestion I could 
make was that conceivably it might have been a very rude Norman (?) 
corbel, but in that case the back of the stone must have been cut off and 
more or less rounded. It is impossible to assign any definite age to it, but 
it has obviously been in its present condition a long time, and it has every 
appearance of antiquity. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Roman figure built into the wall of Tockenham 

CllUrcll. The best illustration of this figure hitherto published is a full" 
page plate from a photograph by Mr. A. D. Passmore, Plate XXX. in The 
Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XVI.. Part 2, 1926. A short note in the text 
(p. 232) says " It seems to represent Aesculapius or Hygieia. Aubrey men- 
tioned it, calling it a figure of St. Christopher." It is a freestone recessed 
relief in a niche measuring 2ft. Sin. from base to point, built into the S. wall 
of the Church, west of the S. door. 

Cinerary Urn and Bronze Dagger from Barrow on 
Roundway Down, near Devizes. In the Autumn of i928 

Mr. Sidney Dee, of Devizes, noticed that rabbits had worked their way into 
the side of one of the barrows (Bromham, No. I. in Goddard's List) on 
Roundway Down and that there was pottery in the hole. This proved on 
investigation to be a large cinerary urn inverted over a cremated burial, the 
urn being on the extreme fringe of the mound covered with little more 
than turf. 

The mound is the more southerly of the two at the extremity of the hill 
just outside Oliver's Camp. When the camp was excavated in 1907, as 
there was some doubt whether they were barrows or mounds connected with 
the defences, a wide section was cut from the ditch of the camp through the 
southern mound down to the undisturbed ground, but as no primary burial 
was found and the mound appeared to have been previously dug into from 
the top, it was not further investigated and this secondary burial was not 
found.^ 

The rim of the inverted urn was some inches below the floor level so that 
a shallow hole must have been made to receive it. The burnt bones mixed 
with chalk silt formed a layer only 7in. or Sin. thick, and the upper part of 
the urn had not, as is usual, become filled with silt, and it was into this 
cavity that the rabbits had burrowed through the broken side of the urn. 

The urn is a striking one and dates probably from the transitional period 
between the late Bronze and early Iron Age. It is 20in. high, the rim, now 
slightly oval, has a diameter of from 14 to 15 inches, and the base is eight 
inches in diameter. It had originally two opposite handles both of which 
were broken off (before or during burial ?) ; the fragments of one were 






Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxv., 442. lu the northern mound (Bromham No. 
II. there was a primary burial after cremation. 



Notes. 



83 



found and have been mended, but of the other there was no trace except 
the fractured surface from which it had been broken away. The pottery is 
light red to buflf in colour, with a black core. In addition to the row of 
** fioger-tip " impressions round the shoulder there are three slightly raised 
bands with similar impressions below (Fig. I.). 

A thin fragile knife-dagger of bronze was found among the bones ; it has 
two rivet holes ; the metal shows a rough green patination in patches but 
the rest retains its natural almost golden colour and a polished surface. 



-^Plfllitfe^Tr 




Bronze knife-dagger from Barrow on lloundway Down. | 
By permission of the authorities representing the Crown Lands the 
^' find '■ has been placed in the Museum at Devizes. The barrow is scheduled 
under the Ancient Monuments' Act, and it was therefore necessary to obtain 
the sanction of the Office of Works (An. Mon. Dept ) before the urn was 
removed from the mound. M. E. Cunnington. 

Unrecorded Long Barrow at Imber The mutilated re- 
mains of a small long barrow on the down above Imber seem hitherto 
unrecorded, though actually shown on the Ordnance Maps as a mound but 
not as a " Tumulus^ 

' It lies in the small triangular beech copse just inside the Tilshead 
boundary where it meets that of the parishes of Imber and (^hitterne All 
Saints, a quarter of a mile N.E. of Kill Barrow. (Wilts Sheet 46, S.E., 6in.). 

The mound lies almost north and south, with what appears to have been 
the larger end to the north. The southern end has been levelled as a result 
of cultivation, but whether in modern or Romano- British times it is diffi- 
cult to say. There are numerous banks and ditches and traces of ancient 
cultivation and habitation all over this down. The northern end of the 
mound is still well preserved, and judging from this the barrow seems to 
have been about the same size, and of the same character as Kill Barrow. 
The wide irregular hollow which takes the place of a ditch on the eastern 
side is very like that at Kill Barrow. On the western side this feature has 
been obliterated, but an army trench, along the edge of the copse reveals 
itself as cut partly through disturbed ground, no doubt indicating the fiUed- 
up hollow or ditch. There is a shell hole on the eastern side of the mound. 

The whole of the down hereabouts is pitted with innumerable shell holes, 
and scored with derelict army trenches. Before the war this was a beauti- 
ful piece of downland with the short fine herbage one used to think 
characteristic; now the grass is coarse and knee-high, as it almost always 
is where the blight of army occupation has fallen on the downs. 

M. E. Cunnington. 
G 2 



84 Notes. 

Saxon Burials at West Chisenbury. In July, 1928, in 

digging a pit in the garden of the new houses on War Department land at 
West Chisenbury, in the parish of Enford, a shallow grave was found cut 
in the chalk containing a skeleton. It was apparently extended with head 
to the east, the grave being about six feet long, east and west. Somewhere 
near the head was a socketed iron spearhead of a long narrow type frequently 
found with Saxon burials ; total length 11 Jin., length of socket 4in., greatest 
width of blade Ifin. 

Several other burials are said to have been cut through in digging the 
narrow foundation trenches for this group of cottages. It seems, therefore, 
that at this spot there was a Saxon burial place, probably of the pagan 
period. The site is on ihe west side of the main road, one sixth of a mile 
in a straight line north of the cross roads at West Chisenbury ; O.S. Wilts 
Sheet, 47, N.E., 6 inch. M. E. Cunnington. 

Netheravon Petition against the Vicar, 1681. 

I am able, through the courtesy of Mr. William E. Bigg, the Diocesan Regist- 
rar, to reproduce the Petition, in its original form, of a number of the Parish- 
ioners of Netheravon (including one woman) to the Dean of Sarum, It is 
dated 1688 and complains of irregularities on the part of the Vicar, Mr. 
Richard I^ewis. The correspondence, unfortunately, is incomplete. Mr. 
Lewis was instituted in 1685, and the Parish Register records his death, as 
Vicar, in 1724, at the age of seventy-five years, eight months, and twenty- 
five days. 

"To the reverend Doctour Pierce Deane of the Cathedrall Church 
of Sarum & to Mr. Walton prebendary of the prebend of Netherhaven 
in the County of Wilts. 

The humble supplication of the parishioners of the parish of Nether- 
haven aforesaid. 
Showeth 

That Mr. Lewis minister of the said parish demeans himselfe 
irregulare both in life & conversacon & officatinge his Duty in Church 
as for his converion he is inclyned to tipplinge & drinkinge & in his 
carowseinge cups he calls his neighbours cheateing baggerly rogues & 
refuses to come and bury the Dead but hath suffered the Corps to lay 
in the Church all night unburied, at tythinge lamb coletinge more than 
his due Drew a Dangerous weapon and was like to stabb his parishioner 
therewith, he entred a neighbour house & griped his son by the 
throat like to kill him. At tythinge of wheate he will handle every 
sheaffe & take the greatest in evie shock. He refuses to take a little 
pigg of 2 or 3 weeks old but a while after they was weand he goes into 
the backside & nocks a pigg in the head & carryed him away without 
the owner's consent, he wilbe his own Carver also he will quarle & fight 
& breake the peace. He trespassed with his horse or geldinge which 
being impownded for damage seazant he broak the pound & tooke him 
away, contrary to lawe, when his Ma*'" Officers quartered in the said 
parish they beinge papists then he endeavoured to bring some of his 
neighbours lives in question. As for oflSciatinge his duety in the Church 



Notes. 



85 



be hath been remisse for he hath refused to administer the Sacrament 
to some without showinge cause, Some sicke and weake desireing the 
prayer of the congregation and to receive the sacrament he hath 
neglected The ancient custome of the parish dureing the memory of 
man hath byn to Administer the sacram* of the lord's supper in the 
bod}*^ of the Church where all the comunicans may see the consecracon 
of the bread & wine & joyne in the prayers apoynted for the sacramen' 
but the minister affectinge contencon and beinge privlege consecrats 
the sacrim' at one end of the Chansell w*'*' is not sufficient to containe 
the comunicans and being greedy of the wine reserves part thereof 
to his owne private use, though the parish provides sufficient, yet he is 
scanty in administering thereof, he_Jiath consecrated the wine three 
times in a sacram^ he hath reade comon prayer in the pulpit and forces 
the poore to pay mortuaries for buryinge the Dead in the churchyard 
enormities he doth comit contrary to custome & civility whereby the 
parishioners are oflFended. 

Therefore your Supp^'^ most humbly address themselves to you as 
fathers of the Church and patrons of the Countrey Supplicatinge 
redresse that you will be pleased, the premises considered eyther to 
order the said minister to demeane himselfe in a civill & and peaceable 
life & conversation & conformable to the ancient customes of the said 
parish Church or to remove him & place in a nother of a civill life & 
conversation urthodox & not inciyned to poperie as we are jealous of 
the present Incumbent & one that will be conformable to the ancient 
customes of the said Church and your Supi*'* as in Duety shall ever 
pray, etc. 

We whose names are overleafe written & others shalbe in readiness to 
to aver the truth of this Supplication being thereto required." 
Overleaf. 

ilichard Wateridg 

Benjamin Rumsy 

William Suton 

Robert Cooper 

William Fitz 

John Sheppard 

Christopher Samuell 

Timothy Long 

John Home 

John Hickman, Jun. 

George Skeates 

Timothy Phillimore, 
Sen' 
Endorsed overleaf. 

" The Petition & complaint of ye parishioners of Netherhaven, against 
their Vicar, Mr. Lewis, w** had his p'sentation from Mr. Walton, & his 
Institution from 
Revend S' 

In pursuance of our former complaynt These are to informe you 



John Mills 
Timothy Ringe 
Oliver Staples 
Itobert Bankes 
Henry Tayler 
Henry Batch 
John Hickman, Sen. 

Overseare 
William Serat 
Henry Munday 
Thomas Batch 
John Spratt 



John Sutton 
Nath. Silverthorne 
Richard Hearn 
William Stapels 
Nathaniel Hearn 
Phinco Hatchman 
Anthony Silverthorne 
John Benger 
John Heme 

Churchwarden 
Grace Hunter 
Thomas Dike 



86 Notes. 

That our Minister, Mr. fjewip, persists iti his stubborne and perverse 
behaviour towards his parishioners for notwithstanding his good health 
& his corporall labours about his bouse yet he neglectets the church & 
leaves it vacat & refuses to preach and officiate Divine Service wch 
hath byn neglected ever since Christmas Day & though wee have pro- 
cured a Minister for the Duety of the Church yet he like a heathen 
refuses to give him leave to officiate. Therefore our humble request to 
you is that you wilbe pleased to tolerate us to procure a Minister to 
officiate dueringe his obstinacy for otherwise VV ee shall procure a M inister 
to preach in a private house for wee are willinge to live like christians & 
not heathens.^ .Soo humbly requestinge your answere in a line or two 
by this bearer Wee humbly take our leave and rest S'' 
Yor humble Servants, 

John Mills, Timothy Ringe, Henry Batch, 
John Heme, Henry Tayler, Daniel Button." 
* This threat shows w* spirit they are of. 
"Netherhaven, 22 Jan : 168—. 
To The rvedend Doctor Pierce, Dean of Sarum. 

This 2d Complaint of Mr. Lewis is newly brought to my hands by 
one of Netherhaven, wherein I think of Complainants are very lewd 
men, and Clergy-Haters. I bid y"" come no more hether, where I am 
out of my Court & Jurisdiction, but apply ym selves to ye Close of 
Sarum, till sumond thither by an Apparitor upon ye complaint of Mr. 
Dewis, who tis hoped will correct y" at Common Law, where they may 
be fined LOGO Marks, if Mr. Lewis can and will prove ye Barbarous 
usage of his person & of his Wife upon Xtmas Day, as he told me he 
can and will. The Nabals deserve corrective justice but not so much a 
Lawful Favour in ye opinion of 

Y"" affectionate Brother and Servant, 

Tho. Pierce." 
{Overleaf). 

"This for my worthy Friend and Brother, Mr. Bichard Kent, Sub- 
Dean and Canon of y^ Cathedral Church of Sarum at his House in 
Salsbury Close." 

C. R. Everett. 

Sarsen Stones at Kingston Deverell. In reference to 

the interesting note by Mrs. Cunnington in W.A.A/., xliv., 261, is it not possi- 
ble, nay probable, that these stones are the " Petra Ecbricti " where King 
Alfred assembled his army before he marched to attack the Danes at Ethan- 
dun. Asser records that this stone is " in the eastern part of the wood which 
is called Selwood." Sir Richard Colt Hoare based his identification of the 
site with Brixton Deverill, as according to Domesday Brictric held Deverill 
in 1066 ; also in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History (Book xi., chap. 2). 
Amongst the leaders who perished with Modred in the battle in Cornwall 
against King Arthur was one named Egbrict, who may have been an owner: 
of lands in this district, who was brought home and buried on this site. 
Sir R. Colt Hoare also quotes documents to show that Hull or Hill Deverill » 



Notes. '87 

which lies east of Brixton Deverill, was situated within the bounds of the 
extensive forest of Selwood. If Ecbrict or Egbright owned lands in this 
district his memorial stone may have been erected in Kingston Deverill and 
formed a notable landmark on a knoll which rises above the 600ft. contour 
near the valley. According to the Ordnance Survey "King's Hill" lies 
about one mile to the west of the south end of Brixton Deverill, and another 
knoll of equal height called " Court Hill " lies about one mile still further 
west. These knolls were probably associated with some royal event, and 
possibly one or the other was the site of Fetra Ecbricti and therefore marks 
the site of King Alfred's noted trysting place which, from a military point 
of view, was extraordinarily well chosen, as at this place the Roman road 
from Ischalis (Uphill), on the Severn, to Sorbiodunun (Old Sarum) crossed 
the equally old road leading south to north from Shaftesbury. Thus 
Selwood and the Marshes would have screened the clans coming from the 
west, and Grovely and Great Bidge would have screened those coming from 
the east to meet those coming from the south from Shaftesbury. Possibly 
Kingston Deverill itself derives its name from this landmark and is an. 
abbreviation of King's Stones. E. A. Rawlence, F.S.A, 

IiOCal lore of the Cuckoo. By Alfred Williams. N. Wilts 
ZTera^t/, May 4th, 1928. An interesting article in which some astonishing 
examples of the persistence of the belief that the cuckoo hibernates in (i 
naked state in hollow trees, to this day in the country of the upper Thames^ 
are quoted, in one or two instances from woodmen or others who professed 
themselves to have found them ! 

Glazed Flints. As bearing on the origin of the glazing on the flints 
of Knowle, Collingbourne, etc., a passage in Major R. E. Cheesman's book» 
In Unknown Arabia (1926), p. 233, seems worth quoting. He is speaking 
of the great southern desert of Arabia. " The ground was strewn with 
most remarkable pebbles of all sizes, and shapes, and colours, white, black, 
red, green, and yellow predominating, and there were a few lumps of fossil 
coral. The blown sand polishes their surfaces so that it would be easy to 
imagine they were the work of a jeweller. 

A Great Bedwyn Breviary. There exists in the Bodleian 
Library (as MS. e. Mus. 2) a large late 14th century Sarum Breviary of the 
Church of Great Bedwyn. The calendar contains the following obits.: — 

Thomas Stocke, senior, Dec 27, 13[9 ?]3. 

Nicholas Wikeham, prebendary of Bedwin, March 17, 14 . . [1406]. 

Hugh Baylement, junior, Feb. 18, 1418. 

Richard Colyngborne, March 8, 1418. 

Walter Medford, prebendary of Bedwin, June 4, 1423. 

John Landley, April 2, 1429. 

Alice Skinner, Aug. 19, 1435. 

Thomas . . . nee "Quondam clericus istiusecclesie," Jan. 27, 1435. 

Robert Colyngborne, Feb. 27, 1459. 

Joan Colyngborn, Nov. 27, 1465. 



88 Notes. 

There is also a note of Thomas Doge[son']3 resignation of West Bed win 
Vicarage, May 1 6th, 1 496, and a fifteenth century list of payments from places 
in Bedwyn parish. 

Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, who presented the Breviary to 
the Bodleian between 1650 and 1655, describes it as " liber qui reservabatur 
in archivis Sarisburiensis ecclesie," so presumably it had been carried off to 
•Salisbury by a prebendary. The obits, suggest that it had previously been 
in use in the Parish Church. H. H. E. Craster. 

Highly polished Greenstone Celt of Breton Type. 

In [F.^.i/.,xliii., 336, mention is made of the remarkable highly polished celt 
of Greenstone from Breamore, just outside the Wiltshire border, now in the 
Brooke collection at Devizes Museum. It was there said that the " actual 
circumstances of its finding seem not to have been recorded." Shortly after 
the publication of this number of the Magazine Mr. J. W. Brooke wrote on 
August 10th, 1927, with reference to this. "Here are the facts. It was 
found at Marsh Farm, Breamore, by Mrs. Jeans, the mother of the late 
Mark Jeans. She used it as a paper knife but as it tore more leaves than 
it cut she threw it out of the window and it fell on a stone and the end was 
chipped. Mrs. Jeans told me about it, having seen one of my polished flint 
celts from Aldbourne. I implored her to find it, which she did, and Mark 
Jeans gave it to me. Sir John Evans was most interested in this specimen 
and recorded it in the last edition of his Stone Implements." This informa- 
tion, interesting as it is, does not, however, tell us the facts as to the original 
finding of the celt at Marsh Farm 

The Mount at Great Somerford. Of this mound Britton, 

in Beauties of Wilts, III., p. Ill, writes :— " Between the Mansion-house of 
Mr. Smith and the River Avon, at a short distance from the Parish 
Church, is an oblong mount, having the appearance of a barrow, now 
covered with large elm trees. On digging into this mount, in Nov., 
1811, the remains of a wall were discovered, with a doorway and two win- 
dows. The latter had at the top semi-circular arches. As this wall was 
but two feet thick, it could not have been part of any fortress ; nor is 
it easy to conjecture what could have been the purpose of the building 
to which it belonged. From the quantity of charcoal and ashes found 
near the wall, and from the appearance of the stones, it is probable 
that the building was destroj^ed by fire." 
On Nov, )7th, 1910, the Rev. F. H. Manley wrote *' We have dug across 
the middle of the mound near the Church and have come across several 
rough built walls from 6ft. to 10ft. down, nothing otherwise except a little 
coarse pottery and bones. One piece of Norman work might have come 
from the Church and been cast on the mount." Subsequently Canon 
Manley mentioned " traces of a stoned or flagged path on the west side of 
the mound." The main trench, following the wall foundations, of which a 
photograph is here reproduced ( Fig. II.), was dug from N. to S. The pottery 
found, of which some is preserved at Devizes Museum, was undoubtedly 
mediaeval, Mrs. Cunnington has expressed the opinion that the mound was a 
Norman niotte raised near the ford across the river, but the buildings covered 




Fig. r. Late Bronze Age Cinerary Urn from Barrow on Roundway 
Down, 1928. About i 












>l'.-f 






Fig. II. Trench cut through " The Mount" at Great Somerford 
showing rough wall. 




Fig. III. Bronze 14th Century Seal found at Market Lavington. j 




Fig. IV. Impression of 14th Century Seal found at Market Lavington. 
The smaller impression actual size, the larger twice actual size. 





Fig. V. Early Iron Age Bronze Horse Bit Roller 
from Swindon, i 



Notes. 89 

hy the mound are as inexplicable now as they were in Britton's time. From 
liis description of windows with semi-circular heads, it is pretty clear that 
the building was of Norman age, and that the Norman fragment found by 
cJanon Manley probably belonged to it rather than to the Church, but what 
caused a presumably 12th century building to be covered up in the mound 
still remains a mystery. In this connection it is worth recording that 
Canon Manley on coming to Somerford in 1887 and finding the Mount 
marked on the Ordnance Map as " Site of Castle," wrote to the ordnance 
authorities asking their authority for this statement. They answered that 
the following information had been " supplied to them by the Uev. Andrews, 
liev. Law, and the Rev. Anketell." "The Old Castle was erected in the 
reign of Edward I. by ISir J. Maltravers. On being excavated by the Arch. 
Society in 1813 window frames were found." This is obviously only an 
inaccurate and imaginative account of Britton's diggings in 1811. Canon 
Manley also writes recently, "The mound stands about 12ft. high and is 
85ft across N. by S., and 75ft. across E. by W., at the top, and is thus of 
an oval shape or almost circular. It stands just outside the west wall of 
the churchyard, which is about 9ft. from the W. tower of the Church. It 
looks as if the motte must have been erected prior to the formation of the 
churchyard, and the erection of the original Church. When we were doing 
something to the porch of the Church about 20 years ago {i.e. cir. 1910) we 
had to take down and rebuild one of the buttresses and there had been 
used up in this Norman and Early English carved stones from the original 
Church, which was enlarged or rebuilt 1480 — 1500 . . . indeed it was 
suggested that at that time rubbish connected with the work on the Church 
was thrown on to the Mount and so the remains of the buildings on it were 
completely covered up. The Society is indebted to Canon Manley for the 
€Ost of the block illustrating this note. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Thunderstorm at Steeple Langford, 1704. [Written 

by Arthur Collier, Rector, on p. 1 of vol. 1. of the Parish Register.] May 
1 9th, 1 704. M emorandum yt on a certain night last summer in ye year 1 703, 
July ye 31st, about ten or eleven of ye clock att night there was a dreadfuU 
thunder storm, which by ye lightning did mischief in more places than one : 
but for one I myself was an eye witness of it which was at Stapleford — the 
i^tory of which isas follows. Tis supposed yt ye lightning came down ye chim- 
ney of a certain widows house who's name is Lucy Randol. But be ye com- 
ing of it how it will, ye efi"ects of it are thus. The top stones of this chim- 
ney were good large quarry stones, ye underones of these were thrown out 
several ways, at 4 or 5 yards distance from ye liouse, one of which was 
thrown into ye woman's garden near ye house about a yard or more within 
ye garden. But I cannot properly say that it v\as thrown for it seem'd to 
he laid down with as great, or greater care, than hands could have employd 
Hbout it, for tho' it was a large stone, as much as any man can well lift from 
ye ground, yet it made no more impression upon a soft bed in ye garden 
than it would make by its own weight : and tho' it laid upon a young 
goosberry tree it did not so much as grate of ye rind from it : tho' (as I 
take it) ye house is 3 story high. Next, it drove ye glass out of almost 



90 Notes. 

every window in ye house and did not break, but untwist ye leads of ye 
rest. It broke a large looking glass (one bigger than which would go whole 
out of either of ye casements in ye room) and earried part of it out of ye 
window in which it stood, and another out of another little square window 
in another side of ye chamber, and (as ye woman told me) laid it upon a 
bay-mow in the backside adjoining. It forced many stones and much 
plaistering from ye wall of ye same chamber (which was that in which ye 
woman then laid) and cast ye last of these against a press in ye opposite 
part of ye chamber with great violence. It burst open ye door of ye same 
chamber and threw ye key between ye bed and ye matting whereon it lay. 
It forced its way into the next chamber (opening as I remember ye latch of 
ye door) where her children were in bed, but did no harm there : besides 
it untwisted ye leads etc. In ye kitchen it threw down all ye pewter from 
ye shelves, etc., and forced an entire brickbat out ye wall of ye chimney 
into ye midst of ye room & singed a hive or bonnet of one of her children 
which hung on a pin and threw it on ye floor. It forced its way throw an 
inner door near ye outward one making only a black spot towards ye bot- 
tom, but splintered off some of ye outward door making a passage quite 
thro. It also melted some part of the bolt of ye lock, about ye breadth 
of ye nail of ones little finger. It also burnt k blackened some of ye 
thatch of ye inner beams of the house. Ye woman was abed at the same 
time and dreamt nothing of all this but being terrifyed with ye noise of ye 
thunder kept her head under ye bedclothes. But looking out some small 
time after this (she said) she saw a coal of fire as it were throughly burnt 
lying in ye midst of her chamber. This gave her ye first alarm, upon which 
she arose etc. But I forgot to set down one thing more, which is, that ye 
moulding or crown (or whatsoever else you'l call it) of ye chimney upon ye 
removal of ye under understones dropt down in ye place and was not so 
much as thrown from ye house but laid upon ye chimney almost in its 
primitive form. Arth : Collier : 

[Communicated by W. S. Tupholme, D.D, Rector.] 

Status of the Comma Butterfly (Polygonia C. Album) 
in N. Wilts round Lydiard Millicent. From 1905—1 8 I 

personally saw but two specimens, both in 1911. In 1918 the variety 
Hutchinsoni (July brood) was abundant in several woods, and this con- 
tinued to be the case until 1 922. Each year after 1919 there were decreasing 
numbers till in 1923 there were none, and I have never seen them since until 
this season, 1929, when they were fairly numerous again in their old haunts. 
During the years 1918 — 22 the later brood, August to October, were in 
evidence in small numbers, 1921 being the best season for them, when I saw 
many in my garden. JSince then up to 1928 I found none, and in 1928 only 
three or four, which, however, showed me that the species were not extinct 
in the district as I had begun to think was the case. This year, 1929, in 
July, there were many, and they are more abundant than I have ever seen 
them in the autumn, and, as I write (Sept. 25th, 1929) there are no less than 
six outside my study window feeding on fallen mulberries. There have 
been some visible every day since September came in. I think it is worth 



Notes. 91 

noticing that the habits of Hutchinsoni and the autumn hatch are slightly 
different. The former are in my experience strictly confined to the big 
woods, whereas on the contrary the later specimens may be found anywhere, 
in lanes and by the side of a field hedge, and they seem especially fond of 
gardens, where rotting fruit, strawberry tree blossom, and budleia flowers, 
especially the first, seem to be great attractions to them. At this period of 
theyearthey aie widely dispersed over the country. I would note further that 
female specimens of Hutchinsoni are always scarce, but that as the autumn 
advances the number of females increases until they far outnumber the 
males seen. This is probably a provision of nature, for they form the 
breeding stock for next season. At the same time it is singular that in 
spring, April and May, it is seldom that you can find a hibernated female, 
those seen are invariably males. 'J'his curious fact can only be accounted 
for on the supposition that the females in spring, being engaged in the egg- 
laying business are secretive, or possibly are to be found only high up in 
elm trees, on which the catterpillars mostly feed, though I am aware that 
they have been found on nettles and other low-growing plants. , Apparently 
the species is now well established in N. Wilts, though as is usual with 
some lepidoptera it is only much in evidence in years favourable to its 
development. D. P. Harrison. 

Bronze seal found at Market Iiavington. In January, 

1930, the Hev. J. A. Sturton, Vicar of Market Iiavington, sent to Capt. !>. 
H. Cunnington a bronze seal matrix which had recently been dug up in his 
garden by Mr. Phillips of that place. At (Japt. Cunnington's suggestion it 
was sent to the British Museum, where it was identified as a private seal 
of the early 14th century. The face of the seal is oval, the handle being 
six-sided and ending in a pierced trefoil head. The seal, 1 l/16th inches in 
length, has in the centre a double canopy, of two compartments in height. 
Above is the Virgin and child to right, with a kneeling figure to left. 
Below is ISt. Catherine standing with her wheel to left and a kneeling 
figure to right, 'i'he inscription on each side reads (right) MATER DEE AC 
(left) ISEKKli ME. The seal, which is in good condition, remains in the 
hands of the finder. The illustrations here given are from photographs 
specially made for the purpose by Mr. A. D. Passmore, to whom the ^Society 
is indebted for much trouble taken in the matter (Figs. III. k IV.). 

It is to be noticed that Peter de la Mere in 1343 founded in the parish 
j Church of "Stupel" (or Market) Lavington, a chantry to the Blessed Virgin 
I Mary.' This chantry in 1411, 1417, 1434, and 1450, is spoken of as the 
i Chantry of the Blessed Katherine and Margaret, whilst in 1446 Elizabeth 
; Beauchamp (the Beauchamps succeeded to the Delamere property) desires 
: to be buried in the Chantry Chapel of the Saints Mary, Katherine, and 
Margaret in the Parish Church of Steeple Lavington." In 15U4 on the other 
\ hand it is spoken of as " The Chantry of the Blessed Mary." It seems to 



* See a very interesting article by Ed. Kite in Wilts N . (^ Q., Ill,, 410— 
420, 468- 470. 



92 Notes. 

h-ive occupied the east end of the N. aisle of the Church. Whether there 
is any connection between the Saints Mary and Katherine on the seal, and 
tlie dedication of the Chantry in the Church cannot be said, but the coinci- 
dence is curious. Ed. H. Goddard. 



A lig'ht in the sky. On the night of Wednesday, Feb. 27th, 1929, 
between 9 30 and 10 p.m , a remarkable light was observed in the sky, the 
like of which had never been seen by any of its observers, at various points 
in N. and S. Wilts and apparently elsewhere also. Mr. L. Hopkins de- 
scribed it in the Wiltshire Telegraph as seen by him near Rowde. Mr. G- 
T. K. Maurice saw it at Burbage and reported it in the Times. It was seen 
at Moredon, in Rodbourne Cheney {N. Wilts herald), and by many people 
at Melksham as shortly stated in the Wiltshire 'Times. I myself saw it at 
Clyffe Pypard and described its appearance in the Wiltshire Gazette, whilst 
the Daily Mail spoke of it as having been seen at Salisbury, Devizes, and 
Warminster, and printed the following description by Dr. Norman Lockyer 
of the phenomenon as he saw it from his observatory at Sidmouth, Devon 
This is probably the most exact and scientific descFiption published, and it 
is worth while to reprint it in full. 

"At 9.35 p.m. the aurora became very brilliant, extending from 
N.N.E. to N.N". W., and shot out shafts of light which at times reached 
as far as the Zenith, or overhead point. But the most remarkable 
object was what appeared to be a brilliant, luminous cloud extending 
nearly three parts across the sky. I was in the dome with a telescope 
when to my astonishment I saw a broad beam of light very like a 
bright searchlight beam extending near the western horizon almost 
over the Zenith. I thought it must be a very bright beam from a 
motor car headlight in the valley below. But the beam did not reach 
the ground at all. It started near Jupiter and broadened out the 
higher it rose in the sky, ending in the constellation of the Great Bear. 
It was then in the north-east at about 45 degrees from the horizon. 
The whole object was formed like an enormous comet, with its head or 
nucleus near Jupiter. It was of a slightly blue tint. As minutes 
passed the. whole "cloud " moved slowly from north to south. It was 
transparent, for the stars, such as the Pleiades group, could be seen 
immersed in it. As it moved very slowly southwards it began to fade. 
At 9.45 it had left Jupiter behind, its upper portion reaching to the 
brightest star in Taurus and terminating there. At 9.55 there was only 
a slight trace of the object left. Such a phenom'enon was never ob- 
served before." 
All the observers agree in its likeness to the beam of an upturned motor 
liead light. In some papers it was described as the "Zodiacal Light," ap- 
parently for want of something better to call it, but in Nature for March 
9th it is definitely ascribed to the Aurora, which according to some of the 
observers certainly accompanied it Mr. H. 0. Brentnall, who observed it 
carefully at Marlborough, writes that it was also seen by a relative of his at 
East Pennard, Somerset. Ed. H. Goddard. 



Notes. 93 

Coniferous Roots in Sarseu Stones. By W. N. 

Edwards. [Reprinted by permission of the author and editor from 
Report of the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Socfor 1929, pp. 41, 42.] 

The only organic remains found in the sarsen stones of Wiltshire are 
roots of plants, which though abundant are usually represented by casts or 
hollow tubes. Carruthers examined some petrified fragments collected by 
T. Codrington, and pronounced them to be indeterminable, but suggested 
that they might be palm rootlets (Geol. Mag.^ 1885, p. 361). Osborne 
White, in an excellent recent account of sarsen stones {Geol. Surv. Expl. 
Sheet 266, 1925, pp. 74—8), describes the occurrence of the roots and root- 
lets, but has nothing further to add concerning the plants to which they 
belonged. Through the kindness of Mr. Guy Peirson, I have recently had 
an opportunity of examining a piece of silicified wood, about 2*5 cm. in 
diameter, from a sarsen block lying about four miles north-west of Marl- 
borough ; the preservation is fairly good, and shows that the wood is coni- 
ferous. It is of the Cupressmoxylo7i type, using the term in a wide sense, 
and can be more closely compared with. Glyptostroboxylon tenei^um (KrSiUs), a 
wood which is common in the Miocene of Wetterau and Silesia, but which 
has not previously been recorded from England. 

The more important details of anatomical structure are as follows : the 
bordered pits on the radial walls of the tracheids are in one row, or in two 
opposite rows, and separate ; rims of Sanio are present. The tangential 
walls are unpitted. Parenchyma is present, but rare. The wood rays are 
1 — 2 (rarely 3) cells high ; the cells are thin-walled and may be as much as 
52/x high. There are 2—8 simple pits (oopores) in the field. The speci- 
men, in short, has all the characteristics of the young wood of Glyp- 
tostrohoxylon tenerum, which is regarded by Gothan and Krausel as being 
closely related to the living Glyptostrobns heterophyllus ot China. The only 
other comparable recent woods are those of Cunning hamia, in which the 
ray pits in the field are usually bordered, with a narrow pore (according to 
Krausel), and Ginkgo, in which these pits are elliptical and oblique. Im- 
pressions of foliage and cones known as Taxodites or Glyptostrobus eurojmeus 
which are abundant at various horizons throughout the Tertiary in Europe 
and America, are considered by some botanists to be indistinguishable from 
G. heterophyllus. The petrified wood and the impressions may belong to 
one and the same species, though there is at present no proof of connexion. 
Taxodites europaeus has been recorded from the Lower Eocene of Heading 
and the Middle Eocene of Bournemouth, but it would not be safe to draw 
any conclusion as to the age of the sarsen stones from the presence in them 
of Glyptostroboxylon. 

Codrington's specimens mentioned above are now in the British Museum 
(Geological Department) and a re-examination of the slides confirms the 
view that they are indeterminable ; there is no apparent reason for regard- 
ing them as palm rootlets. Moreover, in the sarsen blocks from which the 
preparations were made (from Little Bedwyn, Wilts) are rootlets from which 
I was able to make collodion films showing a few tracheids with bordered 
pits, resembling those of Glyptostroboxylon. There is therefore at present 



94 Wilts Ohituary. 

no evidence for the occurrence in sarsen stones of any plant except this 
conifer. 

The specimen found by Mr. Peirson is in two pieces, one of which, with 
microscopical preparations, is in the Geological Department of the British 
Museum (Natural History), registered No. V. 20732, and the other is in the 
Marlborough College Museum. 

Early Iron Age Bronze Horse Bit Roller. The 

bronze object illustrated (Fig. V.) was dug up in Swindon last year and is a 
spiked roller from the bar of a horse's bit ; similar examples are fairly 
common from Greece and Italy and are of the first few centuries H.(J. 
'J'hey were slipped on the bar and held in position by metal rings and tubes 
so that when the reins were pulled the spikes revolved on the jaws on either 
side of the horse's mouth. 

In the British Museum is a perfect Greek bridle bit with the rollers in 
position ; they are referred to by Xenophon who names them " hedgehogs" ; 
they are rare in England but one is figured by Evans from Great Bedwyn, 
Wilts, now in the British Museum. He, however, was unaware of their 
true use and speaks of them as maceheads {By^onze Implements^ p 271) ; 
the Bedwyn specimen has a tube attached to keep the spikes at a proper 
distance from the centre of the bit. The larger specimens may have been 
used as mace heads. A. U. Passmore. 

[The Society is indebted to Mr. Passmore for the cost of the block.] 



WILTS OBITUAKY. 



Edward Kite, died Jan. 9th, 1930, aged 97. Buried in Devizes 
Cemetery. Born May 14th, 1832, at Devizes. His father kept a small 
grocer's shop in the Brittox, removing afterwards to the corner house No. 1, 
!St. John Street, now rebuilt as the Midland Bank. Edward Kite was 
educated at first at a school in Long Street kept by Dr. Biggs, where he 
received that thorough grounding in Latin by the classical master, Mr. 
Grantham, which stood him in such good stead in after life. He was after- 
wards removed to Dr. Thompson's School in Bridewell Street. After his 
father's death in 1875 he continued the business at No. 1, St. John Street, 
adding that of a picture dealer and photographer, apparently until 1877. 
After this he seems to have given up business and taken seriously to 
antiquarian research and writing for a livelihood, a livelihood always pre- 
carious and uncertain. He was for a time assistant secretary to the Wilts 
Archaeological Society, but this connection was severed owing to some dis- 
agreement in which he thought he had not been fairly treated. What the 
circumstances or merits of that disagreement were nobody living knows, 
but the result of it was to prejudice him for many years against the Society, 
and after the first few years of the Society's life he ceased to contribute to 
the Magazine. On the other hand the eight volumes of Wiltshire Notes 



Wilis Obituary. 95 

<ind Queries which were not published by the Society contain a great num- 
ber of articles and notes by him, and since JSotes and Queries came to an 
<»nd in 1917 the Wiltshire Gazette has been fortunate in being able to print 
a succession of articles and notes by him on Wiltshire family history, and 
houses, and more especially on the Old Houses of Devizes, and those who 
lived in them. These articles alone would have entitled him to an honorable 
jilace amongst Wiltshire Antiquaries, and in his later days the Wilts 
Archaeological Society did what it could to show its appreciation of the real 
value of his work by electing him as its one and only Honorary Member, a 
gesture which there is reason to believe he accepted in the spirit in which 
it was meant. Years ago he had been often employed in the tracing of 
pedigrees and other research work in the Record Office, the British Museum, 
and elsewhere for various Wiltshire families, and in this way he amassed a 
wealth of knowledge, not only on the particular matter that engaged him 
ut the moment, but with regard to the family history, the genealogy, the 
heraldry, and the general topography of the County of Wilts such as probably 
no one now living possesses. This knowledge his prodigious memory which 
remained apparently unimpared to the last enabled him to pour out in 
the long succession of articles which form the bulk of his writings. In 
these he set out to give the facts of the history of a family, the descent of 
u manor, or the story of a house and he gave them in due order and sequence, 
and always with the greatest accuracy, going off on no side issues, and 
indulging in no irrelevant humour, occupying no longer space than was 
necessary to make what he wrote entirely clear and intelligible in excellent 
i^nglish. He could indeed have written the history of central Wilts better 
than any one else of this or the previous generation. But perhaps on 
account of financial considerations, perhaps because he seems never to have 
cared after the publication in 1860 of his Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire^ 
which was a model of what such a book should be, to tie himself down to 
the drudgery of any large work, he never wrote or published any other 
book. He did indeed write a considerable portion of a History of Seend, 
but it was never finished, and the MS. which passed out of his own hands 
has entirely disappeared. From 1854 when his account of the Devizes 
Churches appeared in Vol. II. of the Magazine, he continued to write with 
no apparent loss of mental faculties until the summer of 1929, and his 
beautifully clear and careful handwriting, as is shown by the example 
given under his portrait in the excellent obituary notice by the editor, in 
I he Wiltshire Gazette of Jan. 16th, 1930, never changed to the very end. 
I (e retained his physical powers too in a wonderful way. He was deaf it 
is true, but his eyesight was marvellous. He was only really incapacitated 
for a few weeks at the last. To his other accomplishments he added a 
sound knowledge of medieval architecture, and he was no mean draughts- 
man as the illustrations to many of his papers prove. 

He was the author of the following : — 
" The Monumental Brasses ofWiltshire : a series of examples of these 
memorials, rang-ing* from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries ; 
accompanied with notices descriptive of ancient costume, and g-ener- 
ally illustrative of the History of the County during" this period. By 



96 Wilts Obituary. 

Edward Kite, assistant secretary to the Wilts Archseological Society. 
Printed for the Author, and sold lay John Henry and James Parker, 
Londosi and Oxford, MDCCCIiX." 

Cloth, Royal 8vo., pp. xv. + lll, 32 plates, two folding pedigrees, 21 
cuts in text. Printed by G. Barclay, Castle St., Leicester Square. 250 
copies printed. 

" The Bosig of Solomon in the Wiltshire Dialect, as it is spoken in the 
Northern Division. From the authorized Eng-lish version." 

Pamphlet square 16mo., pp. 19. 250 copies printed for Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte [Londres, 1861]. 

Historical Notices of the Parish of Bishops Canning's. [In Bishops 
Cannings Parish Magazine. Begun Feb, 1864. 8vo.]. 

Historical Notes on the Places of Interest to he visited by the British 
Arch88olog"ical Association during" their Congress to be held at Devizes, 
1880. By Edward Kite. Edited by W. Henry Butcher, one of the 
local Hon. Secretaries of the Congress. Devizes, H. F. Bull, 4, Saint 
John Street. 

Pamphlet 8vo., pp. 111. 

In The Wiltshire Archse,ological Magazine : — 
The Churches of Devizes. II. 213—256,302—332. Abstracts of Deeds, 

three plates, four cuts. 
Devizes Seals. III. 236—238. One plate. 
Font in the Church of St. George, Preshute, Wilts. III. 239—241. 1 

plate. 
Pilgrims to Rome from, the County of Wilts and Diocese of Sarum, in 

the years 1504 — 1507, 1581 — 1587. III. 241, 242. 
Baynard Monuments in Lacock Church. IV. 1—7. Plate and folding 

pedigree. 
The Guild of Merchants, or three Trading- Companies formerly existing* 

in Devizes. IV. 160—174. Plate. 
Recent excavations on the site of Shaftesbury Abbey. VII. 272 — 277. 

2 plates. 

In Wiltshire Notes and Queries : — 
Southwick Court and its Owners. I. 556—560 ; IT. 24—29. 
An old Salisbury Pageant. II. 39—43. 
The Buried Village on Salisbury Plain. II. 84—88. 
John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury (A.D. 1443-52) andhis Wilt- 
shire parentage. II. 218—222, 255—261, 488—491. Plate, cuts, and 

folding pedigree. 
Queen Elizabeth's Progresses in Wiltshire and Gloucestershire in 1592. 

Aldbourne. II. 447—452. Plate. 

[Arms on Screen at Longleat]. II. 540—542. 

Seymour in RoUestone Registers. II. 586 — 589. 

Old Lackham House and its Owners. III. 1—6, 49—62, 167 — 174. 

Plates and cuts. 
Some Notes on the Monument of an Ecclesiastic in Edington Church.. 

III. 97—105. Plate and cuts. 



Wilts Obituary. 97 

Notes on Amesbury Monastery, with an account of some discoveries on 
the site in 1860. III. 114—119.146—154,221—227,258—267,290— 
305, 433—447 ; IV. 74—80, 124—138. Plates and cuts. 

The Missing" Register of Addison's Baptism-Where is it ? III. 42 — 
43, 236—240, 354—366. 

Some Notes on the Delamere Family and their Chantry at Market 
Lavington. IIL 410—420,465—470. 

Judge Nicholas, his Parentage and Birthplace. III. 505 — 510. 

Horton Wills. IV. 163—170. 

Review of ''The Canonization of St. Osmund, edited by A, R. Maiden.^' 

IV. 184—187. 

Melksham Common Rights. IV. 221 — 228. 

The Cartularies of Wiltshire Abbeys and Monasteries. IV. 229—230. 

Place House, Melksham, and its Owners. IV. 241 — 252,337—349,433 

— 440. Three plates and folding pedigree. 
Funeral armour in Wiltshire Churches. IV. 467, 468. 
Some Notes on the Montacutes, Earls of Salisbury. IV. 481—493, 529 

— 543. 2 plates and cuts. Reprinted as pamphlet, llin. X Sfin., pp. 28. 

Devizes Gazette Office. MDCCOCV. 
Fisherton Gaol, and its occupants in 1649. V. 137, 138. 
Murder of a Wiltshire Clergyman. V. 141, 142. 
"Revie-VT of ** Memorials of Old Wiltshire, edited by Alice Dryden, 1906." 

V. 330—334. 

Lacock Abbey, Beads and Cross found in the grave of the Foundress. 

V. 337—339. Plate. 
Trowbridge, Roundstone Street. V. 428, 429. 
Wilton House and its literary associations. V. 433—442, 494—503, 529 

—544. Plate. 
Encaustic Tiles at Tinhead. VI. 1 — 3. Plate and cuts. 
Review of "TAe Registers of All Cannings and Etchilhampton and the 

Registers of Bishops Cannings, tranficribed by J. H. Parry. VI. 46—48. 
Wiltshire Topography (1659-1843) with some Notes on the late Sir 

Thomas Phillipps and his Historical Collections for the County. VI. 

145—161. Portrait. 
Review of " A Genealogical account of the Mayo and Elton families^ by C. 

H. Mayo. VI. 190-192. 
Queen Anne at Whetham. VI. 235. 
Early Bequests to Wiltshire Highways. VI. 2.36. 
Notes on the Churchwardens Accounts of the Parish of North Newnt on, 

Wilts. VI. 261—266. 
Some old Wiltshire Clocks and Clockmakers. VI. 309—321. 
Will of John de Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury. VI. 438 — 444. 
Felling Family. VI. 459—463. 
Will of Joan Trye [1533], mother of the last Abbess of Lacock. VI. 

554—562. 
The Boy Bishop at Salisbury. VI. 515. 
Some notes on the death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, A.D. 144^, 

and the subsequent murder of William Ayscough, Bishop of Salisbury. 

VII. 84—89. . • 

YOL. XLV. — NO. CLII. H 



^8 Wilts Obituary. 

Arms of the County of Wilts. VII. 97-1 00. Plate and cut. 
Diminutive Incised Effigy at Steeple Lang-ford. VII. 145—147. Plate. 
Some Documents relating to the Church of B. V. Mary, Devizes, and its 

re-founder, A.D, 1410-1458. VII. 193—202. Plate and four cuts. 
Bulstrode Tomb formerly in Erlestoke Church. VII. 251—257. 
Drew of Southhroom. VII. 303—308,441—448. 
Morgan Keene. VII. 381—383. 
South and Hyde Deed. VII. 429, 430. 
Hungerford Deed. VII. 522—523. 
(and A. ISchomberg) Paradise family. VIII. 49—58. 
(and A. Scbomberg) Nicholas and Knight. VIII. 374—378. 
Wiltshire Deeds. VIII. 493—497. 
Mistress Joan Sumner. VIII. 529 — 531. 
Draper Guild, Devizes, Admissions of Freemen (1614-1730). [Prom a 

book belonging to Devizes Corporation.] VIII. 551, 552. 

In the Wiltshire Gazette. 
Some Old Houses in Devizes. (A series of articles as below). 

(1) Brownston House. Jan 15th, 1920. 

(2) The Lamb Inn and Houses adjoining. Feb. 12th, 1900. 

(3) No. 2, High Street. Feb. 26th, 1920. 

(4) No. *7, The Brittox. March 18th, 1920. 

(5) Nos. 23 and 24, St. John Street. July 22nd, 1920. 

(6) Nos. 31 and 32, Bridewell Street. Aug. I9th, 1920. 

(7) The Hazelands. Dec. 30th, 1920. 

(8) No. 8, St. John Street. Feb. 24th, 1921. 

(9) No. 3, St. John Street. Sept. 8th, 1921. 

(10) Greystone House. Oct. 27th, 1921. 

(11) New Park and the Sutton Family Nov. 24th, 1921. 

(12) The Weavers' Hall. Feb. 23rd, 1922. 

( 1 3) St. John's Court (No- 4) and the Almshouses adjoining. May 25th, 
1922. 

(14) Bluett's Court and Southbroom House. Sept. 7th, 1922. 

(15) Nos. 22 & 23, The Brittox. Nov 30th, 1922. 

(16) The Rectory House and succession of Rectors. Dec. 14th and 21st, 
1922. 

(17) " The Croft " in Southbroom. Jan. 18th, 1923. 

(18) The Old Park. May 3lst, 1923. 

(19) Nos. 31-32, St. John Street. Home of a great collector. Dec. 1 1th 
1924. 

(20) The " Castle " Hotel and its earlier owners. Feb. 5th, 1925. 

(21) No. 30, Long Street. March 25th, 1926. 

(22) Browfort. vlar. 10th, 1927. 

(23) Nos. 2 & 3, Church Walk, Southbroom. Dec. 13th, 1928. 

(24) The " "White Bear," No. 23, Monday Market Street. May 23rd, 
1929. 

<25) The House No. 8, Long Street, The Residence of Mr. T. S. WilkinB. 
M&y 30th, 1929. 



Wilts Obituary. 99 

Other articles in the Wiltshire Gazette were the following :— 
Lacock Abbey and its Owners. Jan. 1 Ith, 1917. 
The Passing- of Compton Bassett. Nov. 21st, 1918. 
Rang-ebourne Mill. April 1st, 1920. 
Imber and Imber Court. Oct. 21st, 1920. 
Broadleas, Potterne, Vlarch 9th, 1922. 

The Grubbe family and Eastwell House, Potterne. April 20th, 1922. 
Devizes, " La Rewe." Sept. 2:3rd, 1 926. 

Devizes Castle. A hitherto unpublished sketch. Nov. 18th, 1926. 
Iiackham and its owners. Feb. 3rd, 1927. 

Old Iiackham House and its contents. Feb. 3rd and 17th, 1927. 
Lackham and the Montague family. April 21st, 1927. 
The Forests of Melksham and Chippenham. Some Stray Notes. Jan. 

3rd and iOth, 1929. 
John Bent, the Chirton Martyr of 1517. Was he burnt in Devizea 

Marketplace? Jan. I7th, 1929. 
Devizes Market, A.D. 1141—1929. Some Stray Notes. April 4th, 1929. 
The Commonwealth A.D. 1651, and Devizes Church Property. Oct. 3rd, 

1929. 
The Bear Hotel, Devizes. Some Notes on its History. Pamphlet oblong, 

7|in. X 4|in., pp. 23, 6 plates. 

The Ven. Eric James Bodington. Archdeacon of 
Dorset and Canon Residentiary of Salisbury, Died 
Oct, 25th, 1929, aged 66. Buried at Trinity Churchyard, Oalne. Bora 
Dec. I7th, 1862, s. of Thomas and Mary Bodington, of Harborne Park, Staffs. 
Educated at the Choir School, Hereford, and Brasenose Coll., Oxon. B.A. 
J885, M.A. 1889, Deacon 1886, Priest 1887 (Sarum). Curate of W. Ford- 
ington (Dors.), 1886—89; Domestic Chaplain to Bp. of Salisbury, 1890; 
Hector of Ch. Ch., Burghersdorp with St. Cuthbert's, Molteno, Cape Colony, 
1890—92 ; Priest- Vicar, Grahamstown Cathedral, 1892—93 ; Warden of St. 
Peter's Home, Grahamstown, 1892—93 ; Vicar of Osmington (Dors.), 1894 
— 99; Potterne, 1899—1907; Piural Dean of Potterne portion, 1900—07; 
Rural Dean of Avebury, 1907—13; Preb. and Canon of Salisbury, 1913; 
Vicar of Calne, 1907—27 ; Archdeacon of Wilts, 1912 — 27 ; Archdeacon of 
Dorset and Canon Besidentiary of Salisbury, 1927 until his death. 

A moderate churchman with a broad outlook he was in no sense a party 
man. What was perhaps nearest to his heart was the cause of education, 
more especially religious education. At Calne he taught regularly the 
senior classes in three elementary schools every week, and gave weekly lec- 
tures in Church to teachers on Bible subjects. He also lectured on literary 
and historical subjects. The zeal with which he threw himself into the 
cause of education, secular as well as religious, gave real influence to his 
long membership of the Education Committee of the Wilts County Council. 
A scholar and a thinker himself, secondary and elementary teachers were 
willing to listen to him and to take hints from him that they would not 
have taken from any ordinary clergyman. In educational matters his death 
is indeed a serious loss both to the county and to the diocese. When the 
•Church Advisory Committee was first started he took the keenest interest 

H 2 



100 Wilts Ohituary. 

in seeing that its work was a reality in the Wilts Archdeaconry, and on his 
appointment to the Dorset Archdeaconry he threw himself with character- 
istic energy into the matter that was then, and is now, of the greatest im- 
portance in that archdeaconry, the extension of the Church amongst the 
dense population growing up in S.E. Dorset in the Bournemouth — Poole 
area. Before becoming Archdeacon he had for years been an Oxford 
University Extension Lecturer, and for a long while he was Hon. Chaplain 
of the 4th Batt. Wiltshire Regiment. His funeral at Calne was a demon- 
stration of the wide esteem in which he was held. 

Long obituary notices appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette^ October 31st ^ 
Salisbury Journal^ Nov. 1st : Wiltshire Times, Nov. 2nd, 1929. 

He was the author of the following. 
A Short History and Exposition of the Apostle's Greed and of the first 

Eight of the Thirty-iiine Articles; with an Introduction "by the Bishop 

of Salisbury. 1897. Cr. 8vo. 
A History of Devizes. Devizes : C. H. Woodwai'd. 1903. Pamphlef, 

Cr. 8vo., pp. 33. Price 6d. 
A Criiide to Devizes and Ten Miles Round, with an extra chapter on 

Stoneheng-e. C= H. Woodward, Devizes. [1905], Pamphlet, 7in. X 

4|in. Folding map and 20 photo illustrations. It includes Avebury, 

Lacock, and Edington. Noticed Wilts Arch Mag.^ XXXIV., 234. 
God with lis. Short Otiidies in Divine Immanence, with Questions for 

Study Circles and Discussion Groups. Long'm.ans, London. 1923. 

llm. X 4|in, Stiff paper covers, pp. 3 + 59. Price 2s. 
The Battle of Kou-ndway Down. Wilts Arch. J/ag., XXXVII. , 593-602. 
Sermon at Calne Church, to the Mayor and Corporation, Nov. 20th, 1910. 

Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 23rd, 1910. 
Charge delivered at the Visitations at Devizes and Marlboroug-h, May 

1914. Duties of Churchwardens. Wiltshire Gazette, May 28th, 1914. 
Sermon in Calne Church, Feb. 28th, 1915, on occasion of visit of Eand 

and Recruiting- Party of ^th Wilts Regt. Wiltshire Gazette, March 

4th, 1915. 
Address at the K,e-opening of the Bells of St. Mary's, Devizes, Aug. 28th. 

Wiltshire Gazette, JSept. 2nd, 1915. 
Sermon at the Induction of the Rev. A. H. T. Clarke as Rector of Devizes. 

Sept. 24th. Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 30tti, 1915. 
Charge delivered at Marlborough and Devizes. " The War ; its Lessons 

and our Duties." Education in War Time. The Work of the Sunday- 
School. Wiltshire Gazette, June 1st, 1916. 
Sermon at Calne Church before the Mayor and Corporation. " A Four- 
fold Vision Needed." Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 23rd, 1916. 
Sermon preached in St. John's Church, Devizes. " The Glory of the 

War: Some National Duties." Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 15th, 1917. 
" Reconstruction in the Church." Visitation charge delivered at Devizes 

and Marlborough. Wiltshire Gazette, May 29th, 1919. 
Sermon preached at Melksham Church on the Sunday after the funeral 

of Canon E. G. Wyld. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 8th, 1920. 



Wilts Obituary, 101 

" The Church's Opportunity. Some of the Reforms most needed." 
Chargfe delivered at the Visitations at Marlborough and Devizes. 
Wiltshire Gazette, April 28th, 192U. 

Address at May Day United Service, Calne. Wiltshire Tmies, May 7th, 
1921. 

Sermon preached in Salisbury Cathedral, July 7th, 1929, at the Thanks- 
givings for the King's Recovery. Wiltshire Gazette, July 1 1th, 1929. 

Helen, Countess of Radnor. Died Sept. nth, 1929, aged 83. 

Buried at Britford after cremation. Only daughter of Rev. Henry Chaplin, 
Vicar of Ryhall, Rutland, and Caroline, d. Will. Ellice, M.P. Born 1846. 
She married Will. Pleydell Bouverie 1866. He became Viscount Folkestone 
in 1869, and succeeded his father as 5th Earl of Radnor in 1889. He died 
in 1900. After this she lived chiefly in Venice where her garden was well 
known. She leaves two sons, the present Earl of Radnor and Col. the Hon. 
Stuart Pleydell Bouverie, D.S.O. Her only daughter, Lady Wilma, married 
first the late Earl of Lathom and secondly Lt.-Gen. Sir H. M. Lawson. 
Lady Radnor was widely known for her musical talents. She did much to 
help in the foundation of the Royal College of Music, and her orchestra, 
*' known at first as Lady Folkestone's, and then as Lady Radnor's Band, 
was a string band composed of young ladies of birth who were made to take 
their duties very seriously. Fifteen annual concerts were given under her 
conductorship at the old St. James's Hall, and elsewhere in fjondon, and 
also in the provinces, much to the benefit of various good causes, particu- 
larly the People's Entertainmerit Society, in which she took a keen interest. 
It was indeed so successful that Barnum wanted to transport it bodily to 
America, to play in his circus." For years together she never took part in 
less than sixty concerts in the year. She also herself painted the glass of 
a large window in Salisbury Cathedral as a memorial to her husband, as 
well as other windows in Britford Church and the English Church at 
Venice. She was one of the most prominent supporters of the Anglo- 
Israelite Association. 

Obit, notices, Times, Sept. 12th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 12th, 1929. 

She was the author of the following. 
Prom a Great G-randmother's Armchair. The Marshall Press, Ltd., Lon- 
don. [1927]. Cloth. lOin. X 6|in., pp. 362 + 6, with 18 illustrations 
and portraits. 

Rev, Henry James Wright. Died Aug. 27th, 1929, aged 69. 

Buried at Rowde. Queen's Coll , Camb., B.A. 1884, M.A. 1892. Deacon 
1884 (Durham), Priest 1885 (Rochester). Curate of Rainton, 1884—85; 
St. Stephen, Walworth, 1885—86 ; Rector of Blaxhall, Sufi"., 1886—91 ; 
Vicar of St. Matthew, Marylebone, 1891 -—1902 ; Rector of Gussage St. 
Michael, 1902—21; Rector of Rowde, 1921 until his death. Assistant 
Dioc. Inspector of Schools, 1905. Much esteemed at Rowde. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 29th, 1929. 



102 Wilts Obituary. 

Charles FenruddOCke. Died Oct. 2nd, 1929, aged 71. Buried 
at Compton Chamberlaine. Son of Charles Penruddock, of Compton Park, 
and Flora Henrietta, daughter of Walter Long, of Rood Ashton, grand- 
father of the late Viscount Long, Born Sept. 26th, 1858, educated at Clif- 
ton Coll. and Pembroke Coll., Cambridge. In his earlier life he lived at 
Bratton Lodge (which he built himself), Bratton St. Maur, near Wincanton, 
Somerset. He had been J. P. for Wilts since 1886, and was High Sheriff in 
1913. For Somerset he became J. P. in 1896. Since 1904 he had been a 
member of the Wilton Board of Guardians and R.D. Council. He was an 
original member of the Salisbury Diocesan Synod. He was a vice-president 
of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society. No member was more regular in 
his attendance at the annual meetings and excursions, and during the 
Shaftesbury meeting of 1918 he entertained the Society most hospitably 
at Compton Park. He married, 1890, Anne Elizabeth, d. of the Bev. 
Will. Speke, of Sheldon Court, Devon, a cousin of Capt. J. H. Speke, the 
great explorer. Of their three sons, the eldest, Charles, was killed in 
France Oct. 4th, 1918, and youngest, Thomas, at Lake Doiran, on April 
24th, 1917. Their second son, George, who succeeds his father at Compton 
Park, was severely wounded on the Somme. Three daughters survive him, 
Mrs. L. Bowie, and two unmarried, Flora Mary Elizabeth and Sybil 
Frances. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 10th, 1929. 



Charles Hasklns. Died Oct. I7th, 1929, aged 80. Born at 
Bristol he came to Salisbury in 1873, and for years conducted an outfitter's 
business in Silver Street, and a china and glass shop near the Poultry 
Cross. He retired from business 19 years ago. He was elected to the City 
Council in 1888, and became Mayor in 1893, and Alderman in 1904. In 
1927 he was made the fifth freeman of the city, an honour which he shared 
with four other prominent men of the time, as the resolution of the council 
stated, in recognition of " the distinguished services he had rendered to the 
city during 40 years as a member of the Corporation and in other capacities, 
especially as a curator of its muniments and other treasures, in the main- 
tenance of its ancient traditions and in the recording of its history." No 
man deserved the honour more. " For years he was the chairman of the 
finance committee of the council, in which capacity he rendered great ser- 
vice to the city. His deep interest in local history fitted him for the post 
of honorary curator of the Salisbury Muniment Room, and he was also for 
many years hon, curator of Fine Arts at the Salisbury and S.Wilts Museum." 
He was vice-chairman of the management committee of Salisbury Infirm- 
ary, as well as chairman of several business companies. He became J.P. for 
the city in 1901. As a churchman he took a large part in the development of 
the new parish and Church of St. Mark. His portrait by Mr. Frank Brooks 
hangs in the Guildhall amongst the worthies of Salisbury, as it is fitting 
that it should, for he did much for Salisbury in many ways. 

Long obit, notices in the Salisbury Times (with a leading article and por- 
trait), Oct. 18th ; Salisbury Journal, Oct. 18th, 1929. 



Wilts Obituary. 103 

He was the author of : — 

The Salisbury Corporation Pictures and Plate, with an Introduction by- 
Mr. Lionel Oust, M.V.O., P.S.A. . . . With ten illustrations. 
Salisbury: Bennett Brothers, Printers, Journal Office, 1910. Cloth. 
8vo., pp. XXIIH-227+1+10. 

The Ancient Trade Guilds and Companies of Salisbury. By Alderman 
Charles Haskins, J.P., author of the Salisbury Corporation Pictures 
and Plate, with an introduction by Rev. Canon Christoper Wordsworth. 
. . . With 32 illustrations. Salisbury, Bennett Brothers, Printers, 
Journal Office, 1912. Linen. 8vo., pp. XXXVI. + 423. Price 12s. 6d. 
[Founded on a series of articles in thQ Salisbury Journal, Sept. 7th, 21st ; 
Dec. 28th, 1907 ; Jan. 4th, 11 th, 18th ; Feb. 1st, 15th, 29th ; April 18th, 
1908]. 

Some Salisbury Worthies. Festival Book of Salisbury. 1914. 7 por- 
traits, no letterpress, reproduced from Salisbury Corporation Pictures 
and Plate. 

The History of Salisbury Infirmary. Pounded by Anthony, Lord 
Peversham, A.D., 1766. Published by the Salisbury and District In- 
firmary and Hospital League. Salisbury Times Co. 1922. 

[Second title] The History of Salisbury Infirmary , . . With a fore- 
word by the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Radnor, Visitor of the Salisbury 
Infirmary, with 17 illustrations. Boards. 4to., pp. XEV.+46 

Notes on the Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Salisbury. For the 
use of Visitors. Leaflet, 4 pp. 8vo. Price 2d. 

Salisbury Charters and History of SL Edmund's Colleg-e. The Charter 
of Henry III. with a Translation by Rev. Canon Chr. Wordsworth 
. . . A Summary of the Translation of Nine other Royal Charters 
in the Corporation Muniments. New Sarum in the Middle Ages and 
the History of St. Edmund's College, Salisbury . . . with an In- 
troduction by the Mayor of Salisbury. 1927. (^lotli. 8vo., pp. 8 + 62 
+ 4. 

The Rev. Harry Sanders. Died Sept. i8th, 1929, aged 67. 

Buried in Trowbridge Cemetery. Born at Budleigh Salterton, Devon. 
1862. Entered the Baptist ministry. Pastor of Kirton in Lindsey, 1886— 
1889. Pastor of Bethesda Baptist Church, Trowbridge, 1895 — 1908; Zion 
Baptist Church, Bradford-on-Avon, 1912—1918. Since then he has regu- 
larly taken Sunday services in Nonconformist Chapels throughout Wilts. 
He was chairman of the Trowbridge Urban Council from 1911 to 1920, 
during the war, when he received the King and Queen in 1917 on their 
visit to Trowbridge. In December of that year the Urban Council pre- 
sented him with a gold watch and chain and an address in appreciation of 
great services to the town, whilst his special war services in connection 
with all sorts of organisations were recognised by his appointment as a 
Deputy Lieutenant of the County. He became a J. P. for the County 
in 1915 and was vice-chairman of the Trowbridge bench. He was for 30 
years a member of the Melksham and Trowbridge Guardians, and was 
chairman at the time of his death. He never married. He was greatly 



104 Wilts Obituary. 

interested in Natural History, especially birds and flowers. He had played 
bowls for Wilts many times, and was one of the principal supporters of the 
Warminster Golf Culb. It was through him that an up-to-date fire engine 
and fire station was provided, the engine itself being named after him the 
" Harry Sanders." An immense number of organisations, social and re- 
ligious, were represented at his funeral, which was one of the largest ever 
seen in Trowbridge — as was fitting for one who had given nearly 40 years 
of unselfish service to the town. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Times, Sept. 2lst and 28th; Wiltshire Gazette, 
Sept. 21st, 1929. 

J. S. PrOtheroe. Died Oct. 28th. Buried at Swindon. Born at 
Swansea he came to Swindon in the early eighties and for some years car- 
ried on the business of a photographer in Regent Street. Thirty years ago 
he became tax collector for Swindon and carried out the duties until re- 
cently. He took a very prominent part in the public life of Swindon. For 
over 30 years he was chairman of the Swindon and Highworth Board of 
Guardians, and for 26 years from its foundation as a Swindon Traders' 
Association on a small scale in 1894, he was hon. sec. to the Swindon 
Chamber of Commerce, He was a prominent Freemason. He was the first 
secretary of the Swindon Branch of the National Farmers' Union, and 
later on secretary to the County Executive. As a Justice of the Peace for 
the county he was regular in his attendance on the Swindon bench. He 
had long been a member of the Wilts County Council, and from his deep 
interest in educational matters a member of the County Education Com- 
mittee. He was chairman of the Wilts Joint Vagrancy Committee, and a 
member of the Wilts County Mental Hospital Management Committee, and 
of the Swindon Victoria Hospital Committee. He had for about 50 years 
conducted the choir at the Baptist Tabernacle. There was no busier man 
in Swindon, and few who will be more missed. 

Long obit, notice, North Wilts Herald, Nov. 1st, 1929. 

Qeorge Ferris. Died Dec. iSth, 1929, aged 83. Buried at Milton 
liilbourne. He was son of Samuel Ferris and Charlotte Spenser, who 
farmed at Bulkington, and was agent to Dr. Gaisford, Dean of Christ- 
church. He was of the Ferris family of Keevil, of whom some 50 are buried 
in the churchyard, and had lived for over 60 years at the Manor House, 
Milton, which he bought from Henry Somerset, to whom it was left by Dr. 
John Somerset, who inherited it from Mrs. Brown, formerly a Miss 
Somerset, who bought it in 1813, and restored it as a residence. He was 
articled to Messrs. Cotterell &, Spackman, of Bath, Agricultural Valuers 
and Arbitrators, living afterwards at Milton with his uncle William, who 
was of the same profession. His whole subsequent life was devoted to 
the business of land agent and general agricultural arbitrator, succeeding 
to his uncle's business on his death. He was a Fellow of the Surveyors' 
Institute, and had been President of the Central Council of Agricultural 
Valuers for England. He acted as agent for Sir John Kelk, of Ted worth, 
and for Mr. F. A. Bevan, of Fosbury Manor. He retired from business a 



Wilts Ohituary. 105 

few years ago, Mr. P. M. Puckridge having been his partner as far as the 
auctioneering side of the business was concerned. He was a churchman of 
the evangelical type, and an ardent supporter of the Pewsey Vale Auxiliary 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society. A man of strict integrity in 
business, he was looked on as the father of the village at Milton, where he 
was held in the highest esteem, 

Long obit, notice, with some account of the Ferris, Spencer, Withers, and 
Pile families, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 19th, 1929. 

He was the author of 
A few notes on the History of the Parish of Milton Lilbourne. 1929. 

Pamphlet. 

John Henry Mohnn Ashfordby Trenchard, of Stan- 
ton Fitzwarren, died Dec, 1929, aged 61. Buried at Stanton Fitzwarren. 
He succeeded to the Stanton property three years ago on the death of his 
father, John Ashfordby Trenchard, and had recently lived at " The Rectory," 
Stanton Fitzwarren. He had previously lived at Northaw, Potters Bar, 
Herts. 

Rev. John Henry Galley. Died Dec. i3th, 1929. Buried at 
Figheldean. Emmanuel Coll., Camb. B.A. 1872, M.A. 1888. Wells 
Theological Coll., 1872. Doacon 1872, Priest 1873 (Glos. and Bristol), 
Curate of St. John, Clifton, 1872 — 74 ; Org. Sec. S.P.G. for Archdeaconry 
of Bristol, 1877—82 ; Rector of Blunsdon St. Andrew, 1874-87 ; Vicar of 
Chiseldon and Rector of Draycott Foliat, 1887—95; Vicar of Figheldean, 
1895 until his death. Rural Dean of Amesbury II., 1907—20. Three 
daughters survive him, his eldest son, Lieut. J. O. Calley, of the Wilts 
Regt., was killed in the war in 1915. He served for many years on the 
Amesbury Board of Guardians and R. D. Council. He was an enthusiastic 
supporter of the Royal Antediluvian Order of BufiPaloes, of which he was a 
Provincial P.G.M. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 1 9th, 1929. 

Mrs. Julie Morgan. Died Oct., 1929, aged 77. Of an old Swiss 
family she married 1871 the Rev. David Morgan, a Congregational minister 
in S. Wales. She had before the war taken every certificate open to a non- 
professional nurse, and up to the age of 66 she nursed on the staff of the 
Wiltshire Military Hospitals until forbidden by her doctor to continue. 
In 1914 she kept closely in touch with the detachment of Territorials 
stationed at Wootton Bassett to guard the railway, and after the war 
devoted herself to the work of the Red Cross and succeeded in raising 
a Voluntary Aid Detachment for Wootton Bassett, of which she was 
appointed first commandant at the age of 76 in May of 1928. She re- 
ceived the thanks of the War Ofiice and the Red Cross for her services 
during and after the war. Her only son. Gen. J. H. Morgan, K.C, the 
well-known writer during the war, and three daughters survive her. 

A number of letters speaking of her work and character in the highest 
terms were published in the Wiltshire Gazette. The monthly organ of the 



106 Wilts Obituary. 

Red Cross in Switzerland (the original home of the Red Cross movement), 
" La Croix Rouge," announced its intention of dedicating its New Year s 
number to her memory, and other tributes have been paid by the Head 
Quarters of the British Red Cross Society, the Wilts County Executive, 
the County Director (Col. Sir Herbert Bryan), and many others. A corres- 
pondent writing in the 2'imes says : — " Only those who knew her intimately 
were aware of her extraordinary loving-kindness. A woman of great 
intellectual gifts and of high breeding she was content to be the de- 
voted wife of an obscure Congregational minister, and brought up on his 
narrow income a family of six children. Her life was full of sorrows, 
but all these only served to sweeten a character already distinguished 
by a rare spiritual beauty, and to fortify her in the Christian faith." 
Obit, notices and appreciations in the IHmes, Oct. 14th ; Wiltshire Gazette, 
Dec. 12th, 1929. 

Sir Vincent Henry Penalver Caillard, Kt, Died 

March 25tb, 1930, aged 73. Cremated and buried at Wingfield. Born Oct* 
23rd, 1856. Son of Camille Felix Desire Caillard, County Court Judge of 
the Bath Circuit. Educated at Eton, 1869 — 72, and Woolwich. Joined the 
Royal Engineers 1875. In 1879 he was appointed assistant to the British 
commission for the delimitation of the Montenegrin frontier and later for the 
Tabia Bridge commission. In 1880 he was sent to Epirus to report to the 
Berlin Congress, and was afterwards attached on special service to Admiral 
Sir Beauchamp Seymour during the naval demonstration at Dulcigno. In 
1882 he was attached to the Headquarter Staff during the Egyptian Cam- 
paign and received the medal and Bronze Star and Medjidieh and Osmanieh 
Orders. In 1883 he was appointed President of the Ottoman Public Debt 
Council and financial representative of England, Holland, and Belgium in 
Constantinople. He resigned in May, 1898. He was knighted in 1896. 
In 1898 he resigned bis office on the Ottoman Debt and became a director 
of Vickers Ltd., a post which he filled for 27 years, becoming Financial 
Director in 1906. The enormous contribution made by the company dur- 
ing the war to the national output of munitions was largely due to his 
organising ability. The administrative reorganisation of the company after 
the war was mainly his handiwork. He resigned in 1927. He was an 
energetic supporter of tariff reform and served as President of the Tariff 
Commission. He wrote much on this subject. He was a director of the 
Southern Railway, the Metropolitan Carriage, Wagon, and Finance Com- 
pany, and other important concerns. He was a J. P. for Wilts, but took 
little part in county matters. He was an enthusiastic musician, composed 
many songs, and was president of the Trowbridge Amateur Operatic Society. 
He married 1881 Eliza Frances, sister of Sir John Hanham, Bart., of Wim- 
borne, who died in 1926. In 1927 he married secondly Mrs. Zoe Oakley 
Maund, d. of R. E. Dudgeon, and widow of John Oakley Maund. He 
leaves a son, Mr. Bernard Caillard, and a daughter, Mrs. H. W. Fry, by his 
first marriage. 

Long obit, notices, Times and Wiltshire Gazette, March 20th, ; Wiltshire 
Times, March 22nd, 1930. 



Wilts Obituary. 107 

He was the author of the following : — 
Imperial Fiscal Reform. Edwin Arnold, 1903, Cr. 8vo. 3s. 6d. net. 
An Empire in the Making-. Articles in Monthly BevieWt J an. pip. ZO— 2b; 

March, p.p. 37—64, 1905. 
Industry and Production. Article in National Eevieiv, March, 1920. 

William Pullen. Died Jan. 19th, 1930, aged 63. Buried at 
Christchurch, Swindon. Son of Thomas Fullen, of Lenton Farm, Great 
Chalfield, and was the eldest of a family of twelve. He married Miss 
Attwood, d. of Sam. Attwood, of Biddestone, the maker of the Attwood 
plough. He farmed in association with his father, first at Lenton, after- 
wards at West Kennet Farm. Later on he farmed at Broome Manor, on 
the Coate Koad, near Swindon, and continued to live there when he gave 
up the farm. As a judge of sheep and of ploughing he was widely known. 
He was also for a time at the head of the Attwood plough making business 
and designed the ABC Tractor Plough. He was a first-class shot. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 23rd, 1930. 

Fred Hart Porter. Died Jan. 18th, 1930. Buried at St. Pauls, 
Chippenham. Born June 25th, 1875. Son of Will. Hart Porter, of the 
Station Hill Repository, Chippenham. He succeeded his father as a cattle 
dealer in a large way of business, and was known over a very wide area, 
his services as a judge of cattle being often called for at agricultural shows. 
He was Mayor of Chippenham 1928—29, and was extremely active in sup- 
port of all sorts of social and charitable objects in the town. He was well 
known in the Beaufort Hunt, and was popular and respected in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 23rd, 1930. 

Francis Hodding. Died Sept. 5th, 1929, aged 85. Buried at 
Salisbury Cemetery. Admitted solicitor 1865. Clerk to the Salisbury 
County Bench for many years. He was also Town Clerk and held other 
appointments. As a Conservative he served as agent to the Constitutional 
Association. He was best known for his connection with the Salisbury 
detachment of the 1st Wiltshire Volunteers, in which he served for 30 years. 
In 1874 he became lieutenant, and later he commanded the detachment. 
On retiring he expressed a desire to meet those who had served with him at 
a Church Parade at the Cathedral on June 28th, 1896. On this occasion 
433 men (234 past members and 199 serving men) attended, a remarkable 
testimony to the esteem in which he was held. 

Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, Sept. 12th, 1929. 

John Dymond CrosfiLeld. Died Nov. 9th, 1929, aged 74. Mr. 
Crosfield lived formerly for many years at Durley House, Savernake, and 
was active in Church matters, as a member of the Diocesan Synod and in 
other ways. He was also a member of the Committee of the Wilts Arch. 
Soc, attended meetings whenever possible, and was always willing to help 
the Society. Of late years he had spent the winter regularly on the Riviera 



108 Wilts Obituary. 

at Alassio, where he acted as churchwarden and general factotum of the 
English Church, and his death will be felt there as a great loss. He had 
lived at Bath of late during the summer, and there he died. 

Nathaniel Robert Reynolds Youngf. Died Dec. 1st, 

1929, aged 69. Buried in Chippenham Cemetery. Eldest son of Nathaniel 
Young, of Brinkworth, who bought Ludgershall Castle and Manor Estate 
in 1876, which was sold to the government after his death. In 1900 Mr, 
Young rented West Farm, Winterbourne Monkton, which he afterwards 
bought, together with the whole estate of 2000 acres. In 1916, on account 
of failing health, he sold this property. He was well known both as a dairy 
and sheep farmer in N. Wilts, and was for many years Guardian and Rural 
District Councillor. On giving up farming he lived at Beckhampton, Ave- 
bury, Devizes, and finally at Rowden Hill House, Chippenham, where he 
died. This house was built by his uncle, William Nicholls, the inventor of 
*' Annatto," the colouring matter used in the making of Wiltshire cheese. 
Mr. Young was a Conservative and Strict Baptist. Whilst the owner of 
Winterbourne Monkton he planted elm trees alongside the road and round 
most of his fields. These are now growing up. and will form a memorial to 
their planter in years to come. In this respect he was almost unique among 
farmer owners in N. Wilts. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Dec. 6th, 1929. 

Rev. Charles Clarke. Died Nov. 22nd, 1929, aged 84. Buried 
at Kington Langley, Second son of the Rev, T. A. Clarke, Rector of 
Kelloways and Chaplain of Chippenham Workhouse. Educated Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford. Deacon 1868 (Sarum), Priest 1869 (Oxon.). Curate of Calne, 
1868—69; Vicar of Langley Fitzurse (or Kington Langley), 1871—1927, 
when he resigned, continuing to live at Kington Langley. He married 1880 
the third daughter of Mr. West Awdry, of Monkton, (Jhippenham, who 
survives hiu). At Oxford he was prominent in athletics, and in after life 
he excelled in archery and croquet. He was best known for his musical 
talents, and acted for many years as trainer and conductor of the Chippen- 
ham Harmonic Society. He was also an amateur landscape painter. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 28th ; Wiltshire Times, Nov. 30th, 
1929. 

Col Mortimer Grraham Neeld. Died Sept. 28th, 1929, 

aged 78. Buried at Leigh Delamere. Born Sept. 14th, 1851. Fifth son of 
Sir John Neeld, of Grittleton. Educated at Harrow and Cambridge. 
Joined the 17th Lancers, with which regiment he served, commanding it 
for some years, until he retired in 1 899. He fought and was wounded in the 
Zulu Campaign 1879, and served with his regiment in India. On his re- 
tirement he came to live at Langley Lodge, Langley Burrell, until his death. 
He never married. He was well known and very popular in the Chippen- 
ham neighbourhood, especially in his own parish of Langley Burrell. He 
was a prominent member of the Beaufort Hunt, and took a leading part 



Wilis Obituary. 10^ 

in the Chippenham Agricultural Association, and the Chippenham Horti- 
cultural Society. He had acted as president of the latter. He was a 
strong Conservative. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ Oct. 8th, 1929. 

Arthur Jeffreys Lewis White. Died Oct. 24th, i929, aged 

56. Buried in the Swindon Cemetery. Son of R. L White, chief clerk and 
accountant in G.W.1\. works. He started as an office boy in the works, 
and rose through all the departments on the clerical side to be chief clerk 
and accountant to Mr. C. B. Collett, the chief mechanical engineer. He 
was best known in Swindon as the chairman of directors of the Swindon 
Town Football Club, a post to which he was elected in 1910. He was also 
a well-known Freemason, and was connected with many Swindon Institu- 
tions. His funeral was largely attended. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Nov. 1st, 1929. 

Rev. James Benoy. Died suddenly Nov. 5th, 1929, aged 68. 
Buried at Hilmarton. St. John's Coll., Camb. B.A. 1885, M.A. 1892. 
Deacon 1888, Priest 1889 (London). Curate of St. Peter's, Fulham, 1888— 
90; Assistant Missioner, Walworth, 1890—92 ; Curate of St. Matt., Upper 
Clapton, 1892—93; Chaplain to the Forces, 1893—1918 ; Vicar of Hilmar- 
ton, 1918, until his death. As Chaplain to the Forces he served on active 
service during the S. African War in 1899, and held both medals. At home 
he served at Shorncliffe, Shoeburyness, Warley, Curragh, and Aldershot. 
He was appointed Assistant Chaplain General during the Great War, He 
retired from the army in 1918, when his health failed. During his incum- 
bency at Hilmarton the churchyard has been enlarged and the organ re- 
stored, whilst the parish waterworks were by his energy formed into a com- 
pany and improved. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 7th, 1929. 

Dr. George Rodway Swinhoe, Died Nov. loth, 1929, aged 
61. Buried in Badnor 'Street Cemetery, Swindon. Son of Dr. George 
Money Swinhoe, chief medical superintendent of the G.W.R. Medical Fund 
Staff. In 1899 Dr. G. Rodway Swinhoe became chief assistant to his father, 
his brother, Dr. Astley Swinhoe, being third assistant until his death in 
1905. In 1908 Dr. G. B. Swinhoe became chief medical officer on the death 
of his father, and held that position until 1917. He did good service dur- 
ing the war, at first in charge of a Labour Battalion at Swindon, and later 
in charge of the private military hospital at Bowood. For many years he 
belonged to the G.W.R. St. John Ambulance Association, and was made a 
hon. associate of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He held the rank of 
major in the Wilts Territorials. 

Obit, notice. N. Wilts Herald, Nov. 15th, 1929. 

Rev. John Henry Wilkinson. Died Jan. I9th, i930, aged 

-85. He was the son of the Rev. Matthew Wilkinson, D.D., Vicar of West 
Lavington, headmaster of Marlborough College, and non-residentary Canon. 



no Wilts Obituary. 

of Salisbury. Educated at Winchester Coll., 1850 , Magdalen Coll., Oxford, 
B.A. 1870, M.A, 1872; Deacon 1872 (Oxon.). Assistant Master S. Paul's 
Coll., Stony Stratford, 1871—73; Founder and Headmaster of " Wayn- 
flete" Preparatory School at Clifton, 1873—98, when he moved the school 
to Woodcote, near Goring, retiring to live at Winchester in 1909. During 
the war he again took preparatory work at liramcote, Scarborough. He 
was an enthusiastic Wykehamist all his life. The Times of Jan. 29th, 1930, 
had an appreciation of him by "one of his old boys" " To the small boy 
he was always more of the friend than the schoolmaster ; even as a boy of 
nine one realised that. One formed a friendship then that lasted through 
life, and the longer it lasted the more intimate it became . . . as he 
grew older his interest in his old boys never flagged, and they were always 
sure of a warm welcome at his house in Winchester. He was loved by 
everybody he knew, and especially by those whose privilege it had been to 
work under him or with him." 

" Waynflete" as a preparatory school counted among its scholars a large 
number of boys from north and central Wiltshire. 

G-eOrge Avenell. Died March 17th, 1930, aged 72. Buried at 
Chiseldon. Son of William Avenell, who occupied a large farm at Bad- 
bury, in Chiseldon. Entered the service of the N. Wilts Bank (afterwards 
the Capital and Counties) and was for many years chief inspector and 
actuary at the head office in Threadneedle Street. On retiring he lived in 
London, where he was well known as a member of the Society of 
Wiltshiremen in London. He also took much interest in the N. Wilts 
Field and Camera Club, and the Swindon branch of the Workers' Educa- 
tional Association, and was well known as a lecturer on historical and literary 
subjects. 

Obit notice, Wiltshire Gazette, March 27th, 1930. 

John Francis lilewellyn Hardy. Died suddenly March 

23rd, 1930, aged 69. Buried at Preshute. Educated at Marlborough Col- 
lege, where he was captain of the football team. After taking his degree 
at Oxford he returned to Marlborough as assistant master, and later be- 
came house master of Upcote House, from which he retired ten years ago, 
after losing a leg by an accident. He was well known and greatly respected 
in Marlborough where he continued to live, especially in Preshute parish, 
with the Church life of which he was associated in many ways. He was 
Past Grand Master of the Marlborough Masonic Lodge. He leaves a widow 
and two children. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, March 29th, 1930. 

Rev. Samuel Praser Handcock. Died March 8th, 1930. 

Buried at West Knoyle. Jesus Coll , Camb., B. A., 1885, M.A. 1892, Deacon 
1885, Priest 1887 (Wore). Curate of Pershore, 1885—87 ; Peopleton, 1887 
— 88 : Caversham, 1888—91 ; St. John, Buenos Ayres, 1891—92 ; Chaplain 
at Montevideo, 1892—1903 ; Vicar of Stourton Caundle, Dorset, 1903—07; 
Wilsford with Woodford, 1907—14; Zeals, 1914—21; when he retired to 



Wilts Obituary, 111 

Shaftesbury; Vicar of West Knoyle, 1925, until his death. He lived at 
Shaftesbury where he purchased and laid out the site of the Abbey shew- 
ing the plan of the building. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Dio, Gazette, April, 1930. 

Alfred Williams, died suddenly in his sleep, April 10th, 1930, 
aged 53. Buried at S. Marston. Born at S. Marston, the son of the village 
carpenter, he attended the village school, but at the age of twelve he was 
working on a farm. Leaving this for the Swindon G.W.Il. " Works" he 
became a steam-hammer driver, and later a " hammer-man," whence his 
title later on as " The Hammerman Poet." " His education did not properly 
begin until he was about 20, when he began to study with extraordinary 
zeal, while still working full time in the factory. His first book of poems, 
" Songs in Wiltshire," appeared in 1909 and at once attracted attention by 
the freshness and unusual quality of its lyrics. . . . He was a close 
student of the classics and his classical knowledge permeates a number of 
his poems. By his death Wiltshire has lost a really remarkable personality, 
who, however, like many other men of genius, failed to translate his literary 
gifts into gold. He was a poor man always." In a foreward to his latest 
issued volume of Selected Poems, Mr. John Bailey pays them the following 
tribute :— " Here is a man, a rare and interesting figure, a man who passes 
from a boyhood spent at a village school and in work on a farm to years of 
exhausting labour in the heated atmosphere of a railway forge, and yet 
before middle life this man of little official education, and apparently less 
leisure, has taught himself French, Latin, and Greek, and found time to 
acquire, in addition to all that, a remarkable knowledge, both of the folk 
lore and the natural history of his native county. Obviously such a man 
is no ordinary man." During the war he served with the artillery in India, 
and this his only chance of travel he characteristically employed in observing 
the life and literature and religions of the people of India, and in beginning 
that study of Sanscrit which he followed up in the years since the war. His 
poems, of which he published several volumes, had little that was dis- 
tinctively Wiltshire about them, but his prose works. In a Wiltshire 
Village, which described life in his own native place. South Marston, and 
Villages of the White Horse, and Round about the Upper Thames, which do 
the same service for very many of the villages in that district of North 
Wilts, must always remain, together with some of Richard Jefferies's works, 
as the most valuable record of the conditions of life, the manner of folk who 
lived it, their customs and habits and folk lore generally, in this part of 
England during the later half of the Nineteenth Century. The Wiltshire 
dialect, now so rapidly disappearing, has perhaps been written by no one 
more accurately. 

In an admirable obituary notice, Mr. J. H. Morgan, K.C., writing in the 
rimes of April 29th, 1930, says " Having at the outset of the Great War 
volunteered for military service, when already middle-aged and in poor 
health, Alfred Williams, after medical rejection, eventually succeeded in 
enlisting and was sent overseas as a gunner — ' the best gunner in his battery ' 
Mr. John Bailey tells me — in India. There he fell under the spell of the 



112 Wilts Obituary. 

great literatures of the East, and taught himself Sanskrit with such effect 
that he, the shyest and most unassuming of men, attracted the attention of 
two of our great orientalists. The result was a charming translation, with 
an introduction by Professor A . A. Macdonneil of the Panchatantra, which 
is shortly to be published at Oxford." 

His death was indeed extraordinarily tragic. His wife was in hospital 
suffering from a mortal disease at the time, and on the very morning before 
he died he had heard that the Prime Minister, who took a personal interest 
in the matter, had included his name amongst the recipients of Civil List 
Pensions this year, thus to some extent relieving the very straitened cir- 
cumstances of his life. His wife died less than two months after him. 

Long obit, notices appeared in the N. Wilts Herald, April 11th ; Wilt- 
shire Gazette, April 17th ; and Wiltshire Times, April 19th, 1930, 

He was the author of the following : — 

Round about the Upper Thames. Duckworth & Co., London, 1922. Cr. 
8vo. Cloth, pp. 319, 4 illusts, 12s. 6d. [First published as a series of 
articles in Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard, 1915]. 

Polk Bonifs of the Upper Thames. With an Essay on Folk-Song Activity 
in the Upper Thames neighbourhood. Collected and Edited by Alfred 
Williams. Duckworth & Co , London, 1923. 8vo. Cloth, pp. 306. 

Old English Cottages. Wiltshire Times, May 22nd, 1926. 

Polk Song and Locality. Wiltshire Times, Aug. 26th, 1926. 

A Wiltshire Mummers' Play. Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 30th, 1926. 

Wiltshire Village Industries. A series of articles in Wiltshire Times, 
Sept. 17th, 24th ; Oct. 1st, 15th, 29th, 1927, 

The Polk Carol in Wiltshire. Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 29th, 1927. 

Two Poems in Wiltshire Dialect. Wiltshire Gazette, May 24th, 1928. 

Whitsuntide Customs. N. Wilts Herald^ May 25th, 1928. 

Old Time Customs in North Wilts. N. Wilts Herald, Dec. 3 1st, 1928. 

Songs in Wiltshire. Erskine Macdonald, London, 1909. 8vo, Cloth, 
pp. 132. [Introduction by Calloway Kyle giving account of the author. 
Two of the poems were printed first in New Songs, by Fred Bowles, 1907, 
and two others in Garnered Grain, 1909]. 5s. net. 

Poems in Wiltshire. Erskine Macdonald, London, 1911. 8vo. Cloth, 
pp. Xr. + 105. [Reviewed Times Literary Supplement, Jan. 4th; Salis- 
bury Times, Jan. 5th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 1st ; Wiltshire Times, Feb. 
.3rd," 1912]. 

A Wiltshire Village. Duckworth & Co., London, 1912. Cr. 8vo. Cloth, 
pp. XV. + 305. 5s. net. [The Village is South Marston, the author's 
birthplace and home. Reviewed Times Literary Supplement, Nov. 7th, 
1912]. 

Nature and other Poems. Erskine Macdonald, London, 1912. 8vo. 

Cloth, pp. 95. 
Villages of the White Horse. Duckworth & Co., London, 1913. Cr. 

Svo. Cloth, pp. XVL + 290. 5s.net. 
CorCordium. Erskine Macdonald, London, 1913. Svo. Cloth, pp. VIIL 

4-82. 3s. 6d. net. [Poems]. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 113 

Life in a Railway Factory. Duckworth & Co., London, 1915. Cr. 8vo. 

Cloth, pp. XIII. + 315. 5s.net. [An account of his own experience in 

Swindon G.W.R. Works. Reviewed Times Literary Supplement, Nov. 

25th, 1915 ; Spectator Literary Supplement, Jan. 29th, 1916]. 
War Sonnets and Songs. Erskine Macdonald, London, 1916. Cr. 8vo. 

Cloth, pp. 86. 



WILTSHIRE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

Woodhenge. A description of the site as revealed 
by excavations carried out there by Mr. and Mrs. 
B. H. Cunnington, 1926—7—8. Also of Four Circles 
and an Earthwork south of Woodhenge. By M. 
E. Cunnington (Mrs. B. H. Cunnington). Devizes: 

Printed and published by George Simpson k Co., Devizes, 1929. 4to. 
Cloth, pp. 3 +187, 57 plates. 

The excavations, of which this book gives the results, occupied five weeks 
in three successive years, 1926—28. The site, two miles N.E. of Stone- 
henge, and closely adjoiniug the Netheravon — Amesbury road, about IJ 
miles north of the latter place, has long been under the plough, and on the 
surface, before the excavation, nothing was visible except the much ploughed 
down remains of a circular bank with a ditch inside it. Hoare mentions it 
as " an enormous Druid {i.e.. Disc) Barrow," and it is described in Goddard's 
List as Durrington 65b Disc Barrow. It was formerly known as the 
*' Dough Cover." ' Its discovery as something other than a Disc Barrow 
was due to air photographs taken by Squadron-Leader Insall, V.C., first on 
Dec. 12th, 1925, when the land was ploughed, and again in the following 
July. In the first of these white chalky marks were visible on the photo- 
graph, and in the second when the wheat crop was grown up, the circles of 

' Mrs. Cunnington suggests that this is from the slightly domed appear- 
ance of the area within the ditch. 

TOL, XLV. — NO. CLII. I 



114 Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles, 

pits were very clearly defined, both to the eye of the observer and on the 
photograph, from the darker colour and stronger growth of the wheat on 
spots where ditches or holes had been. On the other hand a photograph 
taken after the carrying of the wheat in August, when the field was under 
stubble, showed nothing at all. After the excavation it was of course im- 
possible to leave the holes open, and they were carefully filled up, each be- 
ing marked by a large drain pipe standing some three feet above ground, 
filled with concrete. The site has been purchased from Admiral Sir Richard 
Poore, Bart., by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington, who bore the entire cost of the 
excavations, and has been railed round. It will probably in the future be 
handed over to the custody of some public body. 

The entrance to the circle is on the N.E. side. A section of the ditch on 
each side of this causeway was excavated, together with three other sections. 
It was found to vary from 6ft. to 7ft. in depth, and generally from 12ft. to 
16ft. in width, though at one point it was only 4ft. wide. In all the sec- 
tions three distinct dark bands appeared in the filling of the ditch marking 
old turf lines. Of these the lowest is the thickest, marking the original turf 
line after the first silting up of the ditch, and before the first cultivation of 
the site, which appears to have been in Romano- British times. Everything 
found below this turf line is pre-Roman in date, and all above it is not 
earlier than Roman times. The third and uppermost turf line marks the 
first cultivation of the site in modern times, begun some 75 years ago, when 
the chalk rubble of the bank was deliberately ploughed down into the ditch. 
Between4he ditch and the bank outside it was a '' berm " 4ft. to 5ft. wide. 
The bank had been ploughed away over half the site, and where it remained 
it was only a low band of chalk rubble resting on the distinct dark layer of 
the old surface. 

The six rings of holes are rough ovals rather than circles, their longest 
<liameter being directed nearly, but not quite, to the point of midsummer 
sunrise looked at from the centre of the rings. Of the six rings of holes the 
outermost has 62 holes, the second 32, the third 16, the three innermost 
having 18, 18, and 12 holes respectively. The third ring has the largest 
holes, which all have ramps to them, the second ring has also smaller ramps. 

Six extra holes were found having no relation to either of the circles. 
Two of these assisted in directing the line of sight from the centre to the 
midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset respectively, whilst a third directs 
the line of sight from the centre to the rough sarsen stone known as the 
Cuckoo Stone, half-a-mile away on the down. The fourth may have been 
intended to mark the south point. Mrs. Cunnington considers that the 
evidence of these holes as proof of the orientation to the midsummer sun- 
rise is too strong to be set aside. The small grave containing the skeleton 
of a child, with the skull apparently cleft in two before burial, lay in the 
centre, upon, and at right angles to, this line of orientation. It thus occu- 
pied the same position that the Altar Stone occupies at Stonehenge, and it 
is suggested that it was a dedicatory or sacrificial burial. Nothing was 
found with it. One large hole (not belonging to the circles), near which 
were found a number of small fragments of sarsen, was thought to have 
held a large stone, broken up probably in recent times. The position of 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Ar^ticles. 115 

this stone a little west of south of the circle recalls the recumbent stones 
between two uprights found in many circles in the N.E. of Scotland. Mrs. 
Cunnington credits the builders of Woodhenge with the knowledge of 
certain elementary geometrical principles, certain lines drawn from one 
point to another seeming to show that the division of the circle into halves 
and quarters of a rightangle, was within their capacity, and compares what 
are called the " four stations " at Stonehenge as similar. She suggests that 
a foot of U^in. wide instead of 12in. was used in the laying out of Wood- 
henge. The four inner rings of Woodhenge are almost exact parallels of 
the four rings of Stonehenge, and their actual dimensions are almost 
identical, the 4th ring [CJ of Woodhenge (that with the largest holes) 
answering to the outer sarsen circle, with lintels, at Stonehenge. It has in- 
deed been suggested that the uprights of this [0] ring may have sup- 
ported wooden cross beams or lintels, but there is no evidence of this. The 
tw^o outer rings of Woodhenge would correspond, the [B] ring with the Z. 
holes at Stonehenge, and the outer ring [A] at Woodhenge with the Aubrey 
holes at Stonehenge. The long diameter of this ring [A] is just half that of 
the Aubrey holes. In this comparison the Y circle of holes at Stonehenge is 
the only one not represented at Woodhenge. Mrs. Cunnington argues that if 
(as appears likely) the Z holes of Stonehenge correspond with the [ B] holes at 
Woodhenge, Stonehenge must have been copied from Woodhenge, and not 
vice versa, because the Z holes, though they were dug, were never apparently 
used, but were filled in again at once. Therefore they would not have been 
available as models to the builders of any later circle. She makes this one 
of the strong points of her argument that Woodhenge is the earlier struc- 
ture of the two. She also makes a point of the fact that the central grave 
at Woodhenge occupies exactly the same relative position, in the structure, 
as the Altar Stone does at Stonehenge, affording evidence that the Altar 
Stone as it now lies occupies its original position and has never been moved. 
-She writes :— 

" It has been conjectured on purely technical grounds that Stone- 
henge must have had a wooden prototype. It has also often been said 
that Stonehenge seems to stand alone and to have nothing intermediate 
between it and the comparatively crude and simple stone circles. Is 
it not possible that this apparent lack of ancestry is due to the fact that 
the more immediate forerunners of Stonehenge were of timber and have 
perished ! It may be that after Woodhenge had been standing for no 
very long time (a few hundred years 1) the timbers began to show signs 
of serious decay, and perhaps partly on this account, it was decided to 
erect a new, but analogous structure, of more lasting material, and on 
an improved plan." '* The relative date of the two monuments is, of 
course, actually only a matter of conjecture. It will remain so until there 
is more general agreement as to the date of Stonehenge, that is to say, 
until evidence is forthcoming with regard to that most elusive of monu- 
ments. Woodhenge it seems cannot be earlier than about the beginning 
of the middle Bronze Age, so if it is indeed the forerunner and proto- 
type of Stonehenge that monument must be at least as late as the 
middle Bronze Age and may be later, as some independent evidence 

I 2 



116 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

suggests. On the grounds of probability only, the late Bronze Age is a 

likely period for the erection of Stonehenge, for it is known that 

some of the British stone circles are of this date and none have been 

proved to be earlier than the Bronze Age." 

It is to be noted, however, that later on in the book Mrs. Cunnington 

writes thus, and gives the Early Bronze Age rather than the Middle Bronze 

Age as the most probable date. 

" If indeed Woodhenge dates from the Early Bronze Age, as now 
appears probable, and the evidence of pottery from the bottom of the 
ditch surrounding a late Beaker burial in circle I is hard to get over," 
&c. 
In this connection Mrs. Cunnington discusses the Aubrey holes at Stone- 
henge and concludes that they could never have held either the existing 
blue stones or any other stones, and that their shape and size point to their 
having held timber posts, and that the cremations found in them were 
placed beside these posts and as they decayed dribbled down the centre of 
the hole, as they are found to have done to-day. As cremation did not 
come into use in the south of England until the end of the Beaker period 
(i.e., the first part of the Bronze Age) the Aubrey holes must have held 
their timber posts in the full Bronze Age, and if they are contemporary 
with the rest of Stonehenge, that monument cannot be Neolithic or even 
very early Bronze Age. She concludes that they are an integral part of 
Stonehenge. 

As to the evidence that wooden posts and not stones occupied the holes 
at Woodhenge, no remains of the wood have been certainly identified, 
though in a few cases a grey powdery material was found in the lower part 
of the filling which has been identified as of organic origin, though not 
definitely of wood. The holes themselves, however, from the perfect con- 
dition of their sides and edges show that rough stones could never have 
been either put into them or taken out of them, and the ramps to the larger 
holes are only cut to half the depth of the hole instead of to the whole 
depth as at Stonehenge. This would suit the erection of a wooden post, 
but not of a heavy stone. Moreover, though some holes afiforded no 
evidence, it was found in others that there was a darker and softer core in 
the centre of the hole, which separated readily from the harder chalk rubble 
surround, so that a circular pipe-like cavity was left. This could not have 
arisen from either intentional filling or natural silting up of the hole. A 
round post of some kind certainly stood in the middle and the chalk rubble 
was packed round it. If this post was of stone it must have been a circular 
column, and there is no material from which circular columns could have 
been made. Some of the larger holes show the scrape of the butt of the 
upright against the side of the hole opposite to the ramp, and it is argued 
that this almost proves that the upright was a tree and not a stone, and 
that the tree was about 30 feet long and stood 24 feet above ground. 

The pottery of what is here called the Woodhenge type, was the most 
important of the objects found in the excavations. It was found on the 
floor of the ditch, in a few of the holes, and especially on the old turf line 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 117 

under the bank. It is, therefore, at least as old as, and probably contem- 
porary with Woodhenge itself. This pottery is admirably illustrated by a 
number of plates of full-size drawings by Robert Gurd, which show its 
characteristic features better than photographic blocks would. It is orna- 
mented with finger-tip impressions, chevron and herringbone ornament, 
and applied or " encrusted " bands with rosette knobs, and belonged to 
vessels with flat bases. No fragment of a round base, or of the cord orna- 
ment characteristic of Neolithic pottery was found. It is, taken as a whole, 
unlike any other pottery at present known. It has points of resemblance 
to the " encrusted " ware, generally assigned to the latest phase of the 
Bronze Age and also to some of the Early Iron Age ware from All Cannings. 
Sherds of this pottery were found on the bottom of the ditch surrounding 
a Beaker burial in one of the circles near Woodhenge, whilst rims of the 
overhanging urn type were found under the bank of Woodhenge. This urn 
is characteristic of Middle Bronze Age burials, as Beakers are of the earliest 
Bronze Age. The *• Woodhenge pottery " seems, therefore, to belong to the 
period when the Beaker pottery overlapped the overhanging rim urn, at the 
very end of the earliest, or beginning of the middle period of the Bronze 
Age, and its at present unique character may be due to the fact that as yet 
no middle or later Bronze Age settlements as opposed to burials have been 
discovered, and Bronze Age domestic pottery as opposed to burial pottery 
is practically unknown. 

The most interesting objects other than pottery were two models of stone 
axes in chalk. The only other similar model known in Britain is a fragment 
of one found at Stonehenge. These axes are regarded as perhaps votive 
oflferings — possibly connected with the widely-spread cult of the axe. They 
must have been buried intentionally or soon after they were made, as they 
could not stand exposure to wet and frost. Of eleven flint arrowheads, 
figured, eight were found deep down in holes, and of these five are obviously 
one-sided, with only one long tang. A number of scrapers were found all 
together amongst ashes in one of the pits. 

The report on the animal bones found, by Dr. J. W. Jackson, is important. 
Sheep were absent from the bottom of the ditch, but abundant in the 
Bomano-British layer above. Bones on the bottom of the ditch belong, 
undoubtedly, to the gigantic wild ox, or urus, Bos pri7nigemus, which is 
supposed to have become extinct in the Bronze Age. Red deer, roe deer, 
and cat also occur. The horn cores of domestic ox are not those of the 
" Celtic ox," Bos tongifronn, but of a larger long-horned race allied to Bos 
primigenius. These were larger animals than those found at either 
Glastonbury, All Cannings, or Swallowclifi'e, and prove that the Bronze Age 
people possessed this long-horned breed, traces of which have been found 
also in the Neolithic stations of Windmill Hill, Knapp Hill, and the 
Trundle at Goodwood. It appears, therefore, that contrary to the hitherto 
received opinion, the shorthorned Celtic ox, B. longifrons, preceded 
the long-horned breed. In the south of England at least a long-horned breed 
existed before the " Celtic ox " appeared. 

In the report on woods identified by Dr. Woodhead from fragments of 
charcoal, the outstanding point of interest is that pine was found both at 



118 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, a7id Articles. 

the bottom of the Bronze Age ditch of Woodhenge and in the Early Iron 
Age ditch of one of the circles outside it. This proves that it existed in 
England at least until just before the Roman period. The shells used in 
the manufacture of pottery prove so far as they can be identified to be 
those of recent marine bivalves and not of fossil species. 

Of the circles shown in the air photographs in the same field as Wood- 
henge four were excavated in 1928. None of these were visible on the 
ground. Circle No. I. consisted of two concentric ditches surrounding a 
central grave in which was a crouched skeleton with Beaker and a beautiful 
perforated stone axe hammer found in such a position as to suggest that its 
haft was held within the folded arms of the body. On the bottom of the 
inner ditch fragments of " Woodhenge pottery " were found. Circle No. 
II. was a single ditch with no sign of a central interment, but a crouched 
skeleton in a shallow grave cut in the centre. Circle No. III. may have 
been a Bronze Age ditch of which the central burial has been destroyed. 
Circle No. IV. also showed a ditch with fragments of Woodhenge pottery 
and a bit of glass slag on the bottom, but nothing else. 

The egg-shaped enclosure with its extensive ditches was also excavated. 
The enclosure contained a large number of pits, whilst the extensive ditch 
appeared to have a row of post holes along it which supported a continuous 
stockade. The ditch must have been filled up to support these posts. The 
ditch and enclosure were apparently of the Early Iron Age. Charred barley 
was found in one of the pits, but whether it was of the six-rowed or two- 
rowed kind could not be determined by Sir K. H. Biffen. Sir A. Keith 
reports at length on the human remains. 

Whatever may be ultimately thought of Mrs. Cunnington's contention 
that Woodhenge is the prototype which was followed in the construction 
of Stonehenge, and that the date of Stonehenge itself is thereby brought 
down to the middle of the Bronze Age, there can be no two opinions as to 
the value of this admirable account of a great work of excavation. The 
whole work is described with scrupulous exactitude and the conclusions 
are clearly and simply set forth. It is excellently printed and fully illus- 
trated, the coloured folding plans give the pleasantest idea of the lay out, 
the reports on the various objects found are by the best authorities available, 
and both for the excavation itself and for this account of it, the excavators 
have deserved well, not only of Wiltshire but of all who are interested in 
the prehistoric archaeology of Britain. 

The book was most favourably reviewed on the front page of 7%e Times 
of November 28th, 1929. Long notice in Wiltshire Gazette, November 
28th, 1929. It was also reviewed by the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A., in 
Antiquaries Journal^ April 1930, X. 172. 

Stonehenge and the two-date theory. By Mrs. B. 

H. Cunnington. Antiquaries Jommal, April, 1930, X. 103—113. 
Mrs. Cunnington writes against the theory that the Aubrey Holes, the 
bank, and ditch represent an older monument than the existing sarsen 
circles. The advocates of the " two-dates " theory argue that the end of 
the ditch overlaps and cuts into the avenue, and it is agreed that this end 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 119' 

was filled up and levelled so as not to obstruct the avenue. The point is 
when was this filling up at the end of the ditch done? The advocates of 
the two-dates theory say it was done when the present Stonehenge was 
built, and the avenue laid out, i.e., a long while after the formation of the 
ditch and bank and Aubrey holes. Mrs. Cunnington disputes this. " But 
if the evidence from the excavations is carefully examined it becomes plain 
that this part of the ditch must have been refilled almost immediately after 
it was made." There was no sign of natural silting and no turf line to show 
where the silting had stopped after the original digging of the ditch, and the 
sides were specially steep, that is they had never weathered back after they 
were cut. These facts, says Mrs. Cunnington, prove that this end of the 
ditch was never left open and exposed, but was refilled with chalk almost 
immediately after it was made, from bottom to top, in other words, the 
ditch was dug and filled up at the same time that the avenue was laid out. 
The evidence instead of pointing to two dates is strongly in favour of a 
single date. Mrs. Cunnington regards the ditch as obviously not defensive^ 
but only as a quarry whence the material for the bank was dug. She lays 
stress on the fact that the four inner rings of Woodhenge and Stonehenge 
are practically identical in their dimensions, and regards this as a proof, 
either that both monuments were constructed after the same model, or that 
one of them was copied from the other. She also regards the fact that the 
Aubrey circle is exactly double the size of the outer ring of Woodhenge as 
helping to prove not only the relationship between Woodhenge and Stone- 
henge, but also the fact that the Aubrey circle is part of the same design as 
the inner circles of Stonehenge, i.e., is contemporary with them, and that 
the whole monument was planned, if not carried out, at the same time. 
As to the Z and Y holes " There seems no doubt that these were dug after 
the inner rings were erected, but this does not imply a widely difi'erent 
date." She agrees that in all probability these holes never contained any 
stones and that a change of plan caused them to be filled up almost as soon 
as they were made, but then what about the La Tene pottery found in Z 4, 
at a depth of 24in. in a hole with only a total depth of 4 1 in. ? She suggests 
that the explanation of this given in Col. Hawley's report does not face the 
facts and that *' had the discovery of Iron age pottery in analogous positions 
been made elsewhere than at Stonehenge, it would have been accepted as 
proving that these Z and Y holes were not filled up before the Iron Age." 
" The position certainly needs explanation if the obvious implication of Iron 
Age date is rejected." 

Stonehenge and Woodhenge. The Hampshire Observer of 
July 27th, 1928, and the Hampshire Chronicle^ contained a long account of 
the visit of the Hampshire Field Club to Stonehenge and Woodhenge, and 
of the addresses given on the spot by Dr. J. P. Williams Freeman and Mrs. 
Cunnington respectively. Dr. Williams Freeman regarded Stonehenge as 
of two dates — the ditch, the earth circle, and the Aubrey holes containing 
wooden posts, were the earliest portion, the ditch like other irregular 
Neolithic ditches having been dug to supply material for the bank. H e main- 
tained that everything found at the bottom of the ditch was of Neolithic 



120 Wiltshire Books, Famphlef.s, and Articles. 

age. The more modern Stonehenge consisting of the sarsen and blue 
stone circles and horseshoes and the avenue, were probably some hundreds 
of years later, the most probable date being about 1800 B.C., which agreed 
roughly with the astronomical calculations of Sir Norman Lockyer. As to 
the route by which the blue stones came from Prescelly he thought that 
they were brought across the Bristol Channel and thence by land to Stone- 
henge. The origin of Stonehenge was sepulchral, but the structure may 
also have been a temple. Mrs. Cunnington described the rings of Wood- 
henge with their wooden uprights, and dwelt upon the many analogies of 
the plan with that of Stonehenge, the circles themselves being very much 
the same size, and the child's grave lying across the line of midsummer 
sunrise in the centre as the altar stone does at Stonehenge. She regarded 
Woodhenge as older than Stonehenge, of which it was the forerunner and 
prototype. The pottery was of a kind not found elsewhere. It was possibly 
of the Middle Bronze Age. If so, and if Stonehenge is later than Wood- 
henge, this would put the date of the former a good deal later than is com- 
monly supposed. 



Who built Stonehenge and when ? Some strange 
facts revealed foy the " Great Law.'' By Sir Ken- 
neth Mackenzie, Bt. Article with diagram in The Referee, April 
7th, 1928. This is an attempt to explain the " Great Law " scale discovered 
by Hamish Mac Huisdean, of Glasgow. Sir Kenneth writes : — 

•'I must confess it is very difficult to understand because of the 
peculiar manner in which it is described in the first volume (of " The 
Great Law^')\ but its applications shown in the second to many 
ancient structures, such as the Great Pyramid, the famous Regulini 
Galeassi tomb at Caere in ancient Etruria, the so-called "Treasury of 
Atreus" in Mycenae, the harbours of ancient Carthage, and many old 
buildings whose history is forgotten, all give practically the same results 
even in such a case as the strange ruined mounds on the reputed site of 
" the Garden of Eden " ! They were evidently all built and arranged in 
accordance with one plan or mystic design, the key to which lies in the 
Bible and the ancient Hebrew language, and were laid out to one 
particular scale which has been found to be applicable to all. This 
scale embodied in the Great Law rules the design and lay-out to its 
proportional dimensions of all these ancient structures. . . . The 
two numbers 3,141,600 and 666, in some form or another, representing 
Good and Evil, are always opposed in some way to each other in all 
these ancient structures, mathematically as well as symbolically . . . 
(The exponents of the Great Law) state that Stonehenge was erected 
as a sign or warning to all in Heaven and Earth, but principally to the 
Prince of Darkness, that his power would one day be overthrown in 
spite of his apparent success in the Garden of Eden, to which Stone- 
henge is stated to be the sequel." 
Sir Kenneth very modestly says " How all this was done, and how know- 
ledge of it has been obtained with which to construct the Great Law scale 



Wiltshire Books, Paviphlets, aiui Articles. 121 

I do not know," but he is undoubtedly right when he says it is very difficult 
to understand. 

Lord Lausdowue, a Biography. By Lord Newton, 
PC. Macmillau & Co , Iioudou, 1929. Cloth, 8vo , pp. 

XIV. + 536 30 illustrations, portraits, cartoons from " Punch," &c., 25s. 

In the preface Lord Newton says : — " This book, which is an attempt to 
depict the career of a man whose merits were perhaps inadequately recog- 
nised by the public, and whose real character was imperfectly understood, 
has been compiled chiefly from the private papers at Bo wood." These 
papers, in the form of letters from or to Lord Lansdowne, are allowed very 
largely to speak for themselves. In the earlier part of the book they consist 
chiefly of extracts from the very full letters describing all his doings, which 
to the end of her life Lord Lansdowne regularly wrote to his mother once 
a week. 

In summing up the character of his viceroyalty in India, Lord Newton 
says : — 

" His was one of those fortunate personalities, not too common in 
public life, which command not only the respect but the regard and 
even affection of their subordinates. Consideration, kindness of heart, 
and exceptional courtesy had, moreover, won for the Viceroy amongst 
all classes an almost unique popularity, to which the social gifts of 
Lady Lansdowne had largely contributed ; and when he sailed from 
Calcutta at the end of January, 1894, amid scenes of remarkable en- 
thusiasm, it is questionable whether any Viceroy ever left India who 
was more generally regretted." 
As regards Lord Lansdowne's celebrated Peace letter, which Lord New- 
ton says : — 

" Is generally regarded as a fatal blot upon a long and distinguished 
career, but now, eleven years after the victorious termination of the 
war, is it certain that his action is still looked upon in the same light ? 
And has the knock-out blow, which was intended to annihilate Ger- 
many, brought the benefits which were anticipated? . . . On the 
whole, therefore, it seems not inconceivable that a future generation 
may take the view that Lord Lansdowne was right, after all." 
He sums up Lord Lansdowne's career thus :— 

'* A great noble, cultivated and accomplished, the owner of historic 
titles, and of historic houses, he was one of those who, from motives of 
duty and patriotism, deliberately chose the toil and responsibility of 
political life in preference to the existence of cultured ease and pleasure 
which was within his reach. . . . In the course of an exceptionally 
crowded career he occupied the two most important posts outside these 
islands, and, as it so happened, the two most important places at the 
time (War Office and Foreign Office) in the Cabinet at home. In this 
long and distinguished career there can be no doubt that the Foreign 
Office period was at once the most important and the most successful, 
and the gradual abandonment of the policy of isolation brought about 
by the conclusion of the Japanese and French agreements, with the 



122 Wiltshire Books^ Pamphlets, and Articles. 

new orientation which resulted, will be recognised as his main achieve- 
ment. . . . Lord Lansdowne was pre-eminently a force in Parlia- 
ment and his name was, strangely enough, perhaps better known in 
foreign countries than to the British public. . . . It is doubtful 
whether he ever gave a press interview during his long life. He cer- 
tainly never posed for a press photograph. As he cultivated no 
peculiarity of dress, owned no racehorses, and would probably not 
have understood what was meant by a publicity agent, such a man re- 
mained almost unrecognised and devoid of interest to the general 
public." . . . " But to those who knew and were able to appreciate 
his qualities, his memory will be treasured as that of one who repre- 
sented the very purest type of what the old patrician system of this 
country could produce, for no one ever understood more fully the 
obligations of his class or lived more closely to the ideals expressed in 
the family motto, " Virtute non Verbis." The mould has been broken 
and is not likely to be recast." 

Catalogue of the celebrated Collection of Ancient 
Marbles the property of the Most Honourable the 
Marquess of Lansdowne, M V.O , D S.O , which will 
be sold by Auction by Messrs. Christie, Mason, & 
Woods, on Wednesday, March 5th, 1930, at Lans- 
downe House. 

Large 8vo., board covers, pp. 109, 38 admirable half-tone plates. There 
were 121 lots in all, which realised a total of i'68,502. It is known that 
they cost the founder of the collection, the first Marquess, about ;^7,000. 
The Times, of Jan. 2nd, 1930, had an article on the forthcoming sale, and 
on March 6th, gave details of the prices paid. The sale of Lansdowne 
House and the unsuitability of Bowood for the reception of the collection 
were the cause of the sale, the most important dispersal of classical statuary 
in li^ngland, with the exception of that of the Hope heirlooms in 1917, for 
generations. The preface to the sale catalogue and the appendix give the 
history of the collection, and a number of letters from Gavin Hamilton who 
found many of the statues between 1771 & 1793 at Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli 
and at Tor Columbaro on the A.ppian way. A catalogue of the Ancient 
Marbles at Lansdowne House^ edited by A. H. Smith, was printed for 
private circulation in 1889, based on Prof. Michaelis' Ancient Marbles in 
Great Britain, 1882, and upon this catalogue the Sale Catalogue is founded. 

Will. Fitzniaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, bought Shelburne (afterwards 
Lansdowne) House, of Lord Bute in 176'). He was created 1st Marquess 
of Lansdowne in 1784. At the sale the highest price, 27,000 guineas^ 
was given by Messrs. Brummer, of Paris and New York, for the Wounded 
Amazon found in 1771 by Gavin Hamilton at Tor Columbaro and valued 
by him at ;^200. A Head of a Girl, bought for ^15, was secured by the same 
firm at 2,300 guineas, as also a figure of Artemis at 2,100 guineas, and a 
fragment of an Attic sepulchral relief for 5,000 guineas. A statue of 
Heracles brought 4,600 guineas. One of the very few modern pieces, the 



. Wilts/lire Book'i, Pamphlets, and Articles. 12S 

Sleeping Nymph, Canova's last work, was bought by the National Art 
Collections Fund for the Victoria and Albert Museum for 600 guineas. 
On March 7th Messrs. Christie sold such pictures from Lansdowne House 
as have not been retained for Bowood by Lord Lansdowne. The 80 lots 
fetched ;^22,855, of which a portrait of an unknown gentleman by Titian 
brought 8,100 guineas. The Reynolds portrait of Elizabeth Drax, Countesy 
Berkeley, reached 2,300 guineas. The Wiltshire Gazette, of Feb. 13tli, 
1930, reprinted articles from the Daily Telegraph and the Times on the sale. 

A Wiltshire Childhood, by Ida Gandy, illustrated 
tay Marjorie W hitting ton, London George Allen & 
Unwin, Ltd., Museum Street [1929]. 

Cr. 8vo., cloth, pp. 219, 14 illustrations including etchings of Bishops 
Cannings Church, and the village shop. 

Mrs. Gandy was one of the seven children of the late C. W. Hony, Vicar 
of Bishops Cannings, and afterwards of Woodborough, and this is a 
singularly charming account of her own childhood at Bishops Cannings 
Vicarage. They were an unconventional family in those days, they went 
about barelegged before anybody else ever dreamed of such a thing, and 
the writer and a younger sister even went off on a three days riding tour by 
themselves, sleeping in a barn on the hay one night. In short their life was 
not the ordinary life of lessons and games but a life of singularly happy 
adventure, swimming in the canal, tobogganing down the slopes of the 
Downs in winter, and the smooth lead roof of the Church in summer, learn- 
ing to chime and even ring the Church bell.^, riding on the handlebars of her 
father's bicycle carrying a " skep " full of bees to a neighbour, roaming 
the Downs for miles around and knowing every fiower and every bird to be 
found on them. Names are not mentioned but Cannings and its inhabitants 
are admirably described as they appeared to the children. Roundway and 
Tan Hill, Easton Hill and Shepherd's Shore, Wansdyke, Cherhill Monu 
ment and White Horse, Oliver's Camp, Blackland Bark and its grotto with 
its hospitable owner Mr. Henry Browne ; all these and many more places 
and people are plainly to be recognised by anyone who remembers this 
district 30 years ago, Mrs. Gandy tells her story, not from her present 
point of view, but from the point from which she viewed things when these 
doings were real adventures, and the result is a book which once begun has 
to be read to the end. One thing only is missing. None of the many 
stories told against " Cannings Vawk " appear in these pages. 1 he inhabi- 
tants of Cannings do not themselves tell these stories and doubtless thu 
children never heard them. 

Noticed Wilts Gazette,Nov. 14th, 1929. 

The Star of Piccadilly, a memoir cf William 
Douglas, Fourth Duke of Queenstaerry, K.T. (1725— 
1810). By Lewis Melville, with a coloured frontis- 
piece tay Autarey Hammond, and sixteen full-page 
Illustrations. 



124 Wiltshire Books, Fam'phlets, and Articles. 

Hutchinson k Co., London, 1927. Cloth 8vo. pp. 327. 

" Old Q " as the introduction of this book says *' Has come down to the 
present generation as an outstanding, even if notorious, figure in the social 
life of the eighteenth century, and how few of them there are ! Beau Nash 
and Beau Brummell and "Old Q " or "The Star of Piccadilly" as the 
Duke was called. " He was pre-eminently a man-about-town. ... A 
" votary of pleasure." He played at the tables at games of chance, but 
was careful to limit his stakes. He was very much a racing man. . . . 
He kept mistresses just in the same way as he kept carriage horses, they 
were part of the game. . . . With all his faults, he was always grand 
seigneur. . . . The Duke of Queensberry may have been more thorough 
in his adventures, but he was no more vicious than many of his contem- 
poraries, who were just as open in their amours as he was." Of these 
amours, of the Society of which he was so brilliant an ornament, as well as 
the legends which grew up about him, this book contains an account. 
Amesbury is only mentioned incidentally. 

Wiltshire Bibliography. A Catalogue of Printed 
Books, Pamphlets, and Articles bearing on the 
History, Topography, and Natural History of the 
County, compiled by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A. 
1929 Part I — Wiltshire as a whole. Part II — 
Individual Parishes arranged alphabetically. Price 
4/6. Published by the Wilts Education Committee. 

8vo. Uloth. pp. 3 -f 276. To be obtained from the Wilts Education 
Committee, County Council Offices, Trowbridge. 5/- post free. 

This is a condensed edition of the fuller Typescript Bibliography, of 
which there is a copy in the library of Devizes Museum. Many of the less 
important entries in the latter have been, perforce, shortened or omitted 
altogether. It contains, however, some 10,000 references, from which any- 
one who is interested in any particular parish, can see at a glance what 
printed material is available concerning it. The whole cost of the publica- 
tion was borne by the Education Committee of the County Council and a 
copy has been deposited at every school in the county. 

The Commonwealth A D,1651, and Devizes Church 

Property. By Ed. Kite. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct 3rd, 1929. In 
this article Mr. Kite gives a verbatim copy of a survey made March 10th, 
1651, by John Fiske and John Haddocke, of " certaine lands called Park- 
lands in the parish of Bishopps Cannings . . . These are claimed for 
the poor of the parish of St. Marie's Chapel in Com. Wilts," on the ground 
that they were part of the possessions of the late King Charles, whereas 
together with Old Park, Parliament had granted these lands to Philip 
Herbert, afterwards 4th Earl of Pembroke, who on their security, borrowed 
£5000 from Sir Peter Vanlore, a wealthy London merchant, repayable on or 
before 10th July, 1610. Failing repayment, Sir Peter must have taken 
possession of the " Parklands." 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 125 

In this survey the modern " Quakers Walk " is mentioned under its 
original and correct name of " The Keepers Walk," ^,e., the walk leading to 
the Park Keeper's Lodge, which probably stood where Koundway House 
does now. 

Franciscans an d Dominicans in Salisbury Diocese. 

By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher. Lecture delivered in Salisbury 
Cathedral, printed in Salisbury Journal, Oct. 15th, 1926. Bishop Richard 
Poore granted to the Friars Minors (Franciscans) a suitable place for their 
dwelling at Salisbury before 1229 when he was translated to Durham. 
Gifts of oak timber were niade to them by the King with fuel for their 
kitchen In 1231 Eichard Peude (? Sude) built a conventual Church for 
the Friars. The site of the Grey Friars convent was probably on the north 
side of Friary Lane but not a vestige now remains. 

The Dominicians had only three houses in Salisbury Diocese, Wilton, 
Salisbury, and Melcombe Pegis (Dorset). They were established at Wilton 
cir. 1245 and began at once to build a Church and convent, but as Wilton 
was decreasing and Salisbury was increasing in population, in 1280 the 
Friars moved to Salisbury, Wilton becoming only a cell. In 1485 Henry 
VII. granted to the Friars Preachers of Wilton the privilege of claiming 
ordination from the Bishop without submitting to examination. At the 
surrender in 1 538 there was only one friar at Wilton, and Church and House 
were ruinous. The house measured only 16ft. X 12ft. and the Church 
34ft. X 14ft. The whole site was sold to Sir William Herbert. It stood 
in West Street, but no trace of the buildings remain. The Wilton 
Dominicans who moved to Salisbury settled in Fisherton Anger opposite 
to where the Infirmary now stands. King Ed. I. gave the site in 1281 and 
Queen Eleanor of Castille was a great benefactress. In 1334 the Friars 
here numbered 42. In 1538 the Prior, John Hesskyns, surrendered the 
house. There were 13 Friars at this time. The buildings were sold to 
John, Earl of Bath, who pulled them down. In April, 1545, the property 
was sold to John Pollard, Esq., and Will. Byrt, yeoman. 

Savernake Estate [Sale] Particulars of the out- 
lying portions of , . . 58 Mixed Farms, 60 Small 
Holdings, 450 Cottages . . . 24,578 acres . . , 
Rent Roll £19,444. Fox & Sons. Marlborough, 
Sept. 16th, 1929, and 4 following days. 

Folio pp. vi. + 10+178. 61 photo process views. 14 folding plans 
in pocket. 

This important folio volume of Particulars of the sale of probably the 
largest estate ever disposed of at one time in Wiltshire, is excellently 
printed, and is illustrated by really beautiful photo process views of all the 
more important houses included in the sale. They are as follows : — 

In Marlborough, Ailesbury Arms Hotel ; Nos. 96—98, High Street. 

In Preshute, Manton Weir House; Manton Weir Farm House; Barton 
Earm House. 



126^ Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

In Mildenhall, Poulton House ; Horse Shoe Inn ; Grove Farm House, 

In Milton Lilbourne, Eastwick Farm House. 

In Easton Royal, Conygre Farm House ; Collin's Farm House ; Manor 
V'arm House ; Easton Farm House ; Lower Farm House ; Upper Farm 
House ; Village. 

In Burbage, Golden Lands Farm House ; Southgrove Farm House ; 
Kinwardstone Farm House ; West Grafton Farm House. 

In East Grafton, Green and Cottages ; Manor Farm House ; Green Farm 
House; East Grafton Farm House ; Wilton, Batts Farm House ; Wilton 
liank House ; Wilton, " The Orchard " House ; Wilton Manor Farm House ; 
Wilton, Windmill House. 

In Great Bedwyn, Cottages (2) ; Folly Farm House. 
In Shalbourne, Harding Farm House ; Newton Farm House ; Elivar Farm 
House ; Baverstock Farm House ; West Court House ; Manor Farm House ; 
Cottages ; Mill Farm House ; Eastcourt House. 

In Collingbourne Kingston, Aughton House ; Aughton Farm House ; 
Manor Farm House ; Brunton House ; Parsonage Farm House ; Post OfBce ; 
Jasmine Cottage ; Sunton House ; Cowdrey's Farm House, Sunton ; Sunton 
village ; Herridge Farm House ; Herridge Kacing Stables. 

In Collingbourne Ducis, West Farm House ; Mount Orleans Farm House; 
Cottages in the village (3) ; Court Farm House ; Hougomont Farm House ; 
The Hermitage (House) ; Limes Farm House. 

Excavations of Early Iron Age site at Landford. 
By J. P. Preston, F.R A,I., C.A.S. 

Cambridge, W. Heffer & Sons, Limited, 1929. Price 5s. net. Paper 
covers, lOin. X T^in., pp. 19, plan, section and 10 illusts. 

The Barrow here described measured 27ft. in diameter and its greatest 
height was 1ft. 6in. above the surface. Eighteen urns were found in it, all 
except two being inverted on the original surface of sand. Sixteen of 
these urns were found in the S.E. section of the barrow, and near together, 
whilst two were found in the N.W. section ; and none in the western half 
of the barrow. Ten of the urns are here illustrated from photographs 
and a section of the barrow is given. The urns contained burnt bones and 
nothing else, no other objects having been found. Apparently the barrow 
was formerly much higher. " Lumps of burnt bone, roughly semi-circular 
in shape, were discovered at approximately three inches below the surface 
of the tumulus. ... It is possible that these lumps were the contents of 
urns which, having emerged above ground, were removed, leaving these 
lumps beliind." One urn had been crushed in to make room for another 
one. Over the white sand which formed the original surface was a layer 
of burnt sand 2 inches deep, which the writer connects with the original 
cremation. Above these was a layer of tightly packed gravel 9in. in depth, 
in which all the urns were found. They were all apparently pressed down 
into the burnt layer, and resting on the white layer at the bottom. They 
appeared to have all been deposited at the same time, though the lumps of 
burnt bone found near the surface of the barrow may have been later. Of 
the urns some are bucket shaped, some cylindrical, some globular, whilst 



Wiltshire .Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 127 

«ome approximate somewhat in shape to Bronze Age ovei hanging rim 
urns. Finger-tip ornament round the shoulder or the rim occurs on many 
of them, in some cases on raised bands of applied clay. One example of 
which only the upper part remained has a band of raised finger nail im- 
pressions running round some distance below the rim, and from this at 
right angles five similar raised bands up to the lip. Mr. Reginald Smith 
suggests that one of the urns is of the late Bronze Age and two others of 
the Halstatt period of the Early Iron Age. Mrs. Cunnington, after reading 
the report writes, " The pottery is very interesting and of the Deverel- 
Himbury type. Until quite recently it would of course without hesitation 
have been called Bronze Age. It seems to me it would have been safer to 
describe it as transitional, considering that no one really knows where Bronze 
Age ends and the Iron Age begins. . . . The writer says, referring to a horse- 
shoe lug (on one of the urns) that the decoration seems to be unique, when it 
is really fairly common {See Abercromby). . . . The distinction between 
vessels with applied bands decorated with finger-tip impressions and those 
with impressions on the body only, has no real value ; both methods occur 
•on the same vessels at All Cannings. The vertical and horizontal applied 
bands on No. 12 might be compared with those on Fig. 2, Plate 44 from 
All Cannings." 

The urns it is believed, though nothing is said as to their destination in 
the report, have been placed in the Cambridge Archaeological Museum. 
The locality of the barrow is not mentioned, it was apparently very near 
the extreme S. boundary of Wilts. 

Eighty Years of Cricket. A Brief History of 
Corsham Sports Club, 1848—1928. By H. L, 

Xiakeman [1928]. Stiff paper covers. 8vo., pp. 56. Price 2s. 
Portraits of the late Lord Methuen, founder of the club, and the present 
F.-M. JjOrd Methuen, its President since 1864. Lord Methuen contributes 
a foreword in which he tells an excellent story of a niatch at Corsham in 
which he was playing when he was " leg before," but the umpire gave it 
" not out." On being asked why he did so he excused himself by saying 
that as a Corporal he didn't feel equal to giving a General " out " The 
book is crammed with records and recollections of former famous matches 
and famous cricketers, the Graces included. Noticed Wiltshire Gazette, 
Nov. 2lst, 1929. 

John Halle. A Memory and a Vindication of a 
famous Mayor. By Allan B. Iiemon. A series of articles 

in the Salisbury Times, Oct. 4th, 11 th, 18th, and 25tb, 1929. Republished 
as a pamphlet, 6iin. X 4in., pp. 24. The writer suggests that Halle was 
not of the obscure origin that Hatcher assigns to him, but probably belonged 
to a family of whom several had already been prominent, and that the Will. 
Hall who was M.P. in 1399 may well have been his father or grandfather. 
Jn any case Aubrey states that he was one of the largest wool merchants in 
■{Salisbury. He was Mayor for the second time in 1456, and was then the 



128 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

leader of the party in the city which was pressing the demand for a new 
charter, William Swayne being the leader of the opposing party. Feeling 
ran high, and in the corporation ledger of 1457 an order is recorded, that 
if William Swayne or John H alle offended again in the matter of intemperate 
speech and personal invective they should be fined 20s. for the first offence, 
40s. for the second, and should be imprisoned for the third. Mr. Lemon 
argues that there is nothing in this to show that Halle was any worse than 
Swayne in the matter of language, and that this is the only occasion on 
which we hear of any quarrel between them. Accordingly he objects to 
Mr. Dorling's estimate of him, apparently approved by Mr. Haskins, as "a 
foul-mouthed overbearing, quarrelsome fellow who for many a year kept the 
city in a constant state of turmoil. ' He considers that this description is 
" entirely unwarranted " and that in this passage and elsewhere in Mr. 
Dorling's history, Halle has been " maligned without a particle of justifica- 
tion." He contends that in the great quarrel as to the site outside St. 
Thomas's Church which the Bishop bad granted to Swayne, in order that 
he might build upon it a house for a priest for his chantries lately founded 
in the south aisle of the Church, Halle and the corporation were only acting 
from principle and not from personal animosity, and that they were perfectly 
within their rights in challenging the Bishop's right over the site in question. 
Swayne refused to stop his building as ordered by the corporation, where- 
upon Halle and others pulled the building down. The Bishop threatened 
to obtain a " bill " from the Pope to interdict the city, and the corporation 
appealed to the King in council. Mr. Lemon argues that the whole of the 
evidence is against the charge which Mr. Dorling endorses, that Halle em- 
bezzled the 40 marks entrusted to him by the city council to provide 40 men 
for Warwick's forces in 1470. He contends that everything points to the 
fact that Halle did provide these men. There is, he says, not a shadow of 
evidence for any other charge of dishonesty against Halle. Mr. Lemon re- 
gards him as " a good old Burgess fighting for the liberty of his city " 
against whom both Hatcher and Mr. Dorling have an unfair prejudice. 
There certainly seems to be a good deal to be said for that view, and this 
defence written on the 450th anniversary of Halle's death is quite worth 
reading. 

Bower of Claremont, Donhead, Dorchester, Lost- 
withiel, and Weymouth. ByH.B. Bower. Privately 
printed for the author by E. Dwelly, Fleet, Hants. 

MCMXXIX- Pamphlet, 9in. X 6in., pp. 34. Hlustration of Bower 
arms. This is really a pedigree of Bower though not arranged in pedigree 
form, and gives as shortly as possible all that is known of successive genera- 
tions of the family beginning with John Bowre, of Shaston (Shaftesbury), 
born 1400. The earlier generations from the Conquest downwards, as given 
in the Egerton MS. 1075 in the British Museum, are regarded as entirely 
unreliable. John Bowre, of 8haston, held lands in Dunhead by Copy of 
Court Roll of the Abbess of Shaftesbury. His son John was buried in the 
chancel of Lower Dunhead Church. His son Robert held lands in Dun- 
head. His son Edmund, of Donhead St. Andrew and Shaston, was a great 



Wilts/lire Books, Pamph/ets, and Articles. 129 

benefactor to Shaftesbury. His son Thomas inherited his father's lands in 
Donhead and married four wives. His son Thomas, of Donhead St. Andrew, 
was succeeded by his son Robert, of Ludwell, in Donhead St. Mary. 
Amongst Robert's many children was Jeremiah, woolstapler, of Salisbury^ 
and another, Roger, whose descendants were of Dorset and Cornwall. A 
very useful piece of genealogy. 

Basset Down. Mrs. Arnold Forster's Mahog^auy 
Furniture at By Ralph Edwards. Cou7itry Life, Oct \3th, 

1928, pp. 531 — 534, \'2 illusts. 

The mediaeval house at Basset Down was rebuilt in 1702. In 1802 Nevil 
Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, made extensive alterations, and it was 
again partly rebuilt in 1881. The furniture of the present house is mostly 
of the middle of the 18th century. Much of it was brought to Basset Down 
after Dr. Maskelyne's death in 1811 from his official residence at the Royal 
Observatory, whilst other pieces came from the old moated house of the 
Maskelynes at Purton Stoke. Some of the finest examples, however, were 
purchased by the late Mr. Nevil Story Maskelyne, whose admirable taste 
in Chippendale furniture before it became fashionable has left its mark on 
the house, in the numerous sets of tine Chippendale and Heppel white chairs 
of which four types are here illustrated, and in the singularly beautiful 
" Commode Table " which is shown at the head of the article. In addition 
to other pieces of furniture dating from 1750 to 1785, an immense Delft 
Punch Bowl with elaborate cover, 21 inches high, is illustrated here. This 
was a gift by Will. III. to Henry Booth, 2nd Lord Delamere and 1st Earl 
of Warrington, who was a zealous supporter of the Revolution. The child- 
ren of the Astronomer Koyal's daughter and heiress were all baptised in 
this bowl in the dining room at Basset Down, for there was then no road 
to the Parish Church at Lydiard Tregoze passable in winter. 

Dykes, by Cyril Fox, is an important article in /I ^i^igm'^?/, June 

1929, vol. Ill , 135 — 154, summing up the available evidence from excava- 
tion as to the great dykes, Bokerley, Wansdyke, Offa's Dyke, and the 
Cambridgeshire dykes. He concludes that they are all post-Roman, and 
thinks it likely that all the dykes of Southern Britain are of the same 
period. " Boundary or defensive dykes are in the nature of things likely 
to be constructed by higher civilisations in contact with lower. They define 
the limits of law and order as against lawlessness and anarchy. Our greater 
dykes appear to afford excellent illustrations of this ; in the south-west 
Romanised Britons, it is reasonable to suggest, attempted to secure the 
shattered elements of their civilisation from the Saxon raiders by means of 
Wansdyke and Bokerly Dyke ; in Cambridgeshire, the East Anglians of 
the 7th century, comparatively civilised as a result of contact with the 
continental culture of the Franks, defended themselves against the still 
pagan and probably barbarous Mercians of the interior ; in the west again, 
the Mercians, a century or two later, turned to protect the civilisation 
which they by this time had gained or evolved, from the wild highlander of 
the Welsh border." 

vol.. XI.V — NO. CLII. K 



1 30 Wiltshire, Books, ramjililets, and Articles. 

Fresentnients of the Grand Jury of the Quarter 
Sessions, Leet & Iia^v Days held at Marlborough, 
1706 to 1751, and some 18th and early 19th Cen- 
tury Inquests. Extracted from the Corporation 
Papers of Marlborough by B. Howard Cunnlngton, 
F.S.A., Scot. Devizes, Printed by George Simpson 

& Co , 1929. Paper covers, 9fin. X 6in., pp. 60 -f 1. 

TLis series of presentments, which have been so happily unearthed and 
made available by Capt. Cunnington, put before us probably a very fair 
specimen of the kind of way in which the town authorities of the first half 
of the 18th Century carried out their duties, and the reader's first impression 
as he begins to read is one of admiration at the way in which people who 
oflFended against municipal regulations in those days were immediately 
brought to book and ordered to amend their ways under pain of a heavy 
fine. But as he reads further and observes that year after year throughout 
the period the same highways need mending, the same meare stones want 
replacing, the same pig pounds are out of repair, the same ducking chair 
and pillory demand attention, the same fire ladders and fire hooks are 
missing in the same wards, whilst even the corporation itself seems to want 
a biennial reminder at least that they ought to have twice as many fire 
buckets at the Town Hall as they actually have, he begins to doubt whether 
after all local government in the early 18th Century was any more efficient 
than it is to-day. However, this may be, all sorts of interesting bits of 
knowledge are to be picked up in these pages. Marlborough, for instance, 
had a dancing master, Mr. Miles, in l70y. On the principle that the burnt 
child dreads the fire, the burgesses put the defence of the town against fire 
in the forefront of their requirements. A man who thatched even a porch 
with straw " contrary to the Act " was certain to hear of it, and if every 
inhabitant did not provide himself with a fire bucket, and one that would 
hold water, too, it was not for want of being ordered to do so by the 
authorities. It is true that people apparently not uncommonly took 
away the public fire ladders and converted them to more private and 
everyday uses, but, at least, the constables were ordered to replace them. 
Next to guarding against fire, the cleansing of the streets seems to have 
been kept in view. Offenders were for ever throwing "swill" (pig 
wash), or dung, or " rubage," out into the highway, or piling up heaps of 
timber, or pig styes were erected so near the road as to make the said 
highway " a general new sance." The rules for the town government in 
fact were excellent, but, 'obviously, neither orders nor threats of 10s. fines 
availed to enforce the keeping of those rules. fl 

The indentures of apprenticeship, of which examples are printed, give 
an interesting list of tradesmen of Marlborough between 1660 and 1690. 
Tailors and pinmakers head the list (six each). In addition to the com- 
moner trades there are wire drawers, rope makers, pipe makers, parchment 
makers, a gunsmith, a glover, and a currier. 

Amongst the inquests are two on suicides. The first, in 1773, was ordered I 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 131 

" to be buried in the King's highway near the common," but the second, in 
1830, in consequence of the Act of 1823 as to the interment of suicides, was 
ordered to be buried " within the churchyard." 



The Life and Works of Edward Russell Bernard, 
Canon and Chancellor of Salisbury. Notes on his life and 

works are given in the Preface (10 pp.) by H. F. Stewart. 

"Sermons and lectures selected from the remains of the late Edward 
Russell Bernard, M.A., Canon and Chancellor of Salisbury, and Chaplain 
in Ordinary to H.M. the King, Cambridge. At the University Press, 1929." 
Cr. Svo. Cloth, pp. XVIII. -f 215. 6s. net. 



Where Green Roads Meet. A Guide to Avebury 
and Neighbourhood. By R. Hippisley Cox, Swindon, 
Swindon Press Ltd, 1929. 

Paper covers, Sin. X 6|in , pp. 55. 

This is a reprint of the original edition of 1909, with Lord Avebury's 
preface, and *' a Foreward of this edition," by the Rev. Y. W. Clifford. It 
is an expansion of the first chapter of the author's larger work. " The 
Green Roads of England," and its general scope is summed up thus, " The 
triangle of Downs surrounding Avebury may be considered the hub of 
England ; from it radiate the great lines of hills like the spokes of a wheel, 
the Cotswolds to the north, the Mendips to the west, the Dorsetshire Hills 
to the south-west, Salisbury Plain to the south, the continuation of the 
North and South Downs to the east, and the high chalk ridge of the 
Berkshire Downs north-east to the Chilterns. . . . Along the lines of hills 
joining the watersheds of the rivers branch out the old main roads of the 
country. The best preserved of these is still called the Ridgeway, the name 
it was known by in Saxon times." " It is now accepted that these early 
temples were used for the purpose of sun-worship, and it does not seem im- 
probable that Avebury, the meeting place of all the hill roads, should have 
been chosen as the appropriate site for building the largest temple in the 
land, and for erecting the great shadow hill (Silbury) from whence edicts 
might be issued as to the seasons for seed time and harvest." Apart from 
these and other questionable assumptions the book is a readable guide, in 
which the principal earthworks and trackways of the district are described. 
There is a map of the country round Avebury showing the roads and 
trackways (in which, however, curiously enough the latter do not seem to 
meet at Avebury itself at all), four plans and diagrams of Avebury, a view 
of Silbury, and nine small plans of the camps and earthworks of the district 
in the text. The book is very nicely printed and got up, but it seems a 
a pity that it should not have been brought up to date. There is no sign 
that the editor has ever heard of the important excavations of Knapp Hill 
Camp, and Windmill Hill. There are, moreover, a good many small state- 
ments which are not accurate. The Avebury font is not Saxon, and the 

K 2 



132 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Saxon windows have not been " restored to their original positions " for 
the majority have never been moved at all. The " Pit Dwellings "at Martin-^ 
sell are probably not dwellings at all, and the camps at Binknoll and Clack 
are more probably of Norman than of Neolithic origin, and the Clatford 
valley of the Devil's Den is not the land which has been given to the 
National Trust. 

As to the confused ditches and earthworks just below the hill between 
Clyffe Fypard and Bupton of which plans are given, some of the " tumuli " 
are almost certainly of natural origin, and one of the principal ditches is 
clearly the boundary ditch of the old *' Oadhill Park " which gives its name 
to the farm still. Surely even a Yorkshire " antiquarian " and the Swindon 
Press between them, in a book intended for the use of Wiltshire people, 
might have made a better shot at a name so universally known as William 
Cunnington's, than the " Mr. Cullington " which appears in its pages. 

Woodbury Two marvellous Air-Photographs. 

By O. G. S. Crawford. Antiquity, Dec. 1929, vol. Ill,, pp. 452—455, two 
illustrations. 

The previously unknown camp of Woodbury, less than a mile S. of Salis- 
bury Cathedral, was discovered by xMr. Crawford from an air photograph 
noticed in Wessex from the Air in 1924. Though practically invisible on the 
ground the ditch of the camp shows- up absolutely clearly on the photo- 
graph, together with a number of spots and blobs in the interior which 
doubtless mark huts and pits. The larger portion of the camp was under 
barley when the view was taken. This is a good deal more distinct than 
the eastern part which was under wheat. The western edge, under grass, 
does not show at all. About balf-a mile to the east a smaller enclosure 
exists, an irregular circle with a wide entrance on the E. side, this entrance 
being flanked by two ditches running roughly N.E. and S.E. The inside of 
this enclosure contains a mass of dark dots and marks, huts and pit sites, 
showing apparently that this was a permanent settlement. 

StOUrhead. Country Life for April 18th, 1925, contained an article 
by E. H. M. Cox on " The Beauty of Big Trees." " Great and beautiful 
trees have long been the distinguishing feature of English parks, but it is 
not everywhere that the efifect of a studied layout has been so admirably 
planned and carried out in practice as in Sir Henry Hoare's park at Stour- 
head." There are four photo process views of the lakes and trees. The 
*' main collection of trees is centred around the chain of artificial lakes de- 
signed by the original Henry Hoare, who bought the property from the 
Stourtons in 1714, when the original castle was pulled down. Each suc- 
ceeding generation has had a keen silviculturist, but probably the keenest 
of all is the present owner. Sir Henry Hoare, Bt., who, along with his 
forester, is planting all the latest introductions, and so is enhancing the 
reputation which this wonderful collection already possessss." " No poor 
specimens are to be seen, but Stourhead has an ideal climate, it is never too 
hot nor too cold, while the air even on the hottest day in summer is never 
burning, owing to the large expanses of water." 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 138 

The Life-work of Lord Avebury (Sir John Lubbock) 
1834—1913, comprising Essays by Sir Bernard 
Mallet, K C B ; Sir Arthur Keith, P.R.S. ; Dr, A. 
Smith Woodward, L L.D., F.R.S, ; Prof J, Arthur 
Thompson, L L D. ; H. St. J. K Donisthorpe, FES., 
F Z.S.; Dr A. C. Steward, F.R S. ; Sir Michael E 
Sadler, KG. S.I Edited by his daughter, the Hon. 
Mrs. Adrian Grant Duff London, Watts & Co., 

1924 Cloth. Cr. 8vo., pp. III. + 261. 

" This book is not a biography of Lord Avebury. It contains an appre- 
ciation of his life's work by those eminently qualified to judge of it in its 
various aspects, and it aims at giving an impression of his character and 
personality." This is the statement of its scope with which the book opens 
but really it does less than justice to its contents. It is a small book but 
it contains a vast amount of information and all of it set forth in the most 
interesting manner. Each of the essays, " Political and Economic," 
"Anthropology," " Geology," " Zoology," " Entomology," "Botany," "Edu- 
cation and Letters," is written by an expert on that particular subject and 
each is followed by a careful bibliography of Lord Avebury's writings on 
that subject. The book begins with two chapters on the earlier and the 
later years of his life, and ends with six pages of dates of land marks in 
that life. There is a chapter of selections from his writings and " a list of 
bills introduced by Lord Avebury which passed into law." A valuable and 
a very readable book. 

The Woollen Industry of Wiltshire. The Good 
Work of the County Textile School. Wiltshire Times,, 

Dec 28th, 1929. A useful article giving the present condition of the in- 
dustry in Wiltshire and some short account of its former importance in the 
chief towns of North Wilts. Chippenham, in 1790, had about 60 factories 
or rather shops in which the finishing processes of cloth manufacture were 
carried on, the cloth itself being woven on hand looms in the cottages. The 
Waterford Mills alone remain to-day. In Bradford there were 25 cloth 
mills in 1723, now rubber manufacture has entirely ousted that of cloth, 
just as bacon has taken the place in Calne of the seven or eight cloth 
factories of 1830. In the same way at Melksham a cloth factory carried on by 
the Maltravers family, remainedafter all others had disappeared, on the site 
of the Avon Rubber Works which took its place many years ago. At West- 
bury two cloth mills, Bitham Mill and Angel Mill, are still carried on under 
the name of A. Laverton & Co., whilst at Trowbridge five mills still remain 
working out of the thirteen which existed cir. 1860 — 70. Considerable 
space and three illustrations are given to the excellent work of the County 
Textile School, at Trowbridge, where young workers are trained for work 
in the mills of Wilts and Somerset. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence. 1769— 1830. An article by the art 
critic of I'he Times, Jan. 7th, 1930, together with a short editorial article on 



134 Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles. 

the occasion of the centenary of his death, sums up the career and achieve- 
ments of Sir Thomas Lawrence as a painter, and the fluctuations in the 
public estimation of his work. 

" He lives as one of the most charming of men whom nobody, male 
or female (except a few crusty and jealous old artists, of course), could 
help loving ; a man of a noble, delicate, exquisite charm. He lives 
also as the brilliant, shallow painter, whose worst qualities our art critic 
does not hesitate this morning to call "flashy." It appears to be the 
fashion at the present moment to admire— at least to pay high prices 
for his brilliance. His market value has been rising ; and it is now 
reported that an enormous sum is being asked for one of his most 
famous pictures. Irrespective of his merits as a painter . . . 
Lawrence deserves our gratitude for two things : he formed a collection 
of old master drawings, probably unequalled in Europe . . . and 
he was largely instrumental in founding the National Gallery." 

Pages from the History of the Benedictine Abbey 
of Malmesbury. By Major- General Sir Richard H. 
Luce, KC.M.Gr., C.B. Devizes, Printed by George 

Simpson & Co., 1929. 8vo. Folding plan of medieval Malmes 
bury and 12 illustrations of which two are from drawings in the British 
Museum, one of " The Saxon Gateway leading to the Abbot's House," dated 
1801, the other, "The S.W. view of small religious building called the 
Hermitage . . . without the western wall of the town. St. Paul's 
tower and spire in the distance." 1~he "Saxon Gateway" is the 12th 
Century arch in front of the Abbey House. It seems a pity that this title, 
no doubt the one on the drawing itself, should be given without any quali- 
fying explanation. The other illustrations are photo process views of the 
same arch ; the Abbey House, K. Athelstan's Tomb, Malmesbury and 
Abbey from the W., Abbey from the Railway Station, S. side of Abbey, 
St. John's Almhouses, N.E. corner of Cloister in Capt. Mackirdy's garden, 
W. Front, and Market Cross. The writer in his preface says :— 

" After having made a fairly close survey of the books and documents 
in which reference is made to Malmesbury and its Abbey, from the 
time of its foundation to the I^eformation, it seemed worth while for 
me to try and piece together the scattered items ; not to make anything 
in the way of a complete history, but to bring out the more interesting 
points in the history of the place. In order to make the picture a 
living one it has seemed best to quote largely from the original docu- 
ments and let the contemporaries tell their own story." 
The pre-conquest mentions of the Abbey and its founding are quoted at 
some length. The commonest spelling of the name in Saxon days 
was Maldumesberg, but by the time of the Conquest it had definitely 
become Malmesbury. The relics given by K. Athelstan are described and 
the curious story of the head of St. Ouen and how it got from Rouen to 
Malmesbury is told. The character, writings, and life of William of 
Malmesbury are dwelt on in considerable detail. The letters of Pope 



W-ilUhire Books, Fainplilcts, and Articles. 135 

Alex III. -with reference to the long-standing dispute between the Bishop 
of Salisbury and the Abbot are quoted from, and the entertaining story of 
the examination in the Latin tongue which the Abbot was called on to 
pass at the hands of the Bishops of Exeter and Worcester by command of 
the Pope is set forth from the original authorities. Indeed throughout the 
author gives the fullest references to the authorities for all his statements. 
The mediaeval town is described with its walls, its four gates and bridges, 
its central parish of Byneport of which St. Paul's was the parish Church, 
and its suburbs of Burton, Burnivale, and Westport, and various other 
smaller religious foundations, the Hospital of St. John for brothers and 
sisters, near the south gate, that of St. Mary jVlagdalen (a leper hospital) 
on the hill leading to Burton, a Chapel of All Saints in High Street, another 
of St. Helen in Westport, and below the wall on the W. side the Hermitage. 
A license was granted by the King in 1250 to Christina, daughter of Henry 
of Somerset, to remain enclosed in the latter as an anchorite in perpetuity. 
The population in mediaeval times is reckoned at about 1,000, or half what 
it is at present. The regulations drawn up by Abbot William of Colerne, 
as to meals in the refectory, misericordia, and infirmary, and for monks who 
had been bled, are printed in full. The struggle between the " Cosyner " 
and the " Chamberer " in 1533 for the post of Abbot after the death of 
Richard Camme, the petitions to the King, and the letters of Rowland Lee 
to Cromwell on the subject are also set forth at length. The book ends 
with the dissolution. The writer remarks that after Abbot William of 
Colerne's death in 1396 the Abbey "dropped almost completely out of 
English history and produced no men of mark." A very useful little book 
which supplies a place not filled by the older historians of Malmesbury. 
It is a pity it has no index. 



The Great Gale of Sunday, January 12th, 1930. 

Two months of almost continual winds culminated in the fierce gale of 
Sunday evening, January 12th. Though not so destructive as the gale of 
Nov., 1928, in the north of the county, south and central Wilts suffered 
more than perhaps in any storm within living memory. Roads were every- 
where blocked by fallen trees, and telegraph and telephones were put out 
of action. The Devizes and Salisbury neighbourhoods both suffered severely. 
At Devizes the well-known Quakers Walk avenue lost 35 of its large elms 
and it was calculated that something like 500 trees were blown down in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the town, whilst St. Mary's Church lost half- 
a-dozen pinnacles. Long accounts of the havoc wrought are given in the 
Wiltshire Gazette of Jan. 16tb, and the Wiltshire Times of Jan ISth, 1930. 



George Herbert, A.D 1593—1633. A sermon 
preached at Bemerton by Canon J. M. J. Fletcher 

j [1929.] Pamphlet, 6^in. X 4in., pp. 8. Text, /*s. cxxxii., 9. An excellent 
; short account of George Herbert's life and influence as the model parish 
priest. 



136 Wiltshire Books, Farnphlets, and Articles. 

Notes on the Parish Church of St. Feter and St. 
Paul, Heytesbury. By A. D. Clutsom, M.A., Vicar 

1901 — 1926- 8vo leaflet, pp. 2 [1927]. Short account of the 
architectural history and features of the building. 

Wiltshire, by R. Welldon Finn, M.A., sometime 
Scholar of Peterhonse, Cambridge. 1930. Alfred A 
Knopf, 39, Bedford Square, London, W.C. 1. 

Cloth, T^in. X 5in., pp. 119, 8 maps, 20 plates and illustrations in the text. 
Price 2s. 

This nicely got up and well illustrated little book is one of the curiously 
named "Borzoi County Histories," under the general editorship of S.J. 
Madge, M.Sc, F.S.A. Among the illustrations are several that are not 
commonly found in books of this kind, e g'., Edington Church, Steeple 
Ashton Cross and Lock-up (which however are represented as though they 
stood alone by themselves on the Down) ; St. John's Alley, Devizes ; West- 
bury White Horse ; Wootton Bassett Town Hall ; Norman Door of 
St. Mary's, Marlborough ; Wilton House; View of the Cloisters, Salisbury ; 
Marlborough College; Cricklade Cross; Longleat ; the G.W. Railway 
Works, Swindon ; and Malmesbury Abbey Church, the restored interior 
looking west. All these are excellent, and the various sketch maps of 
physical features, Pre-Roman Wiltshire, the Kidgeways, Saxon Wiltshire, 
Mediaeval Wiltshire, the Hundreds, and Modern Wilts are mostly quite 
helpful, but the letterpress is somewhat sketchy. The chapters on Pre- 
Roman, Roman, and Saxon Wiltshire appear to be founded on Hoare's 
Ancient Wilts with Dr. Grundy as the modern authority on place names 
and the ancient road system, but though the claim is made that the book is 
up-to-date, as regards discoveries and knowledge, hardly any other authority 
seems to have been consulted. All Cannings, Woodhenge, Knap Hill, 
Windmill Hill, and all they stand for, are not mentioned, and the excava- 
tions at Old Sarum appear to be unknown to the writer. The only village 
of Pit Dwellings mentioned is that at Highfield, near Salisbury. Fyfield 
Bavant and Swallowcliffe are not mentioned. The battles of the Saxon 
Conquest, and those of the Civil War, are treated of as little more than a 
string of names and dates ; the towns are chiefly remarkable for the visits 
'of Kings to them. There is a glossary of place names at the end. Alto- 
gether the book suggests by its explanation of such matters as the Monastic 
system and Feudalism that it is intended for use in schools — but for that 
purpose it certainly is no improvement on The School History of Wiltshire, 
by W. F. Smith issued many years ago. 



Wiltshire in Literature. By W. D. Bavin. No. II 

The connection of Wilton with English Poetry, Sir Philip Sidney, 
Massinger, Sir John Davies, George Herbert, &c. A good article. Wiltshire 
Times, March 29th, 1930. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 137 

Some Norman Castle Sites in Wiltshire. By Mrs. 

Cunnington. Article in the Wiltshire Qazette, March 4th, 1926. After 
explaining what the Early Norman •* Motte and Bailey " Castle was 
like, Mrs. Cunnington shortly describes the sites of several of these castles 
in Wilts, of which no written records exist. Clack Mount close to Braden- 
stoke Priory has a small mound surrounded by a ditch in the middle of a 
triangular bailey, and also apparently a large outer bailey beyond. Oaksey 
or Norwood Castle has the mound in a corner of the bailey. Staple- 
ford Castle by the river side has no regular mound, but a fortified circular 
area within a rampart. Bincknoll Castle between Broad Town and Bassett 
Down occupies a promontory on the chalk escarpment, the apex having 
been scarped to form a mound. An earthwork in Lyneham, adjoining 
Hillocks Wood, seems to have been a castle of the same type as Norwood. 
Great Somerford mound by the Church and river is almost certainly a 
motte, as thinks Mrs. Cunnington is also Marlborough Mount, though this 
last is doubtful. The great mound at Marden dug into by Sir Richard 
Hoare, and entirely destroyed since his time was, Mrs. Cunnington believes, 
of the same character. At Bishopstrow the buildings of the present farm 
and house stand within earthworks which seem to be those of the outer 
bailey, whilst in a grass field on the east side, remains of the mound and 
inner bailey can still be traced. A useful paper on a subject on which 
little has been written. 



The Pitt Rivers Museum, Farnham. General 
Handbook. Edited by L H. Dudley Buxton Farn- 
ham Museum, 1929. Boards, 7iin. X 5iu., pp. 63, XXVI. plates. 

" This handbook has a two-fold object ; it is intended both as a guide to 
a most interesting and historic neighbourhood and the collections situated 
at Farnham, and as a general introduction to the studies and learning that 
may profitably be pursued there ... it aims at stimulating interest in 
the study of our own local history and prehistory as part of the history of 
human culture." It is indeed not what its title would lead you to expect, 
for the portion actually descriptive of the museum is confined to pp. 27 to 
50. It begins with a preface by Capt. George Pitt Rivers, the present 
owner of the museum and grandson of Gen. Pitt Rivers who founded it. 
Capt. Pitt Rivers has himself added largely to the ethnological side of the 
collections. He gives us also a description and short history of Cranborne 
Chase and its deer stealers, of Larmer Tree and its supposed derivation, of 
the Tollard Hunt held once a year during the sitting of the Chase courts by 
the inhabitants of Tollard Royal up to 1789 when Lord Rivers put an end 
to it, of the smugglers of the chase, and of the Larmer pleasure grounds 
formed by Gen. Pitt Rivers. This is followed by a biography of the 
General, with an account of his archaeological work and writings, by Mr. 
H. St. G. Gray, his former assistant, illustrated by an excellent photograph 
of the General. Three pages on " The Gypsy School " come next. This 
name by which the museum is still known in the neighbourhood arises from 
the fact that its buildings were used as a school for gypsy children for a 



188 Additions to Museum aiid Library. 

time previous to 1855. Various comments from the book of the visiting 
committee, which still exists, are given. Short chapters on the arrangement 
of the museum, and "what to look at"' fellow. Then come "Models of 
Ancient Sites in the M useum," by H. St. G. Gray ; " The Clay and the Pot," 
by H. S. Idarrison ; "Ceremonial Objects," by R. R. Marett; "The 
Ancient Inhabitants of Farnhara and the Neighbourhood," " Note on an 
Egyptian Tombstone," by F. LI Griffith ; and "The Antique Works of Art 
from Benin." Of these last seven plates are given. As a popular intro- 
duction to comparative ethnology and archaeology this is an excellent little 
book, but as a guide to nine-tenths of the contents of the museum it cannot 
be said to live up to its title. The editor feels this, for he remarks :— " If 
ever a second edition is called for it is hoped that it will be possible to en- 
large the guide very considerably." That enlargement is very much needed. 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRARY. 
Museum. 

Presented by The Authorities Representing Crown Lands : Large 
cinerary urn and bronze knife-dagger from a barrow at 
Oliver's Camp, Roundway Down, near Devizes. 
„ „ The Authorities Pepresenting the War Department : 

Socketed iron spearhead found with a Saxon burial at 
West Chisenbury, Enford. 
„ „ Miss Pugh : Leaf-shaped arrowhead from Barrow at Nor- 

manton. 
„ Mr. F. Stevens, F.S.A. : Two keys. 

„ Canon F. H. Manley : The Mediaeval pottery, etc., found by 
him in the Mound at Great Somerford, during excava- 
tions in 1912. 
„ „ The Executors op Mr. Giles Chivers : A pair of SheflSeld 

plate snuffers. A patent cutter for quill pens. 

Library. 

Presented by Mrs. Cooper : 12 back numbers of the Magazine, including 
the scarce number 132. 
„ The Author, Mrs. Gandy : " A Wiltshire Childhood," 1929„ 



Additions to Museum and Library. 



139 



The 



The 



Mr. 



Mr. 



Presented by The Author, Maj.-Gen. Sir Richard H. Luce, K.C.M.G., 
C.B. : " Pages from the History of the Benedictine 
Monastery of Malmesbury," 1929. 
Marquis of Lansdowne : " Lord Lansdowne, a Bio- 
graphy by Lord Newton," 1929. 

Author : Canon Fletcher : Sermon on George 
Herbert at Bemerton, 1929. 

The Author, Rev. A. D. Clutsom : "Notes on the Parish 
Church of Heytesbury." 

The Author, Mrs. F. E, Lovibond : " On the use of the 
Tintometer in relation to Colour Vision." 

Mr. G. Kidston : Four Wiltshire Deeds. 

The Publishers: " Wiltshire, by R. Weldon Finn," 1930. 
"'Borzoi' County History Series." 

The Author, Canon E. H. Goddard : " Wiltshire Bibli- 
ography," 1929. 

J. J. Slade : Sale Catalogue, illustrated, of the Saver- 
nake Jilstate ; Ditto, the Rood Ashton Estate ; and five 
others ; Cuttings and Illustrations. 
F. Stevens, F.S.A. : 28 Water Colour Drawings of 
Salisbury by J. Williams, 1870—90; 10 additional 
Drawings, by Richard Kemm, of Wiltshire Churches 
(not yet identified) ; MS. Brief of Libel Action relating 
to a Chapel at Tisbury, 1844. Deed of 1755. 

The Author, Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A , Scot. : 
" Presentments of the Grand Jury of the Quarter 
Sessions, Leet and Law Days held at Marlborough, 
1706 to 1751, and some 18th and early 19th Century 
Inquests, extracted from the Corporation Papers " 1929 ; 
Savernake Estate Sale Catalogue, 1929; "Extracts 
from the Marlborough Records," transcribed by Capt. 
B. H. Cunnington and typed, mounted in Folio Bound 
Volume ; Two old Deeds. 

Mrs. Cunnington : " The Ancient Temple of Avebury and 
its Gods," by Fleet-Surgeon Chr. Harvey, R.N , 1923. 

The Author, Mr. A. B. Lemon: " John Halle, a memory 

and a vindication of a famous Mayor of Salisbury," 

pamphlet, 1929. 
Capt. G. Pitt IUvers : "The Pitt Rivers Museum, Farn- 

ham. General Handbook edited by L. H. Dudley 

Buxton, 1929." 
Mr. J. E. Pritchard, F.S.A.: Sermon preached at Melk- 

sham, Sept. 1st, 1831, by Rev. Thos. Newton. 
Canon E. H. Goddard: Antiquity for 1929; Pamphlets, 

Cuttings, Portraits, and Illustrations ; N. Wilts Church 

Magazine for 1929 ; Salisbury Diocesan Gazette^ 1929. 



140 



MUSEUM HEATING APPARATUS. APPEAL 
FOR CONTRIBUTIONS, 1929. 

Last year it was found necessary to renew the heating apparatus in the 
Museum, the old plant having become worn out and entailing considerable 
expense in repairs. An appeal was therefore made to the members for 
funds to cover the cost and resulted in a total of £165 16s. Od. being sub- 
scribed by 77 members. The Museum Maintenance Fund was able to add 
£25 to this amount, which together with the proceeds of the sale of an old 
chest and disused water tank, brought the total receipts to ^196 lis, Od. 
The cost of the heating apparatus, builders' work, and sundry smaller 
expenses came to -£217 10s. 5d., there thus remains a balance of ^620 19s. 5d. 
required to clear off the debt. The committee make an earnest appeal to 
those members who have not already subscribed towards this absolutely 
necessary work for donations great or small in order that this small balance 
due may be paid off. 

Subscriptions will be gratefully received and acknowledged by the Hon. 
Curator, B. H. Cunnington, Long Street, Devizes. 

A list of subscribers and statement of account is appended and the 
committee are pleased to be able to say that the whole work has been most 
satisfactorily carried out, much to the benefit of the Library and exhibits 
as well as to the comfort of those who use the Museum during the winter. 

List of Subscriptions. 
Marquess of Lansdowne. 

Capt. B. H. Cunnington, Canon E. H. Goddard, G. Kidston. 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 

Marquess of Bath, Lt.-Co. W. C. Bell, E. Coward, Lord 
Fitzmaurice, C. B. Fry, H. P. Holt, A. Shaw Mellor, 
. G. S. A. Waylen. 
E. J. Burrow, R. S. NewaU. 
Sir F. H. Goldney, S. Russell. 
W. H. L. Ewart, W. E. Morse. 

E. O. P. Bouverie, Lt.-Col. E. Brassey, Sir Vincent H. P. 
Caillard, Major-Gen. T. C. P. Calley, Miss Heneage, 
Canon F. H. Manley, The Misses Milman, Canon Myers, 
C. Penruddocke, C. Powell. 
1 11 R. J. M. Borough. 
1 10 T. H. Thornely. 

110 W. Buchanan, C. R. Everett, Lady Gatacre, Rev. W. Good- 
child, Col. Lord Heytesbury, Canon E. P. Knubley, E. A- 
liawrence, Vice-Adm. E. Hyde Parker, E. A. Rawlence, 
Rev. Gordon Soames, Mrs. R. E. S. Thomas, Mrs. White, 
P. Williams. 



^ 


s. 


d. 


20 


10 





10 








8 


8 





5 








3 


3 





3 








2 


2 





2 









Miiseum Heating Appm^atics, 141 

£ s. d. 

10 W. J. Arkell, Col. R. W. Awdry, H. 0. Brentnall, Mrs. E. J. 
Curtis, Mrs. Hyde Parker, B. H. A. Hankey, Major 
E. M. S. Mackirdy, C. F. McNiven, Miss Story Maskelyne, 
J. A. Neale, A. D. Passmore, Sir Felix J. C. Pole, Miss 
A. Pleydell Bouverie, J. Hall Renton, E. Rickards, F. 
Stevens. 

15 6 Rev. R. Jeffcoat. 

15 G. H. Freeman. 

10 6 H. VV. Dartnell, Mrs. J. L. Lovibond, Miss L. J. Mather, Rev. 
A. W. Stote, Canon Westlake. 

10 O. G. S. Crawford, J. D. Cros&field, Rev. S. Collett, Rev. C. E. 

Perkins, Miss M. Slade. 
5 H. M. Gimson, A. J. Williams, Rosalind Lady Roundway, 
E. A. Pole, R. E. Rison. 

RECEIPTS. £ S. d. 

Total of Subscriptions 
Sale of old tank 
Sale of old chest 
Museum Maintenance Fund 



EXPENDITURE. 

Messrs. Applegate for heating plant and erecting same 
Messrs. Maslen, building new fire place and builders' work 

necessary during the alterations 
Printing, postages, and sundry small expenses 
Electric light installation in boiler house 





165 15 


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10 


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5 6 


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£196 11 




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Printed and Published by C- H. Woodward. Exchange Buildings. Station Koad, Devizt 



I THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS (Gontimied) 

3T0NEHENGE AND ITS BARROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
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WILTSHIRE— The TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF JOHN 
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Cnon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates, 
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WILTSHIRE INQUISITIONES POST MORTEM. CHARLES I. 8vo, 
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r others not in the Society's collection. 

i Apply to Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot., Curator, 
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: Tinted Books, Pamphlets, and Articles bearing on 
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No. CLIII. DECEMBER, 1930. Vol. XLV. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FOEMED IN THAT COUNTY 

A. D. 1 8 5 3. 



EDITED BY 

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[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
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STONEHENGE AND ITS BARROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 



WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

AGAZINE. 



No. OLIIl. DECEMBER, 1930. Vol XLV, 



Contents. 



PAGE 



Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshihk: By the Rev, R. 

St. John B. Battersby 147—155 

The Church of Shaw-in-Alton : By H. C. Brentnall 156 — 165 

Romano- British Wiltshire : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 166 — 216 

The Seventy-Seventh General Meeting of the Wiltshike 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society held at 

Trowbridge, July 30th and 31st, and August 1st, 1930 217 — 223 

The Future Work of the Society. Presidential Address : 

By Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 224—232 

Glazed Flints: By W. J. Arkell, D. Phii., M. Sc. 233—234 

The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral : By Canon J . 

M. J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc 235—253 

The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches 254 — 267 

Wilts Obituary 268 — 271 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 272 — 277 

Additions to Museum and Library ,, 278 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Church of Shaw-in-Alton. Fragments of Altar Slab (?) ... 160 

Plan of (Jhurch excavated, 1929 .. 162 

Air Photograph, 200ft. Site of Church from the S. West .. 162 

Small window found during excavation 162 

Exterior stop on jamb of N. door ; Half of Hood Mould of 

S. door ; N.E. corner, interior, showing altar-base on right 163 

Plan of Romano-British Remains in Wiltshire 170 

Devizes : — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



^:KV^ 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



"MULTORUM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS."— OviC?. 

No. CLIII. December, 1930. Vol. XLV. 

HERALDEY OF THE CHUKCHES OF WILTSHIKE. 

By the Rev. R. St. John B. Battersby. 

[Continued from Vol. xliv., p. 428.] 

TROWBRIDGE. 

(St. James) 

Chancel. 

1,— North Wall. Marble Mural Monument. 

Argent, a maunche sable ; on a chief azure, a lion rampant or (HAST- 
INGS). Crest. A bull's head erased sable, ducally gorged or. 

Motto. "VIRTUTE ET VICTORIA." 

Rev. John David Hastings 1869. 

NoTE3. — This gentleman was Rector from 1841 until his death, and was 
instrumental in restoring the Church extensively in 1846. His tomb with 
the above Armorial Bearings is in Trowbridge Cemetery. 

Wyke Chapel. 

11. — East Wall (behind the organ). Six Carved Stone Shields. 

i. — Azure, a bend argent, cottised or, between six lioncels of the last (De 
BOHUN 1119-1125). 

ii.— Sable, a bend lozengy argent (BAYNTON 1537—1550). 

iii. — Gules, semee of crosses crosslet argent, three demi wild men, bearing 
clubs resting over the dexter shoulder proper (WOOD 1559 — 1591), 

iv. — Or, on a bend between two crosses moline gules, three swans with 
wings displayed argent, charged on the wing with a mullet of the second 
(CLARK). 

V. — Gules, a bend or, on a chief of the second a saltire of the field, be- 

Itween two Cornish choughs proper (VYNER 1591 — 1647). 
vi. — Argent, on a chevron engrailed sable, between three crabs gules, 
1} claws to the dexter, the Roman fasces erect, surmounting two swords in 
saltire, and encircled by a chaplet, all or (BYTHESEA 1672—1839). 
Notes : 

i — Humphrey de Bohun was Lord of the Manor. The title, Earl Bohun, 
became extinct 1367. 

iv. — Thomas Clark. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. L 



148 Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire. 

v.— A Wiltshire branch of the London family. Two members were Lords 
^layor of London 1654 and 1675. The crest of this branch is, an arm em- 
bowed in armour proper, garnished or, holding in the gauntlet a round 
buckle, the tongue erect of the last. 

vi. — Charles Bythesea, magistrate early 19th cent. This family was set- 
tled at Axbridge and Compton Bishop from an early period. They quarter 
the arms of Chyvers, Longe of Trowbridge, Vyner, Bromley, De Chetilton, 
De Clifton, and Broc. Crest. An eagle displayed argent, charged on the 
breast as on the chevron in the arms, and each wing charged with a cross 
crosslet fitch^e gules. Motto. "MUTARE VEL TIMEHE SPERNO." 

111. — North Wall. Diapered work with Shield of Arms. Quarterly of 
eight. 

1st.— BYTHESEA (IL vi.) ; 2nd, Argent, a chevron engrailed gules 
(CHYVER) ; 3rd, Quarterly per fesse indented or and gules (BROMLEY) ; 
4th, Argent, on a chevron gules, five bezants, all within a bordure engrailed 
of the second (De CHETILTON) ; 5th, Sable, a lion rampant, between 
eight cinqfoils, and a trefoil in chief, slipped, argent (De CLIFTON) ; 6th, 
Sable, on a chevron argent three roses, gules (BROC ?) ; 7th, VYNER (II. 
v.); 8th, Sable, semee of crosses crosslet, a lion rampant argent, between 
two flaunches ermine (LONG). Granted to Thomas Long of Trowbridge 
1561. 

Duke Chapel. 

lY.— North Wall. Stone Mural Tablet. 

Per cross gules and argent, on the first and fourth an escallop of the 
second. Crest, a lion's head erased argent. 

Thomas Timbrell, Churchwarden 1817—1825. 

Banker. Lord of the Manor. 

Note. — These Arms occur also on the old alms houses in the Bradley 
Road. They were not registered or authorised by the College of Heralds, 
as there is no trace of them. 

Nave Arch. 

v.— West End. Painted Stone Tablet. 

Erminois, a bend gules (WALLIS) impaling sable, a fesse engrailed or, 
between three escallops argent (MASKELYNE). 

William Wallis, Churchwarden 1691. 

Note.— The crest of Wallis, though not shown, is a wolf's head couped 
gules, charged on the neck with a pheon and transfixed through the mouth 
with a spear fessewise, or, imbrued proper. William Wallis, of Trowbridge 
and Grovely, (>o. Wilts, was a descendant of Henry Wallis, Lord Mayor of, 
and a great benefactor to the City of London in the I3th cent. William 
liad two sons, Henry and Thomas. The younger was Ambassador to the 
Torte d. s. p. The elder married Miss Anna Maria Homerton, a banker's 
■daughter in Ireland, and left an only daughter and heiress who married 
Mr. Farr of Lincolnshire. 

VI.— Stone Tablet. 

Azure, three bars or, on a chief of the second two palets, between two 
gyrons of the first, on a false escutcheon argent, three nails sable 



Bji the Rev. R. St. John B. Hattcrshi/. 149 

(MORTIMER) impaling BYTHESEA (IT. vi ) without the charges on the 
chevron. 
Edward Horlocke Mortimer, Magistrate early 19th cent. 
VII. — Stone Tablet with Painted Shield. 

Argent, a fesse between six annulets gules (LIT (J AS) ; impaling sable, a 
cross patonce between four mullets pierced argent (READ ?). 
VIII.— Stoue Tablet with Fainted Shield. 
Gules, two bends wavy or, a chief vair (BREWER). 
William Brewer. 

Note. — This gentleman presented the silver Communion Flagon now 
used (1930). This is engraved with his arms, impaling lilrmine on a canton 
sable, a crescent argent (STRODE). Dated 1707. His wife, presumably, 
was descendant of Sir John de Strode, Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 
1230, whose arms these are. Crest though not shown, a demi lion rampant 
or. 

Beneath the Tower. 
YX.— South Wall. Painted Stone Tablet. 
Per fesse or and argent, a lion rampant azure (YiCRBURY). 
Crest. A lion's head erased, per fesse or and argent : impaling argent a 
chevron sable, between three apples gules (SOU TH BEY ?). 
Edward Yerbury 1692. 

Note.— This ancient family was originally of Batcombe, whence it moved 
into Wiltshire early in the 16th century. Henry Yerbury, son of Edward 
Yerbury, of Trowbridge, became a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
and differenced his arms as follows, per fesse or and sable a lion rampant 
counterchanged. 

X. — Stone Monument. 

BREWER (VIII.) ; impaling STRODE (VIII. Note). 
Abigail Brewer 1691. 
XI —Stone Tablet. 

Bendy or and sable ; impaling Ermine. 
William Monk 1707. 

Note — This monument has now (1930) disappeared but was extant in 
1870. 
XII. Stone Tablet. 

Argent, a saitire sable, charged with five fleurs-de-lys or (HAWKINS). 
Rev. Robert Hawkins, U.D., Rector 1664 — 1672. 

Note. — Crest, though not shown ; on a mount vert, a hind lodged or. 
Motto "PRO DEO ET REGE." The Hawkins family is of great an- 
'tiqnity. The name is local from the parish of Hawking in the Hundred of 
Folkestone, written before the Conquest, Hawkyngge. The first ancestor 
to bear these arms was Osbert de Hawking circa 1 180. Robert belonged to 
la branch seated at Kelston, co. Somerset. A descendant, Caesar Hawking, 
Esq., of Kelston, Sergeant Surgeon to the King, was created a Baronet 23rd 
July, 1788. 
North Wall. 

XIII — Stone Tablet. Argent, a chevron checkee gules and azure, be- 
tween three crosses crosslet fitchee of the last (REYNOLDS). 

L 2 



150 Heraldry of the 0/iMrches of Wiltshire. 

Betty Keynolds. Esau Reynolds. 1778—1786. 

Note. — The crest of this family, though not shown, is out of a mural 
coronet or, a demi talbot argent, eared gules, collared and a line ending in 
a knot of the first, 



Gallery over West Door. 

XIV.— Nine Carved Stone Shields. 

i.— CLARK (II. iv.). 

ii.— Sable, three bulls' heads cabossed or. Crest, A tiger sejant sable 
(WALUOND). 

iii.— HASTINGS (L). 

iv. — SEE OF SAHUM ; impaling argent, a bend between a unicorn's 
head in chief, and across crosslet fitchee in base gules. A crescent sable 
for difference (DENISON). 

V. — Or, two bars azure, a chief quarterly 1st and 4th azure two fieurs-de- 
lys of the first, 2nd and 3rd gules, a lion passant guardant of the field 
(MANNERS). 

vi. — Sable, semee of crosses crosslet a lion rampant argent. Crest. Out 
of a crest coronet or, a demi lion rampant argent (LONG). 

vii. — Azure, on a chevron between three lambs' heads couped argent, 
three roses gules ; on a chief of the second, three garbs of the third. Crest. 
On a rock proper, a holy lamb and banner argent, the dexter foreleg resting 
on a garb vert (STANCOMB). 

viii. — Argent, on a fesse gules between three boars' passant sable, a rose 
between two eagles displayed or (BUSH). Crest. A goat's head erased 
argent. 

ix.— Azure, on a chevron or, between three bears' heads erased argent, 
muzzled gules, a buck's head erased between two forearms issuant from the 
sides, all proper, each holding a dagger argent, hilt or (M ACKAY) 

Crest. A forearm erect proper holding a dagger as in the arms. 

Motto. "MANU FORTI." 

Notes. 

i. — The crest of Clark is here shown. A swan argent, charged on the wing 
with a mullet and resting the dexter wader on a cross moline gules. 

ii.— These arms are quoted by several authorities as those of a Wilts 
family of Gore, but the Gore Crest is a bull's head not a tiger sejant. They 
are the Arms of V\'ALROND, and probably were in use by the family of 
WALDRON. 

iv.— Edward Denison, Bishop of Sarum, 1837—1854. 

v.— Duke of Portland, Lord of the Manor, 1750—1809. 

vi. — Walter Long, Member for this Division. 

vii. — W illiam Stancomb, of Blounts Court, Lord of the Manor. Motto 
"DO RIGHT, FEAR NOT." 

viii. — Elijah Bush, Solicitor, Treasurer of Tradesmen's Association 1821 
— 1845, Presumably a descendant of Paul Bush, first Bishop of Bristol 
1490 — 1558, whose arms these were. 

ix. — These arms are those of the family of Lord Reay, whose surname is 



By the Rev. R. St. John B, Battershy. 151 

Mackay. They here represent Alexander Mackay, who restored and fur- 
nished the Baptistery. 

Baptistery. 

XY.— West Window. 

1st Jight (below) HENRY de BOHUN (II. i.). 
do. (above) SCOTLAND. 

2nd light. Quarterly, 1st and 4th ENGIiAND, 2nd and third or, four 
lioncels 1 and 4 sable, 2 and 3 gules. (QUEEN PHILIPPA). 

3rd light. JOHN OF GAUNT. DUKE OF LANCASTER. 

4th light (above) MACKAY (XIV. ix.). 

do. (below) Azure, six lioncels or (COUNTESS OF SARUM : 
LONGSPEE). 

XVL— North Wall. Stone Tablet. Painted Arms. 

MACKAY (XIV. ix.). 

Lucy Mackay 1928. 

Note. — The Tinctures of the Mantling are here incorrectly emblazoned. 
Also a Crested Helm ought not to surmount a lozenge of arms. 

Choir Vestry. 
XV II.— Engraved Picture. 
Argent, three bells azure (WORDSWORTH). 
John Wordsworth, Bishop of Sarum 18S5 — 1910. 

MERE. 
(St. Michael the Archangel). 
Chancel. 
Roof, Various carved and painted shields, bearing emblems of the 
Passion. 

Lady Chapel. 
L— North Wall. Two Hatchments, 
i. — Lozenge. Ermine, on a chevron engrailed gules, an escallop or, 
between two argent (GROVE); impaling argent, a chevron, 
between seven boars' heads erect and erased azure, in each mouth 
a cross crosslet fitch^e or, ( ). 

ii. — Full Achievement. Ermine, on a chevron engrailed gules, three 
escallops or, (GROVE). 
Crest. A talbot passant sable, collared argent. 
Motto : " NI DESSUS NI DESSOUS." 
II. — West Wall. Three Hatchments. Full Achievements. 
i.-GROVE (IL) 

Motto : " RESURGAM." 
ii. — GROVR (I.) impaling chequee argent and sable, a fesse gules 
(ACLAND). 
Note. — John Acland, a member of this family, was created Baronet June, 
111 644. Their Crest though not shown is a man's hand in a glove, couped at 
he wrist, lying to the sinister fessewise, thereon a falcon, all proper. 
Motto: "INEBRANLABLE." 



152 Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire. 

iii.— GROVE (I.) impaling G HOVE (I.) 
III. — Marble Mural Monument. 

GROVP: (I.) impaling ACJLAND (impalement of II. ii.), 1795—1842. 
IV. — South Wall. Two Hatchments. Full Achievement, 
i. — Gules, a talbot passant or, a chief ermine. 

(CHAFIN) Crest, a talbot or. 
ii.— Quarterly 1st and 4th. CHAFIN (IV.), 2nd Vert, a chevron 
between three escallops or (AKENTHORP), 3rd Argent, on a 
bend gules, three escallops or (PERROTT) ; impaling sable, two 
bars, and in chief three mullets or (MANNINGTON"). 
V. — Marble Mural Monument. 

CHAFIN (IV., i.) impaling HANNINGTON (impalement of IV., ii.). 
VI. — Windoio. Quarterly 1st and 4th argent, on a saltire gules, five 
estoiles or (RETTISTHORNE), 2nd and 3rd gules, a chevron between ten 
crosses pattee argent (BERKELEY) ; impaling azure, fretty and a chief or 
(FITZ HENRY). 

VII. — Floor. A Brass. Sir John Bettisthorne, 1392. Shields of arms 
have been removed. (VI.). 

South Aisle. 
Nlll.^East Wall of Arch. A Brass. 
Crest. A talbot sable, collared argent. 
William Chafin Grove, 1865. 
IX. — Roof. Three Carved Shields. 

i. — Quarterly, 1st GROVE (I ). 2nd a talbot passant 

. . . . in chief three escallops ( ). 3rd or, an eagle 

displayed with two heads proper, within a bordure invected 
ermine (TROYTE). 4th gules, a chevron between three bulls' 
heads cabossed argent, armed or (BULLOCK), 
ii.— Sable, fifteen bezants (DUCHY OF CORNWALL) or, gules, 

fifteen bezants rZOUCHE). 
iii.— ..... three roses (DARCY ?). 

Vestry Chapel. 

X. — South Wall. Lozenge Hatchment. Sable, guttee d'eau, three roses 
argent (STILL) ; impaling Vert, in dexter chief and sinister base a tower 
argent, in sinister chief and dexter base a lion rampant ermine, ducally 
crowned or (SERINE). 

Motto: "MORS JANUA VITAE." 

Note,— The STILL Crest is a stork argent, and the SKRINE, a tower 
argent, on the battlements thereof a lion couchant ermine, ducally crowned 
or. Burke gives the " field " of Skrine as " azure." 

XI East Wall. Marble Mural Tablet. 

STILL (X.) impaling SKRINE (X ). 

Robert Still, 1811. 

Sarah Skrine, 1789. 

XII.— Marble Mural Tablet. 

STILL (X.). 

Nathaniel Still. Sarah Patum. 



By the Rev. R. St. John B. Battersby. 153 

North Aisle. 
East Wall. Painted Achievement. 
XIII —Royal Arms, 1684. James II. 
XIV. — Gallery of fourteen painted shields. 

i. — Or, a merchant mark sable (not heraldic). 

ii. — Argent, a crescent sable, between three escallops gules (CLEVE- 
DON). 

iii — Argent, three hurts charged with as many chevronnels gulea 
(CARENT). 

iv. — Sable, a bend lozengy argent (BAYNTON). 

v.— Sable, two bars argent, in chief three plates (HUNGERFORD), 

vi. — Sable, three ostrich plumes argent (BLACK PRINCE). 

vii — Or, a cross gules (BYGOD). 

viii. — Gules, a chevron between ten crosses pattee argent, all within a 
bordure gules (BERKELEY VI. ). 

ix — Sable, a bend or, between six fountains (STOURTON). 

X.— HUNGERFORD (V.) with mullet sable on first bar. 

xi.— Per pale sable and argent, a chevron counter-changed (STOKES). 

xii — CARENT (III.) with a crescent sable in fesse points. 

xiii.— Gules, on a chevron between three roses argent, a torteau 
(WADHAM). 

xiv.-Or, on a saltire gules, five estoiles or (BETTISTHORNE VI). 
Notes. 

i. — -Date circa 1460. Whose mark I cannot trace. 

ii. — These arms are given in Burke under CLIVEDON. The crescent 
is a cadence mark. 

iii.— William Carent. Died 1476. Given in Burke under CARANT 
of Essex. 

iv.— Katherine Baynton, daughter of Sir John Baynton. Married 
William Carent. 

v.— Sir Edward Hungerford. Held Mere Park in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth. 

vi. — The Badge of Edward, the Black Prince. Each feather should 
have a scroll attached bearing the motto, " ICH DIEN." In 
accordance with the expre.ss provision of his will, two armorial 
shields are displayed upon the monument of the Black Prince in 
Canterbury Cathedral, which shields the Prince himself dis- 
tinguishes as his shields " for war " and " for peace " ; the former 
charged with his quartered] Arms of France and England 
differenced with his silver label, and the latter sable, charged 
with three ostrich feathers argent, their quills passing through 
scrolls bearing the motto, " ICH DIEN." Over the former 
shield is the motto, " HOUMOUT." He also, in his will, 
desired that a " black pennon with ostrich feathers " should be 
displayed at his funeral. His will proves the feathers to have 
been a badge, and not either a crest, or an ensign of a shield of 
arms since he twice calls them " our badge." It is also directly 
opposed to the traditional warlike origin of the feathers for it 



154 Heraldry of the CJiitrchcs of Wiltshire. 

specifies the peaceful significance of the badge, and distinguishes 
it from the insignia worn by the Prince when equipped for war. 
(See Boutell's " English Heraldry "). 

vii. — Bigod. Marshal of England circa 1217. Sir R. Bigod, according 
to a roll of Edward 11. differenced his arms by five escallops 
argent on the cross. 

viii. — Catherine, daughter of Sir Maurice Berkeley, of Beverstone, 
married William, Lord Stourton. These arms appear to have 
been incorrectly painted. The Berkeleys of Beverstone differ- 
enced their arms from the Earl of Berkeley by a " bordure 
argent," not " gules." 

ix.— Sir William Stourton, 1473, whose daughter married William 
Carent. 

X. — Walter Lord Hungerford. Died 1485. 

xi. — Not St. Bartholomew's Hospital which is just the reverse. 

xii. — William Carent. Married Margaret Stourton. 

xiii. — Margery Wadham, daughter of Sir John Wadham, of Merefield, 
circ. 1450. Nicholas Wadham, of Merefield, and his wife, 
Dorothy, sister of Lord Petrie, founded Wadham College, 
Oxford, 1613. 

xiv.— Bettisthorne, ancient Lord of Chaddenwyche (now Charnage), 
who founded a chantry in this Church. 

WINGFIELD. 
(St. Mary) 

Chancel. 

South Wall. Brass Mural Tablet. 

I. — Quarterly 1st and 4th. Argent, a chevron sable, between three quails 
proper, at their feet a fleur-de-lys (CAILLARD). 2nd or, three trefoils in 
fesse, a derai lion rampant issuant in chief and three bendlets in base gules. 
3rd Azure, a lozenge, couped and downset in base, charged with a cross 
humettee gules. Over all a fesse or, charged with a Catherine wheel (?) be- 
tween two mullets ; impaling per fesse, in chief azure, a chevron between 
three foxes' heads erased or (REYNOLD), in base quarterly 1st and 4th 
per cross or and gules, 2nd and 3rd argent a chevron sable between three 
roses. Over all a bend sable charged with three crosses pattee fitchee or. 

Motto. "AIDE TOI DIEU T'AIDERA." 

1898—1917. 

Caillard. Copland. Griffiths. Millingstone. 

St. Aubin and Hughes. 

Note. — The last quarter of these arms has been incorrectly executed. 
They should be : — Quarterly 1st and 4th, per cross, or and gules, on a bend 
sable, three crosses pattee fitchee of the first (HANNAM). 2nd and 3rd 
Argent a chevron between three roses gules, seeded and leaved proper 
(PHELIPS). 



By the Rev. B. St. John B. Battersby, 155 

Nave. 

11.— South Wall. Marble Mural Monument. 

Or, on a fesse engrailed between three nags' heads couped azure, as 
many fleurs-de-Iys of the field (BAYLY). 

John Bayley 1665. 

Note. — The crest of this family, though not shown, is a goat's head 
erased azure bezantee, attired or. 

North Transept. 
llL—£Jast Wall. Carved Stone Mural Tablet. 

Argent, three nags' heads couped azure (BAYLY) impaling argent, three 
battle axes sable, two and one (GIBBS). 
Christopher Baylie 1663. 



156 



THE CHURCH OF SHAW-IN-ALTON. 

By H. C. Brentnall. 

Few place-names, in the nature of things, could well be commoner in 
this country than Shaw, and of Altons in Wiltshire there are at least three. 
But on the modern map there is no Shaw-in-Alton. The Shaw that most 
nearly represents it is a tything of West Overton. Shaw-in-Alton lies to- 
day in the parish of Alton Priors, but until the middle of the last century it 
was a detached portion of Alton Barnes ; and the church with which this 
paper is concerned, ceased, in the common acceptance of the term, to exist 
long before this change came about. Whether, when it did exist, it was 
accounted as belonging even to Alton Barnes seems open to doubt, for the 
evidence suggests that it belonged to the vill of Shaw, sometimes defined, 
to the further confusion of those unacquainted with the former extent of 
our Wiltshire forests, as Shaw next Savernake. 

In view of the complications indicated, it is perhaps excusable to define 
the position of this vanished Church mathematically, and to say that it lies 
in Lat. bl"" 23' 3" N. and Long, r 48' 4" W. This method is finding in- 
creasing favour, and no one will deny it (provided the calculations are cor- 
rect) the merit of exactitude. Nevertheless it may be more useful in a 
general way to know that its situation may be found on the Marlborough 
Sheet (113) of the One-inch Ordnance Map where the 750 foot contour line 
runs south from Wansdyke and west of Shaw Copse. On the ground this 
is none too easy a spot to reach, a fact to which the site perhaps owes its 
long immunity from disturbance. 

In spite of its elevation, this ridge is wholly unlike the opendownland of 
the region. The clay-with-fiints spreads out to this point from Savernake 
with hardly an interruption, save where ancient long-vanished streams have 
washed it off the chalk, and left its detritus in their valleys as beds of 
river-gravels. Westwards only patches of this clay cap a few solitary sum- 
mits, but here the hedgerow timber and heavy grass are evidence of the 
soil's capacity to carry woods as thick as any that lie east of it. Maps no 
older than the 18th century show indeed that it did so still in places, and 
we know that six hundred years ago the King's deer found harbourage as 
far as Boreham Wood. Actually, if not technically, the " vill of Schaghe " 
must have begun life as an assart of this upland weald. 

Local tradition asserts that the stones of Shaw Church were removed to 
build that of Alton Barnes. In view of the fact that the latter church 
shows Saxon workmanship, while the former, as hereafter will be shown, 
only came into existence several centuries later, the tradition in that form 
is hardly acceptable. But it does suggest that the materials which are 
certainly missing from the site were removed at some date when Shaw 
Church, or its ruins, lay in Alton Barnes parish, and that they were used 
for some repairing of the older building. Research, however, has so far 
failed as completely to discover when they might have been so used, as in- 
spection of the Parish Church to throw light on the purpose to which they 
were put. Tradition speaks further of other buildings round the Church of 
Shaw, and in particular of the site of a smithy ; but whether a tradition of 



The Church of Shaw-in- Alton. 157 

this kind belongs to the last century or to a much remoter past it is not easy 
to determine, and least of all in a district so sparsely inhabited as this. A 
document of the middle of the fifteenth century mentions the Villa de 
Schaghe,^ and the manor is mentioned in Domesday,"^ but the evidence on 
the ground speaks for itself. Over several fields on both sides of the 
modern parish boundary of Overton and Alton, which runs close by the 
site of the church, the signs of earlier occupation are numerous in the form 
of banks and ditches and ancient furlong strips, and the accompanying air- 
photograph shows clearly enough the appearance of one of these fields. 

This photograph, taken from the south-west at a height of 2<)0 feet, shows 
the site as it appeared when the excavation was half completed. It also 
shows the bank enclosing the churchyard, and a section cut through it (near 
the S.W. corner) in search of a possible wall. No trace of one was found. 
The dark-ringed oval adjoining the path that crosses the churchyard repre- 
sents the one effort made to discover whether the area had ever been used 
for burials. At that point the ground had not been previously disturbed, 
and the evidence of the trenches in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
church was also negative. Whether strong traces of charcoal under the 
footings of the N.E. corner of the church and elsewhere in the interior in- 
dicated the remains of prehistoric burials or not we could not decide, since 
no bones or prehistoric pottery appeared.^ 

As the base from which the work was conducted was Marlborough, some 
five miles distant by any possible line of approach, and as during the greater 
part of the time only two afternoons a week at most could be allotted to the 
task, it is, perhaps, not surprising that the excavation occupied us from April 
till August. It was undertaken by a small party without much assistance 
from more practised wielders of pick and shovel, and we have to thank the 
exceptional season of 1929 that we were able to complete our investigations 
even in those five months. As it is, there is much in the field that we could 
not examine, though it is doubtful whether it would throw much further 
light on our immediate problem. 

When operations were begun the pick soon revealed the fact that the 
whole of the low mound which formed the presumed site of the building 
was a mass of flints, barely concealed by the turf, and it became immedi- 
ately obvious that some gentler method was desirable if the evidence we 



^ Record Office : Forest Proceedings ; Exchequer T. K. 220— temp. Henry 
VI. An earlier document— Brit. Mus. MSS. Stowe, 925 of 1330, calls it 
the Villata de Schaghe, which would imply a larger village than the shorter 
word. But the MS. in question (for my copy of which I am indebted to 
Mr. O. G. S. Crawford) appears to ring the changes on the two forms, with- 
out any perceptible system. 

^ See Jones' Domesday of Wilts, under Essage. 

^ It is indeed the writer's experience, and he would here put it upon 
record, that wherever he has opened the clay-with-flints in the ancient 
forest area of this district he has come, sooner or later, upon distinct traces 
of charcoal. 



158 The Cliurch of Sh,aw-in- Alton. 

sought was not to be destroyed in the seeking. Pen-knives and fingers, 
therefore, replaced the stouter implements, and at last the ashlar of an 
inner corner revealed itself on the N.E. With the precise direction of two 
walls thus established the tracing of the remaining foundations was merely 
laborious, though extreme caution was still necessary in view of the 
possibility of cross walls, buttresses, or other returns being obscured by the 
closely packed fallen flints ; but the interior face of dressed flints proved to 
run almost continuously and revealed an internal measurement of thirty- 
three feet three inches by sixteen feet in width, on a simple rectangular 
plan. The true bearing of the long axis is 277° , giving an orientation of 
seven degrees south of east. The dressed flints, varied occasionally by small 
blocks of sarsen, and sometimes even of coral rag, go down on the inner side 
to the bottom, about two feet six inches below the highest undisturbed 
level of the wall ; but on the exterior the footings cease about a foot higher, 
and the work appears more irregular, so much so that it was not possible 
to be sure whether there had or had not been an occasional buttress. The 
evidence seemed more suggestive on the north wall than on the south, and 
wholly absent on the west, and as much of the east as remained. The 
thickness of the wall just below the turf was three feet six inches, wherever 
we were able to test it. It was noticeable that though the inner part 
seemed to have been laid in a trench, the exterior footings were all on 
what we took to be the original ground level. The presence of largish 
blocks of sarsen, frequently in contact with the inner face at various levels 
of the bottom foot or so of the wall, yet never bonded into it, suggests that 
they replaced more normal footings on that side. The floor of the church, 
as well as we could tell, seems to have consisted of flints rammed into the 
clay and covered with a layer of beaten chalk at about the level of the 
ground outside, but if the interior was ever flagged or tiled the material 
must have been removed before the serious collapse of the walls. 

Ten feet from the west end (interior measurement) a break in the face of 
the north wall suggested a doorway, and the lowest stone on each side of 
the narrow entrance was found in position on the external face, showing 
the jambs on the inside, and outside a characteristic chamfer-stop resembling 
the semi-pyramidal structures which ordinarily accommodate a broach-spire 
to its square tower. The width of this door was only two feet, which hap- 
-pens also to be the measurement of the existing north door of Winterbourne 
Bassett Church. Search was naturally made along other walls for further 
entrances. The west wall showed only a curious central recess on the ex- 
terior, which, as no trace of original facing could be detected, must probably 
be accounted for by some destruction of the wall when the west window 
was removed. On the south, though suggestions of a regular break were 
apparent on the inner face, no definite door-gap could be proved. Digging, 
however, among the fallen flints outside was rewarded, first, with an evident 
hinge-staple, still carrying the lead which had secured it to its stone, and, 
secondly, still further out, with the members of the eastern half of a hood- 
mould, or dripstone, complete. 

Though a thorough search failed, somewhat remarkably, to yield a single 
stone of the western half, it was possible to lay out the stones we had found, 



By H. C. BrentnalL. 159 

in their original relation, and so to arrive at the dimensions of the whole 
dripstone, which obviously once covered the south door. Its depth proved 
to be three feet ; the span, on the line of the terminal returns, five feet six 
inches, which suggests a possible doorway of four feet between the jambs. 
The moulding of this dripstone was very simple, consisting of a shallow 
hollow, and a chamfered fillet. In the accompanying plan it is shown 
reversed. 

So far, the only other worked stones that had turned up had been either 
rectangular blocks belonging mainly to the north doorway (or found, at 
least, lying opposite it in the interior), or large blocks forming portions of 
interior window-splays. These latter occurred mainly in the north-east part 
of the interior, but not in such relation to each other, or the wall, as to 
suggest any certain derivation. We were now fortunate enough to come 
across a complete window lying flat under the flints outside the south wall 
about eight feet from the east end. It was cut out of a single stone and 
measured externally three feet by two, giving an opening with a trefoiled 
ogee head and measuring two feet six inches in height by one foot broad. 
The only other ornament was a plain chamfer carried all round the open- 
ing and identical inside and out. 'J'hough the stone was excellently pre- 
served, it bore no traces of any groove for glazing. It seems possible, 
therefore, in view of its size and evident position, that it had served as a 
low side window and been closed with a shutter. 

Outside the centre of the west wall, a number of fragments of moulding 
in the same style as that described above, seemed to be portions of the 
dripstone of the west window. At the north-east corner a fragment of a 
dripstone return resembling that of the south door, but on a larger scale, 
similarly suggested an east window of considerable dimensions. Other 
fragments of worked stone appeared as the ground round the walls and in- 
side them was turned over. One large piece in particular was worked to 
a slight curve, and its unweathered condition warranted its having served 
internally, probably in some capacity connected with a window. But almost 
the only other discovery of importance was the base of the altar. 

This consisted of blocks of squared chalk, though flint and sarsen had 
also been used internally. It measured four feet eight inches in length, by 
two feet five inches in breadth, and stood to the height of the surrounding 
walls, that is, to some two and a half feet. No stone facing was to be 
found, and the front or west face had partially collapsed. The ground in 
front was full of blocks of broken chalk. As the present height gives only 
about one foot six inches clear above the presumed level of the floor, it is 
not surprising that the covering slab is missing ; but it seems very probable 
that two fragments of stone found a few feet further west, may have formed 
part of it. It was noticeable that the altar lay slightly out of the central 
line of the building. A comparison of measurements showed that the error, 
if error it was, amounted to four inches, since there were eight inches lesson 
the north side than on the south. 

The two pieces of stone to which reference has just been made, deserve a 
more detailed description. They form contiguous fragments of a larger slab 
of freestone, and measure when laid together twenty inches the longest way. 



160 



The Church of Shaw -in- Alton. 



One piece shows the squared edge of the slab, which had evidently been 
cut to a slightly irregular thickness intended to be two and three-quarter 
inches. No consecration cross appears on these surviving fragments, which 
include, on the assumption that they are parts of a slab large enough to fit 
the altar base, neither the centre, nor any corner. It is, however, the re- 
verse side of these fragments that particularly interests us, for when laid 
together they are seen to be partially covered by a series of shallow 
grooves roughly scratched by a mason's chisel or some other sharp instru- 
ment. The accompanying figure shows the peculiar arrangement of these 
scratches. 




mm*''\^9mm9mm 



Fragments of Altar Slab (?). 



The explanation of the marks so far eludes us. It has, however, been 
suggested that they are intended to represent a double window of twelve 
lights, six on each side of a central mullion, the lower part of which appears 
towards the left. If it be objected that stone is scarcely a handy material 
for casual sketches of this nature, it may be pointed out that examples have 
occurred elsewhere. A number of instances are quoted in " Art and the 
Reformation," by G. G. Coulton (Black well 1928), page 178.^ 

That such a window as this appears to represent could have no relation 



1 " When the chapel of S. John's College, at Cambridge, was pulled down 
some tracery of about 1475 was found drawn on a smooth slab, which is now 
in the archaeological museum." He mentions elaborate examples on roof 
slabs of slate at Limoges, and spirited drawings of figures both inside and 
outside the west front of S. Albans' Abbey, and he reproduces mason's 
sketches of windows from pillars at Gamlinghay, Whittlesford, Offley, and 
Harrington. I owe (among other things here embodied) both the above 
suggestion and the reference to the Rev. G. A. A. Wright, of East I'ennard, 
Somerset. 



By H. C. Brentnall, 161 

to our church is no objection to the interpretation. Such a sketch might 
have been made at any time before the slab was fixed, and for a variety of 
purposes. It might, for instance, represent the pastime of a dinner hour, 
the efifort of the mason to depict for the benefit of the local workmen the 
glories of some great window he had built elsewhere. But one observation 
on this window theory must be made. The design is apparently that of a 
window in three transverse divisions separated by transoms, such as we 
associate with the perpendicular work of the fifteenth Century, and all the 
evidence we could gather placed Shaw Church at least a century earlier. 
The dripstones, and still more the monolithic window from the south wall, 
belong to the early fourteenth century. If this is the true explanation, 
then, of the scratches, and if the stone that bore them was indeed the altar 
slab, as seems so probable, that slab must for some reason have been a later 
addition to the church. And there, for the present, the question rests. 

Of what may be called extraneous finds upon this site our record is 
meagre. It was, for instance, a surprise to us, though it may be none to 
the more cynically inclined, that the immediate vicinity of this church 
yielded not a single coin. A number of sherds of the familiar mediaeval 
green glaze turned up, particularly outside the west wall. Of these the 
most noticeable was the slender base of a small vessel. A very similar find, 
a few months later, at East Kennet suggests that the type was a local 
manufacture. No bones of any importance were discovered. 

The annexed plan shows the result of our summer's digging, a building 
of the simplest outline, a foot wider and some eight feet longer than the 
church at Alton Barnes, if we exclude its chancel from the comparison. 
'J'he thick walls, which have yielded noticeably on the west to the pressure 
of their own fallen material, were predominatingly of fiint, dressed to a 
regular face both inside and out. It had a small north door, and a larger 
one on the south, an undetermined number of windows, of which only one 
small one was found intact, an altar of hewn chalk, quoins of freestone, 
and jambs and window-facings of the same. Traditionally it bears the name 
of Shaw Church and stands in an enclosure known as Shaw Churchyard.* 
The one complete window which the excavation* yielded points to a date 
about the beginning of the fourteenth century, and the other fragments of 
moulding discovered on the site seemed consistent with such a date. What 
further is known of its history ? 

The problem of Shaw-in-Alton, and its relations to Shaw-in-Overton, 
goes back to Domesday, if not to Saxon times. In its first stage, it might 
be called " the problem of the missing carucate," and without entering into 
any discussion of that vexed term, may be stated as follows. Edward of 

* Among the endowments of Alton Barnes Church, in the early nineteenth 
Century (Devizes Museum library), is mentioned: "On Alton Priors 
Down. No. 20a. Churchyard Shaw. Pasture 1 rood 15 poles." Rough 
measurements suggest that this included not merely the site of the building, 
but also the square appendage to the churchyard on the south, which is 
visible on the air photograph and which we came to refer to as the Parsonage, 
though we did not dig it. 



162 



The Church of Shaw -in- Alton. 





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Air Photograph, 200ft. Site of Shaw-in-Alton Church from the S. West. 





Shaw-in-Alton Church, small window found during excavation (3ft. X 2ft.). 



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Shaw-in Alton Church. (Top) Exterior stop on jamb of 
(Centre) Half of hood mould of S. Door. 
(Bottom) N.E. Corner, interior, showing altar-base on 



N. door, 
right. 



By H. C. Brentnall. 163 

Salisbury held Aultone, which is now Alton Barnes. The land was four 
carucates, whereof two were in demesne. There were certain villeins, and 
others holding one carucate, and there was a mill, some meadow, and a 
certain amount of down. Whatever the precise acreage of a carucate, it 
was at any rate a measure of ara-ble land, neither mill, nor meadow, nor 
down ; and one carucate is not accounted for. What became of it ? 

We happen to have a similar case in the adjoining land of Chenete or 
Kennett, Here six carucates are to be accounted for, and only four appear. 
But later in the record, under separate headings, the missing carucates turn 
up, and the account is squared at last. To fit the case of Aultone we have 
the land of Essage, which Jones, on the strength of another document, 
identifies with Shaw-in-Alton, But Essage was in the Hundred of Selkley, 
and most of Shaw-in-Alton should be in that of Swanborough. Moreover 
Essage possessed not a carucate merely, but half as much arable again, 
which merely embarrasses us. Essage, too, possessed a wood, one mile long 
by three furlongs broad, and though such a belt may have extended over 
the present arable in the direction of Golden Ball Hill, the relations of the 
existing Boreham Wood and Shaw Copse with the intervening woods shown 
on a map of Shaw-in-Overton, in 1734, suggest that the area might most 
readily be reconstituted if we disregarded existing boundaries. Indeed the 
same map (Devizes Museum Library) affords evidence that the modern 
south boundary of Shaw-in-Overton is an effort to disentangle an old 
association. If that is the case, it has proved more successful than my own, 
and I frankly abandon the problem of the several Shaws. The following 
references will serve to show the nature of the available evidence. They 
represent such occurrences of the name as may definitely be assigned to 
this site. 

In 1292 died Peter Spilleman, who had in Shaghe the third part of one 
knight's fee and held the same of Henry de Thisteldene by homage, and it 
was worth 40s. One of his heirs was Matilda, wife of John de Grimstede, 
so that when a John de Grymstede died in 1314 it is not surprising to find 
him seised in his demesne as of fee of the manor of Shawe, which is held of 
Henry de Thistledene by the service of the fourth part of a knight's fee. 
That the spelling should have changed means, of course, nothing, but it is 
noticeable that though the value has appreciated, as will shortly appear, its 
rielation to a full knight's fee has diminished. The extent of the manor, 
which follows, is of interest as giving some possible guide to the population 
of the villa, or villata de Schaghe. 

" There is there a capital messuage with a garden, which are worth per 
annum 2s. There is there a certain free tenant, who pays per annum one 
mark. . . . There are there 3 half-virgators, who pay per annum 15s., 
to wit, each of them 5s. for all service. There are there 1 10 acres of arable 
land, which are worth per annum 1 8s. 4fl?., price of the acre 2c?,; also 3 acres 
of meadow, which are worth per annum 4s., price of the acre \Qd. There 
is there a several pasture, which is worth per annum 5s. Sum of the value 
of the whole Manor, 57s. 8c/." ( Wilts I.P.M., Ed, II.). 

Now if we return for a moment to the Domesday account of Essage 
already referred to, we find that the land not in demesne is reckoned as 
VOL. XLV. — NO, CLIII. M 



164 The Church of Shaw -in- Alton, 

■half a carucate and is held by 1 villein and 2 bordars. But this same land 
seems to have paid geld T. E. \\. for 1 virgate and a half. Can we trace 
here the holdings of the 3 balf-virgators of 1314? But the Inquisition 
quoted speaks of the Hundred of Swanebergh, and Essage was apparently 
in Selkley. Again, the " several pasture " is in the Essage account a definite 
40 acres, and in the 1734 map of 8haw-in-Overton there is a 40 acre piece 
marked " Old leys." Are these three pieces to be identified ? If so, they 
bring us back to the old confusion. 

The next appearance is in 1376, when Thomas de la Ryvere, Lord of 
Wootton Ryvers, held a messuage and a carucate of land in Shaghe from 
the Manor of Aulton Berners by knight service, " which Manor is in the 
hand of the Bishop of Winchester by purchase, [and is] worth 20s a year.' 
( Wilts LP.M.t Ed. III.). 8o we appear to be back on the missing Domes- 
day carucate after 300 years, but no nearer a solution. Nor does it help us 
to find Sir William Button, the " delinquent," living on his Manor of Shaw, 
in Overton, in 1646, and to be told by Aubrey that he claimed that his 
ancestors had held Alton [Priors] Farm from the Abbey of Winchester for 
400 years. Shaw-in-Alton is still attached to Alton Priors Farm, but the 
Manor of Shaw-in-Overton is not. 

Nor can it be said that the history of the Church of Shaw is less obscure. 
Until the excavation was finished and this account of it taken in hand, its 
writer, at least, had worked on the assumption that we had to do with a 
certain "free chapel of Alton," suppressed, it would appear, by the com- 
missioners of Edward VI. in 1548, This belief was based on the statement 
of Canon Jackson ( W.A.M., Vol. x., p. 256). It is true that Canon Jackson 
places it in the parish of Alton Priors, but as this is the present situation 
of the building we have recovered, it did not seem to invalidate the identi- 
fication. Walcot's paper, however, on " Inventories of Church Goods and 
Chantries of Wilts " ( W.A.M., Vol. xii., p. 354) speaks of " Alton Chapel " 
as lying half-a-mile from the Parish Church, and among additional partic- 
ulars, taken from another roll of the same year, we find, " free chapel of 
Alton . . . the vicar of Ffygheldeane hath xls. that he shulde minister 
the sacramentis to the inhabitants of Alton." One or both of these, for it 
is clear that they refer to the same chapel, would appear to be the authority 
for Jackson's statement, yet both of them throw serious doubt upon it. 
Even if we could suppose that the Vicar of Figheldean would take services 
at Alton Priors for two pounds a year, where can we place a vanished 
<;hapel within half-a-mile of Alton Priors Church 1 It is true, and it doubt- 
less adds to the confusion, that the Church of Alton Priors is itself a 
chapelry long associated with Overton, and now at last, more reasonably, 
with its neighbour, Alton Barnes. But the Church of Alton Barnes could 
never have been called the " Parish Church " of Alton Priors ; it is a great 
deal less than half-a-mile away, and of course the chapelry of Alton Priors 
has never been suppressed. 

The temptation to suppose that " Ini," was a mistake in the roll for 
^* 3^m.," the distance of our Shaw Church from the parish Church of Alton 
Barnes, though it allured me for a time, I now renounce, having discovered 
another Alton exactly half-a-mile from Figheldean Church across the Avon. 



By H. G. Brentnall. 165 

This was the site of the " Free Chapel of Alton," and that is why the Vicar 
of Figheldean took its services for so exiguous a stipend.^ 

But with the establishment of the fact, our last hope of finding docu- 
mentary evidence for the history of Shaw Church disappears. Nothing 
that can be identified with it is to be found in any of the customary sources ; 
Phillipp's Institutiones Glericorum in Com. Wiltes, with its frank and full 
■list of errata, the printed Sarum Charters, the Calendars of the Close and 
Patent l^oiis and all available collections of Ancient Charters have been 
searched in vain. Inquiries at Salisbury and at Winchester (for Alton has 
associations with William of Wykeham) have proved equally fruitless. 
Nothing but its scattered stones, a vague and semi-fabulous tradition, and 
a few recorded references to its site remain to attest the fact that the Church 
of Shaw ever existed. 

It only remains to express my thanks, first to Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Stratton, of Shaw, and Mr. Guy Stratton, of Alton, on whose land we 
worked, both for permission to undertake the excavation and also for much 
assistance which owners do not always accord. Not only were the trenches 
allowed to lie open in a meadow throughout the summer, but men were also 
sent, when that was possible, to help us, and last but assuredly not least, 
to relieve us of all the labour of filling in. To the same source I am in- 
debted for the air-photograph here reproduced. For the other illustrations 
I have to thank my colleague, the Rev. K. H. Lane, who was engaged with 
me in the excavation almost from the beginning and shared all the burdens 
at entailed. 



^ I now discover that the same conclusion was reached thirty years before 
by the Rev. C. S. Ruddle, and that the fact was recorded in the W.A.M., 
Vol. XXX., p. 360. 

M 2 



166 



EOMANO-BRITISH WILTSHIEE. 

Being a list of sites occupied during the Roman period with the 
addition of some pre-Eoman villages. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 

With the exception of working the iron ores of the Lower Greensand in 
the neighbourhood of Heddington, the population of Wiltshire in Roman 
times seems to have been an agricultural one. The area of the chalk 
downs, now the most thinly populated in the county, was then largely 
under cultivation, and comparatively thickly populated. This is shown by 
the numerous remains of villages and inhabited sites, by the ancient field 
boundaries, and innumerable finds of coins and other Roman relics. 

Although there is evidence of a considerable and widespread population 
in Roman Wiltshire, there are perhaps no sites -that can be regarded as 
large or important towns. Those at Mildenhall (Site 118), Wans House 
(Site 44), near Wanborough (Site 167), and " White Walls," in the parish 
of Easton Grey (Site 173), seem to have been the largest. Of Roman 
Sarum nothing is known except that there does seem to have been some 
Roman habitation on the site now covered with the great mediaeval earth- 
work. 

Two distinct types of village sites * may be recognised on our Wiltshire 
downs, both of which were inhabited during Roman times. The one pre- 
sumably earlier and native in origin, consists of a series of irregular earth- 
work enclosures, more or less circular in plan. Sites 56 and 161 are fair 
examples. 

The other more regular in design is laid out in a series of small rectilinear 
enclosures, perhaps representing individual holdings ; of these Sites 164 
and 175 are good examples. 

Of the villages of irregular type of purely native origin some ceased for 
unknown causes to be inhabited in pre-Roman times, while others bear 
evidence to a continuous occupation throughout the Roman period.'^ 

^Sir Richard Colt Hoare credits William Cunnington, F.S.A., of Heytes- 
bury, who died in 1810, with having been the first to recognise the vestiges on 
certain downland sites as those of ancient villages. " To the investigating 
eye and persevering hand of Mr. Cunnington, the discovery of these British 
towns is justly and solely due ; a discovery totally new, and highly inter- 
esting." A.W.,I.,\6; Ibid, Roman Era, 126. 

^ Sites excavated and proved to be exclusively pre-Roman are The Early 
Iron Age site at All Cannings Cross Farm, M.E. Cunnington, 1923. An 
Early Iron Age site on Fifield Bavant Down, and an inhabited site on 
Swallowcliffe Down, W.A M. xlii , 457—496, figs. ; xliii., 59—93, figs. ; by 
Dr. R. C. C. Clay ; Casterley and Lidbury Camps, W.A.M., xxxviii., 53 — 
105, figs. ; xl, 12—36, figs. 



Roviano- British Wiltshire. 167 

Villages of the second or regular type are less numerous than the former, 
and the date of their foundation is not known, but it is probable that it was 
not earlier than the 2nd or 3rd century A. D., when the Romanization of the 
country was well advanced. That the richer inhabitants of these upland 
villages adopted to some extent the manners and customs of Roman civil- 
isation is shown by the fact that they used the finest table wares, and some- 
times enjoyed the luxury of houses centrally heated by hypocausts. 

There is no evidence that any of these upland sites continued to be 
occupied after the Saxon settlement ; indeed what little evidence there is, 
strongly supports the view that these sites were all abandoned, not necess- 
arily as a result of direct violence, but perhaps gradually, in favour of new 
sites chosen by the Saxons in more sheltered and well watered situations.' 

It is equally remarkable that few of the inhabited sites or " villages," 
so far as is at present known, are earlier than the pre- Roman Iron Age. 
The only earlier sites known in Wiltshire are at Windmill Hill near 
Avebury, and Knap Hill Camp, both of which show exceptional features 
and date from the Early Bronze Age if not earlier. Of inhabited sites of 
the full Bronze Age none are known in the county.^ Possibly a few trial 
trenches on sites where Hoare found only coarse " British " pottery might 
lead to interesting results, but it is not encouraging that Swallowcliffe Down 
(Site BI) where Hoare records pottery of the " very rudest and coarsest 
texture " has proved to be not earlier than the Iron Age. 

In a few cases there is evidence of occupation during Roman times in 
earthworks such as Yarnbury and Bilbury Rings, but it is not suggested 
that these earthworks were therefore constructed in this period. 

Banks and Ditches connected with " British Villages." 

An interesting feature in relation to downland village sites is that there 
is often an ancient bank and ditch leading up to them, or to their near 
neighbourhood, and in some cases appearing to actually connect two villages, 
Hoare, who had unrivalled opportunity for observation while still much of 
the down land remained unploughed, speaks of these banks and ditches as 
"the almost constant attendants on our British villages." {A.W. I., 192, 
244). 

The numerous banks and ditches which traversed the downs in all 
directions may be divided into two main types ; one is a ditch having a bank 
on one side only, and the other a ditch between two banks. This latter 
type is generally considered as indicating a sunken road or " covered way." 

An interesting " covered way " was investigated during the excavation of 
Casterley Camp on Salisbury Plain ; this led from the open down through 
the western entrance, shallowing out a few yards within the camp ; it 
shallowed out to nothing in the same way at the other end about a mile 
away. The ditch was from 4ft. to 5ft. deep and only a foot to 15 inches 

' See paper by O. G. S. Crawford, " Our Debt to Rome," Antiquity, June, 
1928. 

2 South Lodge and Martin Down Camps in S. Wilts, excavated by 
General Pitt-Rivers and ascribed by him to the Bronze Age, are now 
generally thought to be later than this. 



168 Bomano- British Wiltshire. 

wide at the bottom. {WAM., xxxviii , 69). Though the way in which 
this Casterley example enters the entrenched area of the camp supports the 
theory that these ditches were roads, at least in some cases, an alternative 
theory as to their general significance has been suggested by evidence of 
stockading found in a similar ditch near V\'oodhenge. In the extension 
ditch connected with the egg-shaped enclosure in the field south of Wood- 
henge clear indications were found that large timber uprights had stood at 
regular intervals. The only feasible explanation of these uprights, seems to 
be that they were the supports for a strong timber fence or stockade. 

Unfortunately this ditch has long been under plough and every vestige 
of its bank has disappeared, so it is not possible to say whether the bank 
was single, or double as in a typical " covered way," but it does nevertheless 
suggest the possibility that some of the so-called " covered ways " were 
only the foundations for stockades ; such boundary fences may have been 
needed for various reasons and would have obvious advantages, while 
these deep narrow ditches would at best have made inconvenient roads. 

If used as roads the sides of the ditches would have been left exposed to 
the frosts of successive winters, and in that case they must have crumbled ; 
but on excavation the sides appear even and regular, proving that they could 
not have been long exposed and must have been filled in again immediately, 
as they would have been if dug for the foundation of a fence. The regu- 
larity and evenness of the sides has been remarked upon in several cases 
where " covered ways " have been investigated in Sussex (Covered Ways 
on the Sussex Downs, Sussex Arch. Society's Coll., lix.) and the same 
feature was found in the one connected with Casterley. 

The Roads. 

As the index map shows the course of the main Roman roads it is not 
necessary to say much about them. 

In the north two roads from Cirencester passed through the county. One 
known as the Fosseway ran in a south-westerly direction to Bath, the other, 
Ermine Street, south-easterly to Silchester. 

A great east to west road forms the base of the triangle made by the 
Fosseway and Ermine Street, and ran from Bath to Mildenhall, near 
Marlborough, and soon to Speen where it joined up with Ermine Street. 
A branch road left Ermine Street at Wanborough and ran south through 
Mildenhall to Winchester ; another road seems to have run direct from 
Mildenhall to Old Sarum. 

In the south of the county there were only two main roads and these 
crossed at or near Old Sarum ; one of these coming S. W. from Silchester to 
Old Sarum is known as the Portway, and the continuation of this from Old 
Sarum by Badbury Kings to Dorchester as Ackling Dyke ; the other road 
ran east-west from Winchester by Old Sarum to the Mendip lead Mines, in 
Somersetshire. 

A third road just entered the south-western corner of the county on its 
course from Bath by way of Badbury Rings to Southampton. 

It is at once evident that these roads were not concerned with the area 
now comprising the county of Wilts. They merely ran through it as great 
main roads linking up the country as a whole, and turned aside for no local 



By Mrs. M. E. Gu7inington. 169" 

consideration. This is even more apparent on a map^ of Roman Britain 
than on one limited to the area of the county. 

As these great roads were unconcerned with local needs the population 
as a whole does not seem to have been attracted to them, and the inhabited 
sites do not cluster round them. Except for the little known road Cunetio 
to Sorbiodunum (at or near Old Sarum), there was no direct connection 
between north and south ; then as now the Plain divided the area into two 
parts, and the bulk of the population, as far as our very imperfect record 
allows it to be judged, was settled on the uplands between the northern 
and southern system of roads. 

The country may seem to have been poorly served with roads, but in 
addition to the metalled highways there was no doubt a network of by- 
ways, some of which may still persist but are not dateable. 

In this connection it maybe remembered that some roads that were high- 
ways in the 18th century are to-day only traceable as downland tracks, as 
for instance the old road from Bath to Salisbury. 

¥illas. 

There are 23 ascertained sites of villas, and 12 other sites which there is 
reason to think may have been villas. The presence of tesserae and painted 
wall plaster has been taken as evidence that a house of sufficient importance 
to be classified roughly, and not in any technical sense, as a " villa," once 
stood on the site. Of these, Pitmead, Site 153 ; Littlecote, Site 142 ; Box, 
Site 33 ; and West Park, Site 41 ; were perhaps the most considerable. In 
the list the sites that are regarded as certainly those of villas are distin- 
guished by two asterisks, and the uncertain ones by one. 

\A hile hypocausts and flue tiles are frequently found on downland village 
sites, tesserse and painted wall plaster seem to be almost entirely confined 
to the sites of houses of the larger sort in less exposed and more genial 
surroundings.^ 

Finds of painted wall plaster and tesserse on such sites as '* Cunetio " and 
" Verlucio" are not included as villa sites. 

Among the " doubtful " villa sites are those reported in Clarendon Park, 
at Lacock, and at Chittoe Heath and Silver Street, both in the parish of 
Chittoe ; at Draycot Farm, Huish, and nine other sites marked with a 
* in the list. 

Camps. 

Wiltshire cannot boast of a single camp of Roman military type. The 

^ See the excellent Map of Roman Britain, published by the Ordnance 
Survey, 1924, 2nd edition, 1928.) 

'^ Of Cold Kitchen Hill, Site 38, it is reported that in 1803 Mr. Cunnington 
found "fragments of stuccoed walla painted crimson and green," A. W., I., 
40. And later Hoare says, •* On some of the highest of our downs I have 
found stuccoed and painted walls, as well as hypocausts, introduced within 
the rude settlements of the Britons," A. W., Roman Aera, 127, note. 



170 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

reason of this may be that the conquest was quickly and easily accomplished, 
or that subsequent cultivation has destroyed all traces of them. It has 
been thought that the earthwork on the common at Marlborough is the 
remnant of a Roman camp but it has not been proved. 

The Use of Mineral Coal. 

Several Wiltshire sites bear evidence of the use of mineral coal in 
Romano-British times. These are Knook, Site 164 ; the villa at Nuthills, 
Site 49 ; Rushall, Site 143 ; and Stockton, Site 150. It was also found at 
Baydon, on the Hants border, and there are specimens of this coal in the 
museum at Devizes. Fragments of coal are among the objects sent to 
Devizes Museum from the villa at Stanton St. Quintin, Site 148, and from 
the Romano-British rubbish heap near Silbury Hill, Site 11. A reference 
to the occurrence of "common bituminous coal" at Baydon, supposed to 
have been used in iron smelting, is made in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
1866, Pt. II, p. 335. 

In the same magazine (May 1859, Pt. I., p. 625) speaking of Wroxeter it 
is said " traces of the use of bituminous coal in the houses of Uriconium 
have already been met with." 

Again (1843, p. 303) speaking of the villa at Foxcote, Bucks, " fragments 
of fossil coal " were reported to have been found. " A few small fragments 
of coal were found on the site of a Roman building near Cardiff^ and 
others are said to have been found beneath an undisturbed Roman pave- 
ment at Caerwent, and in Roman strata at Chester, and near Flint ; more- 
over Solinus in the 3rd Century mentions the use of coal at Bath." (Pre- 
historic and Roman Wales, R. E. M. Wheeler, D. Lit., F.S.A., 1925. As 
reference to his citation of Solinus, Dr. Wheeler gives Collectanea Berum 
Memorahilium, ed. Mommsen, p. 102, 8, cited by Haverfield in J. G. C. 
Anderson's ed. of Furneaux's Agricola, p. 182). 

Coal is thought to have been worked by the Romans at Benwell, near 
Newcastle ; nearly a cart load of coal is said to have been found in one of 
the guard rooms at Housesteads on the Wall. Bruce's Roman Wall, 7th 
edit., 1914, 51—52, 145. 

It seems remarkable that it should have been worth while to bring coal 
all the way to Wiltshire when there must have been an almost inexhaustible 
supply of wood available. The Forest of Dean or the Somersetshire' coal 
field seems the probable source of supply to Wiltshire. 

The above references to the discovery of mineral coal in Romano- British 
association make no claim to be exhaustive. 

To ensure accuracy the sites shown on the index map have been identified 
on the Ordnance sheets 6 inch to 1 mile scale, and then transferred to the 
smaller scale maps. 

Single finds of Roman coins, brooches, and so on, have not been included 
as a rule, partly because they are so numerous, and partly because these 

' " Coal from the Somerset mines has been found in the RomanO'British 
village at Stockton, and on other contemporary sites." Antiquity, June, 
1928, p. 177. 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington. 171 

casual finds may represent only accidental losses, and do not necessarily 
imply habitation. 

It is not easy to determine in every case whether a " British village " was 
occupied in Roman as well as in pre- Roman times, and, therefore, it may 
be that some of the village sites in the Roman list would prove on excava- 
tion to have little claim to be included. 

The sources from which the list is compiled is sufficiently indicated in 
the references to individual entries. Acknowledgment, however, is due to 
the help afforded by the " List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan-Saxon 
Antiquities in the County of Wilts," by the Rev. Canon Goddard { W.A M,^ 
vol. 38, Dec. 1913). A good deal of fresh information about Romano- British 
sites has come to light since Canon Goddard's " List" was published, and 
the fact that it was less full on the Roman than on the other sides, sug- 
gests that there is room now for a list devoted to Romano-British sites and 
finds, brought as far as possible up to date. 

The Archaeological Review, I., 1888, contained a brief list of Roman re- 
mains in Wiltshire, but it is misleading in some particulars, and several of 
the places included are not in the county. 

The sites are arranged alphabetically under their respective parishes. 
The symbols used to differentiate sites are given on the index map. The 
description " Habitation Site " as against a " Village " denotes something 
less extensive, or at least not well enough known to justify the conclusion 
that it was a site inhabited by a village community. 

The sites believed to be exclusively pre-Roman, distinguished on the 
index map by the prefix *' B," are given in a separate list. 

The following abbreviations have been used : — 
A.W. — Ancient Wiltshire^ by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. 
Excavations. — Excavations in Cranborne Chase, by Lt. -General Pitt- Rivers, 

F.RS. 
W.A.M. — The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine. 
Smith — Antiquities of the North Wiltshire Downs, by Rev. A. C. Smith, 

1885. 
Double asterisks denote villa sites ; one asterisk a site probably, but not 
certainly, that of a villa, "o " rneans that the site is not shown on the 
Index Map. 
Entries such as " 27 S. TT." are those of the 6 inch Ordnance maps ; when 
the cha7'acter of the site is indicated on these maps the words " Shoivn 
on " are added, 

Aldbourne. 

1.— N.of North Field Barn, North Farm (23 N.E). A well found in 
1912 filled in with rubbish containing mediaeval and Romano-British pot- 
tery, the latter probably indicating habitation in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. W.A.M., xli., ,389 ; for coins also W.A.M., xl., 355—6. Donations 
to Devizes Museum, W.A.M,^ xxxix., 312. 

2.— Snap Farm (shown on 23 S.E.). Settlement marked by banks and 
enclosures ; Samian and other pottery found by Hoare who dug here. A. W,, 
ii., 39. W.A.M., xxxviii., 159 ; objects from, in Devizes Museum, xxxv., 
403, 504. 



172 Roynano- British Wiltshire. 

3. — Upper Upham (shown on 23 N.E.)- Settlement marked by banks 
and enclosures. Baths found in 1887, W.A.M., xli., 389 ; coins, etc., xxxviii ,. 
159 ; xxxix., 312. Bracelets, etc., from this site in Brooke Coll., in Devizes 
Museum. Other bracelets from, W.A i/., xxxix ,312. 

All Canning's. 
o 3a. — Waylen's Penning (35 N.W.). On west side ot down known 
locally by this name, irregularities of ground and much pottery on surface. 
A settlement ? Numerous lynchers all about here. 

Allington (M. Wilts). 

4.— On S.W. side of Tan Hill, E. of track, and S. of 600 contour line N. 
of Plantation (34 N.K.). Habitation. Pottery, etc., in rabbit scrapes. 
From personal observation. 

5. — A few yards north of road from Allington to Hony Street, about 
quarter of a mile R. of Allington corner (34 S.E.). Pottery on surface and 
a well found, 1913, but only opened to a depth of a few feet when bones of 
a newly-born infant and Bomano-British pottery were found, including a 
piece of late rosette-stamped ware From personal knowledge. IV. A.M., 
xli., lf)3, note 2 (incidental reference only). 

Allington (S. Wilts). 

5a.— S. of Allington village and W. of Rectory (61 N".W.). Much pottery 
on surface marking habitation. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

5b.— N.E. corner of Allington Down Barn, E. of railway and of Romaii' 
road (61 N.W.). Much pottery on surface denoting habitation. Informa- 
tion from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Alton Barnes. 

6.— Hony Street, S. of canal between wharf and Hony Street Farm (35 
S.W.). A settlement marked by ditches, interments and numerous 
small finds disclosed in casual diggings. Objects in Devizes Museum, Cat., 
ii., p. 31, 220, etc. 

Burial on the site found with iron hob nails at feet. W.A.M., xxxviii., 
162 ; xxvii., 205 (donation to museum). 

Alton Priors. 
7.— Knap Hill (35 S.W.). Small enclosed settlement excavated 1908—9. 
W.A.M., xxxvii., 49 ; plans, figs. Finds in Devizes Museum Cat., ii., pp. 
102-4. 

Amesbnry. 

8.— New Covert, Long's Farm (shown on 60 N.E.). In 1842 or 1843, 
bronze and silver coins ranging from Postumus to Theodosius IL, with 
three silver rings were found in " a rude urn." The style of the work on 
the engraved bezels of the rings is said to resemble that of early Saxon 
Sceattas and they date perhaps to the latter part of the 5th century. British 
Museum Cat. of Finger Pings, 1025—1297. IV.A.M., xl, 357. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 173 

This find being of such late date perhaps belongs rather to the Saxon 
than to the Honian period. 

8a — Earl's Court Farm (55 S.W.). South of milestone 2 on Amesbury- 
Andovtr road, E. of milestone Marlborough 19 on old iMarlborough- 
Salisbury road. Foundations of buildings and pottery on surface denoting 
habitation. Information from Mr. I'ercy Fairer. 

Atwortli. 

o 8b. — Nine small bronze coins dating circa 270—390, w ere found in a field 
'* at Atworth." In Devizes Museum. W.AM., xxxiii., 169. The Roman 
road from Bath to Marlborough runs through Neston Park just north of 
the village of Atworth. 

Avebury. 

o8c.— Barrow 19 (Goddard's List). (28 S.W.). N. of Beckhampton— Calne 
road, E. of milestone Calne 5, immediately N. of Bench mark 570. Frag- 
ments of Samian and other pottery were found near the top of this mound 
when opened by Dean Merewether in 1849. Froc. Arch. Instit., Salisbury 
volume, 99, No. 19 ; Smith, p. 101. 

9. — In Barrow 35a of Goddard's List. On Avebury Down, near and N.E. 
of Barrow 35 (28 N.W.). Opened by Dean Merewether in 1849, who found 
a quantity of pottery, iron nails, and 84 coins including some of Constantino 
and Constans. Proc. Arch. Instit., Salisbury volume, p. 86 — 87, No. 10, 
PI. K. ', Smith, p. 122—3, 1. 

10.— Knoll Down (27 S.E.). S. of Cook's Plantation and S. of the old 
road, round about 600 contour line. Banks, ditches, and pottery in rabbit 
'scrapes denoting habitation. From personal observation. 

11.— S.E. of Silbury Hill (28 S.W.). S. of road, " Roman Well" marked 
on map. Two wells opened and others located, W.A.M., xxix., 166, plan ; 
xxxvi , 373; rubbish heaps found, xi., 117. Finds in Devizes Museum, 
Cat., ii , p. 68—9, 569—599. Smith, p. 163, g.h.i. 

With regard to the course of the Roman road as it passes Silbury Hill see 
W.A.M., xi., 116. Smith, pp. 161—2. 

lla.— DueE. of Silbury Hill and E. of River Kennet (28 S.W.). In 
January, 1926, a trench dug to lay water pipes down the S.W. slope of 
Wadon Hill showed patches of dark soil with pottery (including Samian 
ware), tiles, etc. This would seem to have been on the northern side of the 
Roman road while site II. above, would have been to the S. of it. From 
personal observation. 

12.— Windmill Hill (28 N.W.). Habitation. On ploughed land S. of 
the earthwork, pottery, including Samian ware ; pits seen in trench. From 
personal observation. 

* * 13. — Villa near Truslowe Manor, 1634 yards W. of Church, in Little 
Whyr field (28 S.W.). Pavement with chequer pattern, etc., found in 
1922. W.A.M., xlii., 359, figs. Jour. Roman Studies, 1923, 268. 

14. — From excavations in ditch of the great circle (28 S. W.). On surface 
and upper layers of excavations, 1908 — 1922, pottery and an " Aucissa " 
brooch. These finds in Devizes Museum on loan by the Committee of the 



174 Bo77iano- British Wiltshire. 

British Association. Summary reports issued by British Association. 
W.A.M., xxxvii., 477. 

o 14a.— Burial near Beckhampton. " A well-burnt urn of thin red 
pottery found in a barrow, on the south of Beckhampton, towards Tan 
Hill, at the head of a skeleton lying at full length ; round it were nail 
heads as if of a coffin." Proc. Arch. Instit., 1849, p. 108, No. I., fig. The 
vase, four inches high, has indentations or "thumb marks" round body, 
and well-turned neck and pedestal foot. Lost 1 For similar burial see 
under Ramsbury, 142a. 

In 1928 ? when alterations were made to the building in the yard of the 
Red Lion Inn at Avebury, it was reported that a quantity of Roman pot- 
tery was found, but upon inspection the fragments proved to be recent, and 
none older than the 15th or 16th century. 

Barford St. Martin. 

15. — Hamshill Ditches (65 N.E.). Site marked by irregular banks, ditches, 
etc. A. W., I., 109, plan. A large village site with much pottery on surface. 
Connected with an earthwork in the form of double circles, or " pair of 
spectacles." Wessex from the Air, 97 — 9, PI. xib. 

Baydon. 

o Botley Copse^ (17 S.W.). This site is just over the county border in 
Berkshire, but objects from the site are in the Devizes Museum, Cat, ii., 
p. 55. W.A.M., xxxviii., 187. 

Baynton. See under Coulston, East. 

Bedwyn, Great. 

* * 16.- Villa. (Shown on 37 S. W.). Castle Copse, Bedwyn Brail Wood . 
Pavements, etc., were found in 1780 and 1853, but no account seems to have 
been published. W.A.M., xxxviii., 188. Some finds are in Devizes Museum, 
Gat. ii., pp. 51 — 52, figs. Drawings of the pavements seem to have been 
made but their present whereabouts is not known. W.A.M., vi., 261. 
Stamp with Celtic ornament, xxxv., 406, figs. 

* * 17.— Villa S. of Tottenham Mouse. (Shown on 36 S.E.). Part of a 
pavement was found " about one hundred yards in front of the Marquis of 
Aylesbury's house." W.A.M., vi., 262 ; xix., 16, 29, 86. These are only 
incidental references to the site and no fuller account seems to have been 
published. 

Berwick St. James. 
18.— On Berwick Down (59 N.E.). Between Yarnbury and Winter- 
bourne Stoke, S. of the road, round about trackway to Berwick and Bench 
marks 434 and 408. This is probably the site referred to by Hoare after 

^ There is another Great Botley Copse in the parish of Shalbourne, Wilts, 
43N,W. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 175 

describing the site S. of Yarnbury (see site 108) — " At a short distance to 
the east another decided British settlement in which our spade brought to 
light the usual indicia of ancient residence in excavations, pottery, coins, 
etc." Modern Wilts, vol. 2, 171. 

Berwick St. John. 

19.— Shiftway Tree (Carrion Tree Rack) (74 N.E.). Habitation. Pitt- 
Rivers, Excavations, I. 241. 

20. — Rotherley (shown on 74 N.E.). Village settlement. Pitt-Rivers, 
Excavations, IL, 51 — 231. 

21. — Rushmore Grounds, near Sunk Fence (74 N.E.) Habitation. Pitt- 
Rivers, Excavations, I., 5, Plates 72 — 3. 

22.— Little Cartway Copse (74 N.E.). Habitation, V\tt-J{\vQx^, Excava- 
tions, iv., 240. 

23.— Pits near Park House (74 N.E). Habitation. Pitt-Rivers, Excava- 
tions, I., 243. 

Berwick Down (Straight Knap) see under Tollard Royal. 

Berwick St. Leonard. 

24.— East of " British village" on Cratt Hill (shown on 58 S.W '), (see 
Site 54, Tisbury) and S. of Berwick Bushes. Hoare visited the site and 
" picked up pottery, with fragments of millstones, etc., but the site of this 
British village being in tillage, the proofs were not so decisive as I could 
have wished." A. W., I., 105, 

25.— Chiltinch Hill, shown on 58 S.W.^ E. of Site 24 above, Hoare 
" found by digging, pottery, and all the indicia of British population,"^. W., 
I., 105. 

This is the site that Hoare calls " High Park," but there is apparently 
some error in his nomenclature here. Hoare {A. W., 105) describes four 
village sites ; the first on Cratt Hill (Site 54 Chicklade), the second " On the 
next hill eastward " (Site 24, above, S. of Berwick Bushes) ; the third " On 
the next hill called High Park," this, however, is now called on the maps 
Chilfinch Hill, and our Site 25, above. Hoare describes his fourth village 
as " nearly opposite the New Inn in Chicklade Bottom," this is shown on 
the maps as on Fonthill Down, and S. of High Park and is our Site 86 under 
Fonthill Bishop. Hoare thus places his third village in order of precedence 
eastwards at High Park when it should have been the fourth. 

Bishops Canning's. 

26.— Black Furlong (34 N.E.). N. of Harepath Farm, E. of Field Barn, 
where the track forks towards Kitchen Barrow. 

Much pottery was noticed on this ploughed surface and later it was found 
that Tithe maps named it " Black Furlong " {Smith map section E. viii.). 
The name was, no doubt, derived from the darker soil such as is usually 
found on old habitation sites. The name Black Field, Black I'atch, or its 



Not on 1926 edition of map. 



176 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

equivalent, generally means that the site is worthy of attention. Personal 
observation. 

27. — Rectangular earthwork enclosure on lioundway Hill, S. of Morgan's 
Hill, and of road on site of battle of 1643, sometimes known as " Break 
Barton " (34 N.W.). A small hoard of Roman coins is said to have been 
found in the bank of this enclosure but no details are known. Information 
from Mr. Richard Coward, formerly of Roundway. 

28.— On west side of Tan Hill (34 N.E. and 35 N.W.). Round about 
Barrow 49 (Bishops Cannings) and northwards of it on Allington-Bishops 
Cannings boundary. 

Habitation shown by irregularities of surface and scattered pottery in- 
cluding Samian ware. From personal observation. 

An ancient trackway not shown on any map but quite distinct, cuts round 
the S. side of Tan Hill leading to this settlement from the combe on the 
east. 

29. — Roundway Down round about Barrow 40 (34 N.W.), (Goddard's 
List). Much pottery scattered on surface. Habitation? From personal 
observation. W.A.M ^ xxxviii,, 204. 

Roundway Down or Roundway Hill. A bronze 1st or 2nd cent, brooch 
with 'i'-shaped head found, W.A M., xlii., 599, ^g. 

A bronze jug found with maker's name— ASPIIR. Probably of Italian 
1st or 2nd cent. make. Said to have been found with coins but of these 
there is no record. W.A.M., xlii , 601, fig. Record of donations to Devizes 
Museum, W.A.M., xlii., 272. 

Wansdyke (34 N.E.). Samian and other Romano-British pottery was 
found by General Pitt-Rivers during excavations in Wansdyke in 1889—90. 

At Shepherd's Shore, Excavations, III., 26 ; at Brown's Barn, 26 — 7 ; in 
entrenchment near Brown's Barn, 28. 

Bishopstone (N. Wilts). 

30.— Russley (17 S.W.). 500 yards E. of Russley House. Habitation. 
Much pottery, including Samian ware, etc., on ploughed land. W.A.M., 
xli. 394. 

* 31.— Starveall Farm (shown on 1925 edition of, 16 S.E.). 350 feet N.N. W. 
of Bench mark 674.8, in corner of ploughed field, W. of track Bishopstone 
to Russley Park. Tesselated pavement found in 1880, hypocaust, tiles, 
pottery, coins, etc. No detailed account published. W.A.M , xli., 390; 
additional walls found, xliv., 244. 

Brooch from Bishopstone, W A.M., xxxix., 312. 

Bishopstrow. 

32.— The Buries (52 S.W.). Large enclosed settlement of about 50 acres 
in extent ; great depth of black soil and quantities of pottery, etc., found 
by Hoare who dug into it; A. W., Roman Aera, 108, plan ; Hoare's Modern 
Wilts, IL, 174—5, plan. 

Three "urns" containing nearly a bushel of small brass Roman coins 
were found about the beginning of the 19th century ; Britton's Wilts/lire, 
1818,317. 



Bij Mrs, M, E. Cunnington. 177 

Blunsdon St. Andrew. 

o 32a.— Pot found about 1880, immediately outside S.E. entrenchment of 
Castle Hill Camp. Shown on 10 N.E., 1925 edition. 

Boscombe. 
32a.— On Little Boscombe Down, about the footpath midway between 
Little and West Boscombe (61 N.W.). Habitation. Pottery, etc., found. 
Site identified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Botley. See Baydon. 

Box. 

* * 33. — Close to church (shown on 25 S. W.). A large villa ; pavements, 
baths, etc., found in 1881 ; W.A.M., xxvi., 405, illust. ; with extract from 
Gent's Mag., 1831, Pt. L, 595, and 1833, Pt. I., 537. Arch Jour., xvi , 340. 
Note on discovery of part of a pavement, W.A.M., xxviii., 258. Account 
of excavations in 1902, Arch. Jour., Ixi., p. I., plan, figs ; W.A.M., xxxiii., 
236—369, plans, figs. Finds in Devizes Museum, Cat,, ii , p. 59, 492— 500g. 
dearth's Aquae Solis, 119. Coins and stamped Samian, etc., found W.A.M., 
xliii., 335. 

o * * 33a.— Hazelbury (25 S.E.). Scarth's in Aquae Solis, p. 120, states 
that in Belgium Britannicum, Dr. Musgrave says "at Hasilbury Farm, 6 
miles from Bath, between Box and Corsham, was found in 1710 or l7ll, a 
villa, 184 feet long having a Tessellated Pavement." 

For villa at Cheney Court see Site 70 under Ditteridge. 

Eradford-on-Avon. 

34.— Budbury (32 S.W.) In a field called " Bed and Bolster." A Settle- 
ment. Considerable numbers of coins found and traces of earthworks. 
W.A.M., v., 6—8. 

o 34a. — In January, 1930, in digging a trench along the side of the road for 
drain pipes a stone coffin with skeleton was found. The spot is N.E. of 
" Budbury Castle," close to Bench mark 307.5. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 9th, 
1980. The coffin and burial were not taken out of the ground. 

Bradley, North. 
35.— Cutteridge Farm (marked on map 44 N.E.). Burial in lead coffin 
iound 1851. W.A.M., xxxviii., 208. 

Bratton. 

36. — At foot of down N. of Bratton Camp (45 N.W.). Querns, pottery, 
coins, etc., found here by Hoare denoting habitation. A^ W.f L, 55. W.A.M., 
xxxviii., 209. 

Br ink worth. 

In 1908 coins found including a rare one of Carausius, W.A.M,, xli., 390 
<14N.E.). 



178 Romano- British Wiltshire, 

Brixton Deverill. 

37.— On Pertwood Down (57 S.E.). N. of Roman Road, E. of the long 
barrow, N. and S. of 600 contour line where it runs E. by W. Banks and 
ditches of " British Village " type on unploughed down land and much 
pottery on mole heaps, etc. Apparently a large village or settlement. 
From personal observation, 

A photograph taken from the air appears in Wessex from the Air, 1927, 
page 158, Plate 26, of Pertwood Down showing the Roman road and a series 
of cultivation banks, or linchets of the " Celtic " type. The site referred to 
above lies north of the area embraced in the photograph. 

A few years ago men were found digging up the Roman Road for the 
sake of the flints with which it is made ; their employer was apparently 
unaware that it was an old road and the flint digging was stopped after this 
had been made known to him. The remaining piece of road that is in fair 
condition is now scheduled as an ancient monument. 

38.— Cold Kitchen Hill (or White Clyffe Down), (57 N.W.). Settlement 
inhabited from early Iron Age (All Cannings types of pottery occur) to the 
end of the Romano- British period. It was dug into by Hoare and painted 
wall plaster, pottery, coins, etc., were found, A. W., I., 40. Further excava- 
tions in 1896, W.A.M., xxvii., 279, figs. ; in 1924, xliii., 180, figs. ; 1925, xliii., 
327, figs. ; 1926, xliv., 138, figs. ; Bronze bracelet of Hallstatt type, xliv., 141, 
fig. ; brooches from xlii., 67, figs ; other finds, xxix, 181 ; xxxii., 169 ; shale 
bracelet with Late-Celtic ornament, xxxv., 406 — 7. Objects in Devizes 
Museum, Cat., II., p. 45, 337a. ; p. 87, 740—792. The name " Cold Kitchen 
Hill" is shown on 57 N.E., E. of the inhabited site, the inhabited site 
being on that shown as White Clyfi^e Down, but locally this seems to be 
known as Cold Kitchen Hill. On the 1926 edition of the maps " Ancient 
Village Site " is marked and the mound thereon is described as " Midden 
Mound." 

Broad Chalke. 

See Site B 4 for evidence of occupation in Romano-British times of 
Wude-burh, 

Broad Hinton. 
39.— Weir Farm, in a field immediately E. of farm buildings (Park Bush 
Piece). (22 N.W.)). Habitation. Pottery, tiles, coins found ; burnt 
burials without urns. W.A.M., xli,, 390. 

Broad Town Field. See under ClyfFe Pypard. 

Brokenborough. 

o 39a. — Twatley, two miles from Malmesbury, "traces of Roman work 
found." PT.^.i/., viii., 16; Coins, etc., xxxiii., 331. Site not identified and 
not shown on map. 

Bromham. 

* * Villa at Mother Antony's Well. (Shown on 1926 edition of 34 N.W.). 
Much pottery, tesserae, coins, etc., found on ploughed surface ; foundations 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 179 

of walls shown in trenching for agricultural purposes. W.A.M.^ xxxv , 441. 

^ ^ 41.— Villa at West Park Field (33 N.E.). Close to and on E. side of 
Chippenham- Devizes road, between 4th milestone to Devizes and Bench 
mark 325. The foundations seem to extend across to the W. side of the 
road. Pavements uncovered in 1810 and previously. A.W., Roman Aera, 
123, figs. Again partly excavated in 1 840, when seven rooms, baths, cinerary 
urns, etc., were found, no detailed account published. W.A.M., xxxviii., 
638—40. Gent's Mag., 1840, Pt. II., 528 ; 1841, Pt. I., 81. Opened again 
in 1880 and pavements, etc., found, W.A.M., xix., 299, plan. A. W., Roman 
Aera, 123, figs. Objects found, IF.^.J/., vi., 260 ; xxxvii., 205, 611 ; Devizes 
Museum, Cat., II., p. 31, 224 , p. 37, 274. Morgan's Romano- British Pave- 
ments, 106 ; British Arch. Assoc. , xxxvii., 172. 

The position of this villa has been identified by B. H. Cunnington from 
personal recollection of the opening in 1880. In W.A.M., xxxviii., 215, it 
is said that County Council houses have recently (1911) been built on the 
site. These houses are, however, about three-quarters of a mile further 
north. Wans House is considerably more than a mile from the site of the 
villa. 

41a. — Roman pottery was found also on the site of the County Council 
houses above mentioned, about three-quarters of a mile N. of the villa, on 
the E. side of the road between the turning to Chittoe and that to West- 
brook (33 N.E.). Roman remains are found frequently all over this district 
in the neighbourhood of " Verlucio " (see under Calne). 

Brookwood House. " Some curious remains of antiquity have lately 
been discovered in a field on the estate of W. Greenwood, Esq., of 
Brookwood House, Wilts. Six tesselated pavements have been already 
cleared and further discoveries are making," Gent's Magazine, 1823, 559. 
It is not known to what this refers and the names cannot be traced in 
Wiltshire. 

Br ought on Crififord. 

42. — E. of Bradley's Farm House (shown on 32 S.E., 1926 edition, as 
Roman station). " In a field called Bradley's, belonging to Monkton and 
adjoining the railway, there are in dry seasons traces of foundations, also 
coins found," W.A.M.,v., 280. Burials found, PT.^.i/., xxxviii., 377. The 
age of these burials is uncertain, the original mention is in Thurnam's MS. 
Catalogue of skulls sent by him wi-th the skulls to the museum at 
Cambridge ; a copy of the catalogue of items referring to Wilts is in the 
library of the museum at Devizes. The entry reads " 175, 176, 177. An. 
Brit.? Probably of the Christian period 5th to 9th century, A.D. From 
graves at Broughton (iifford, near Melksham, 1862, in digging gravel for 
railway ballast. The skeletons were extended, exhumed by Rev. John 
Wilkins, Wm. Cunnington, and Thurnam." 

Bulford. 
42a.— On Bulford-Milston parish boundary round about junction of ditch 
running S. from Brigmerston Down with that from county boundary (55 
N.W,). Settlement, pottery, etc., found. Information from Mr. Percy 
Farrer. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. N 



180 Romano -British Wiltshire. 

42b.— Beacon Hill (55 S.W.). About one mile N. of Bench mark 541, on 
Amesbury-Andover road between 11th and 12th milestone. Habitation, 
pottery, etc. found. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

42c. — Harraden Hill. Coins found. Stukeley's Stonehe^ige, 32. Site 
not identified. It seems not improbable that this and 42b above actually 
refer to the same site. 

Biirhagfe. 

43.__Southgrove Farm (42 N.E.). Burial with remains of a cross-bow, 
etc. W.A.M.r xxviii., 87, figs.; Cat., Devizes Museum, p. 57—8, 484—490,. 



Calne Without. 

44,_Near Wans House. (Shown on 26 S.E.). Large station on Roman 
road to Bath, identified and described by Hoare as " Verlucio," A. W. 
Roman Aera, 83. Casual finds, W.A.M., xxxvii , 611, figs, ; dice from, xiv., 
233 ; Smith, p. 30, fig. " Verlucio," Relic Table of pottery found on surface 
by Pitt-Rivers, Excavations, iii., following page 240. 

Evidences of habitation during the Roman period are frequent not only 
within the immediate neighbourhood of "Verlucio" but for a wide area 
round about it. Iron smelting seems to have been carried on extensively 
from ores obtained from the Lower Greensand in the neighbourhood, 
W.A.M.t xxiii., 217, note. Pottery, coins, tesserae, etc., are frequently 
found on the surface. Hoare remarks on the frequency of villas in this 
neighbourhood and mentions "two sites of Roman residence, nearChitway 
Heath, and Silver Street," that do not seem to have been identified since. 
A. W., Roman Aera, 124. One of these (Chit way Heath 1) may be that re- 
ferred to in the Gent's Mag., 1796, 472—3, when a pavement representing 
a Roman soldier was reported to have been found where the Roman road 
would cross the modern Devizes — Chippenham road. See also under 
Bromham. 

In the fields at the back of the Bear Farm (Old Bear Inn) pottery, coins, 
iron slag, and other Roman remains are frequently turned up (28 S.W.) 
Partly in Calne and partly in Bromham parishes. 

■^ ^ 45. — A villa at Studley, in a field called Clotley's on Berry or Berril's 
Hill Farm (27 N.W.). A letter from George Hungerford to Dr. Stukeley, 
dated 1753, describes the discovery by workmen, with many details and 
measurements. The remains of baths with cistern and hypocaust were 
found ; the pillars of the hypocaust were composed of tiles, some being 
inscribed IVC. DIGNI. The walls were lined with " polished mortar " 
(stucco 1). There were found a coin of Diocletian, " as likewise half a brass 
fibula, brown polish 1 and a leaden handle of a vessel. . . Black ascen, 
or straw, ashes, oister shells, and bones, perhaps human," and lead piping. 
Publications of Surtees Society, 1887, vol. Ixxx., 269—272 (Stukeley's 
Memoirs). Hoare says numerous coins found, A.W., Roman Aera, 124. 
W.A.M., xxiv., 170 (incidental reference only) ; xli., 426 (extract from 
•Surtees Pub., vol. Ixxx.) ; Bowles' Hist, of Bremhill, 1828, p. 77, iron scoriae 
and bricks found. 



By Mrs. M. E, Cunnington, 181 

* * 46.— Bowood, villa (26 N.E.). " Between the Mansion and the Lake." 
About 1779 were found " a tesselated pavement — six skeletons, ashes, char- 
coal, and fragments of pottery, evidently indicative of a Roman residence." 

IV. A.M., xliv., 58 ; an extract from Skinner's diary in the British Museum. 
A.W., Roman Aera, 124 (slight reference only) ; W.A.M., xxiv., 170 (brief 
reference only) ; xlii., 37 (brief reference only). 

o 46a.— Clark's Hill (Nusterleigh), Bowood (26 S.E.). About 1922 a 
quantity of pottery, apparently Romano- British, was found during quarry- 
ing operations ; W.A.M., xlii., 37. This site is not on the index map. 

47.— Calstone Wellington Manor Farm (27 S.W.). In field S. of house, 
on opposite side of road, adjoining the road, a quantity of Romano- British 
pottery was dug up some few years ago. From private information. 

48. — Whetham (27 S.W.). A cinerary urn was found in 1843, near the 
stone quarry, Whetham Farm. Devizes Museum Cat., ii.. p. 31., 223. 

48a. — Red Hill (26 N.E.) In the allotments of this name near the 
liansdowne Arms Inn, Derry Hill. Many Roman bronze coins found in 
these gardens, some silver and at least one of gold. Information from a 
former allotment holder. 

" At Derry Hill in 1680 such quantities of brass coins that Aubrey says 
the children played with them." Jackson's Aubrey, 39 ; W.A.M., xxiv., 
170 ; xi., 344. 

" Chiefly from one large field called Red-hill, or as I conjecture, Rade-hill, 
which is dug for garden ground, in little more than twelve months from 
the time, having oflfered an affixed price for every coin, I have had not less 
than two hundred." Bowles' Hist, of Bremhill, 1828, 77—8. 

"At Chippenham, at Derry Hill, Coyns found, 1680." Stukeley's 
Common Place Book, Surtees Socty., Pub vol. 83, For the the Year 1880, 
p. 139. 

* * Nuthills, near Bowood (Sandy Lane), (26 S.E.). Villa, Foundations, 
pottery, etc., discovered in 1924; the site was subsequently partially 
excavated and a room with remains of painted wall plaster, rough flooring, 
mineral coal, etc., was uncovered . in the centre of the room there was an 
octagonal stone basin connected with a stone drain, probably the base of a 
fountain. W.A.M., xliv., 49—58, plan, figs. Jour, Roman Studies, 1924, 
xiv., 237. 

o Ranscombe Bottom ? (27 S E.). Hoare mentions a " small British settle- 
ment in a verdant plain between Cherhill and Oldborough Castle " but 
there is no available evidence as to its date, nor has its site been located, 
it. IT., II., 96. 

The " pretty work, like a Roman camp " mentioned by Stukeley {Ahury 
Described, p. 48, PI. xi.) is now known to be of medieval date, W.A.M., 
xxxvi., 590—598. 

Calstone. See Calne Without. 

Castle Combe. 

* 49a.— Rack Hill (19 N.E.?). Habitation? Sculptured stone, etc., 
found. W.A.M., ii., 136, fig. ; vii., 73, fig. 

N 2 



182 Romano- British JViltshire. 

Charlton (Pewsey Vale). 
50.— On Charlton Down (shown on 47 N.W.), S.W. of Charlton Clump, 
or Alpha Clump as called on 1925 edition of map. N.E. of Sutton's Barn. 
A settlement. A. W., 1 , 175 (no details). Coins from, W.A.M , ix., 27. 

Cherhill. 

* * 51. — Villa (27 N.E.). A fragment of tesselated pavement found close 
to churchyard gate, 1913. W.A.M., xxxviii., 222. 

52, — Cherhill Down (27 S.E.). Between Knowle Down and Cherhill 
Down, W. of the Parly. Co. Div. boundary, S. of the bank that runs 
parallel to, and south of the old road, about due S. of milestone Calne 4. 
Habitation. Irregular banks and ditches, and much pottery on mole heaps. 
From personal observation. 

Casual finds on Oldbury Hill, bronze brooch, Devizes Ca^., ii., 314, 356b ; 
iron "pig," 516 ; iron key, 547. Objects found reputed Roman, WA.M.y 
xxiii., 21.6; iron key found, xxviii , 263; iron objects from, xxxvi., 480; 
coins from, xxiii., 218— 9 ; Vessels referred to as Eomano-British, xxvii., 
are of pre-Roman type. Iron smelting in district, xxiii., 217, note. 

52a,— On Cherhill Down (27 S.E.). E. of White Horse Plantation, N.E. 
of Oldbury Camp. Irregularities of ground and much pottery on surface. 
From personal observation. 

Cheverell. 

53. — About the down where the parishes of Great and Little Cheverell 
and Imber meet, N.E. of Imber (45 S.E.), Hoare describes it as '"a little 
more than a mile north of Imber, on a piece of down called Pittle Cheverell. 
It produces all the accustomed marks of an extensive British village, the 
entrance into which, between two slight banks, is very evident." A. W., I., 
95. Romano-British pottery may be found on the surface. 

Chicklade. 

54. — Cratt or Crofts Hill (shown on 58 S.W.).' Dug into by Hoare, who 
called it a " British settlement," but does not describe the finds. A. W., I , 
105. 

Chilmark. 

55. — \Mthy Copse, The Bidge (64 N.E.). Remains found in digging 
drains, etc., in connection with the erection of Fonthill House in 1902 — 4. 
Building material, querns, pottery, coinp, etc. W.A.M, xxxiv., 415; xliv., 
254. 

For site at Ashley Down see under Tisbury. 

Chitterne All Saints. 

56. — S.W^ of, and near Kill Barrow (site shown on 46 S.W.). Apparently 
a considerable village site with the usual irregularities of ground and much 
pottery on surface ; coins and brooch found. From personal observation. 

' Not on 1926 edition of map. 



By Mrs, M, E. donning ton. 183 

This seems to be the site referred to by Hoare as " at the intersection of 
two ancient trackways." ^. PF., I., 89. 

Chittoe. 
According to Hoare, Mr. Cunnington located the sites of two Roman 
villas in this parish ; one on Chittoe Heath (Chitway Heath), and the other 
at or near " Silver Street," but nothing further is known of these. A. W.^ 
Roman Aera, 124. Roman pottery, etc., is found on the surface of many of 
the fields and in Spye Park, through which the Roman road runs. Quanti- 
ties of iron slag also occur as the result of smelting iron ore from the Lower 
Greensand of the district, but this may not all be of Roman date. 

Chiseldon. 
* 55a.— Plough Hill (xvi. S.W.). Mr. A. D. Passmore reports that re- 
mains of a hypocaust, moulded pillars, fragments of Bath stone, pottery, 
etc., were found in 1930, on Plough Hill, immediately behind the Plough 
Inn, on the west side of the Eloman road. 

Clarendon. 

" Mr. Hatcher, of Salisbury, asserts that the site of another unexplored 
Roman villa exists in Clarendon Wood, about three miles from Salisbury, 
and that numerous coins have been discovered there." Arch.' Jour., II., 86, 
1846. W.A.M.., xiii., 34. Enquiry was made locally about the alleged site 
but no further information was obtained. 

ClyfFe Pypard. 

57.— Broad Town Field (22 N.W.). S. of Broad Town Hill, N. of 
*' Parly Co. Div. Union and R.D. By.," E. of road Broad Town— Broad Hin- 
ton, partly in parish of Broad Hinton. 

Romano- British skeleton burials with pottery, brooch, etc., found under 
sarsen stones ; one with coin of Marcus Aurelius. Quantities of pottery on 
surface when the land was under plough. W.A.M.^ xl., 353. 

58.— Cuff's Corner (shown on 22 S.W., 1926 edition, as " Stone Cists "). 
This seems to be an extension of the Broad Town Field site (57 above) to 
the S.E. 

In 1854 nine burials under sarsen stones were found on either side of the 
Broad Hinton road about this corner ; they were scattered over a consider- 
able area and other similar burials are said to have been found " in other 
spots." W.A.M., xxxviii., 227 ; xl., 354. Smith, 78. 

Codford St. Mary. 

59— Clay Pit Hill on Codford Down (shown on 1926 edition of 53 S.W.). 
S. of Clay Pit Clump, N. of East Codford Down. Noticed by Hoare as 
*' the remains of a very extensive British town, covering several acres of 
ground, in which on digging we have found the usual and undoubted iridicia 
of ancient population." A. W., 1. 80. Part of the site is, or was, under 
plough, and there was much Romano- British pottery on the surface. 



184 Romano- British IViltshire. 

o 59a.— Hypocaust found S.E. of Site 59, in bank between track and 
parish boundary, N. of Bench mark 525 (shown on 53 S.W., 1926 edition.) 

60.— Foxhole. Habitation. E. of Malmpit Hill, due S. of old chalk pit, 
about 400 contour line (58 N.E,). Pottery, etc., found. Information from 
Mr. Ilex Nan Kivell. 

61. — Little V\ood (58 N.E. ). Habitation. In the angle between Little 
Wood and " The Belt," due N. of Bench mark 397. 

Site identified by Mr, Rex Nan Kivell. 

Colerne. 

** o 62.— Villa in a field called the Allotment (25 N.W.) ; north of 
Colerne, as the crow flies | of a mile east of the Fossway, nearly | of a mile 
west of Lucknam Lodge at the cross roads ; N.W. of Bench mark 541 — 2 ; 
north of figures in Bench mark 569—3 (1900 edit, 6in. map). Discovered 
in 1838 and covered up without any description. In 1854, eleven rooms, 
hypocausts, etc., were uncovered, destroyed pavements found, one with 
chariot, charioteer, and four horses abreast, and the word "SERVIUS or 
SERVERUS." Arch Jour fXi'i., 89 ; xiii.,328 ; ScartKs Aquae Solis, 120—1 ; 
W.A.M., iii., 21. 

Thanks are due to Mr. Shaw Mellor, of Box House, for the identification 
of the site of this villa. Scarth speaks of it as east of the Fossway, but on 
his map it is shown on the north-western side of this road. 



Colling'bourne Duels. 

63. — Between the road and Barrows Nos. 7 — 8 (Goddard's List, W.A.M., 
xxxviii., 231) (48 N.E.). ^-mile W. of Hougomont Farm. Much pottery 
on the ground when it was arable, but in 1924 it was put down to grass. 
From personal observation. 

63a.— E. of milestone Devizes 17, Andover 9, about 150 yards E. of cross 
roads, and about midway between them. Shown on 48 N.E., 1926 edition. 
Pottery, including bead rim bowls, calcined flints and sandstone found 1918 
scattered on surface. Information from M r. Percy Farrer. 

63b. — E. of Bench mark 456.8, in angle made by road to Ludgershall and 
Shaw Hill. Shown on 1926 edition of 48 N.E. Habitation, pottery, etc., 
on ploughed surface. Site identified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Colling-bouriie King'ston. 

64. — On Snail Down (48 N.W.). N. of group of barrows, round about 
parish boundary line. Hoare shows a " British Village " here but it has not 
been verified. A. W., L, 181. 

64a. — E. of Weather Hill on both sides of Fittleton parish boundary, S. 
of Snail down square, and N. of " Ditch " (48 N.W.). Habitation, pottery, 
etc., found. Site identified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

64b.— Summer Down (42 S.W.). E. of Bench mark 592 5, S.W. of Croft 
Barn. Irregularities and pottery on surface. Site identified by Mr. Percy 
Farrer. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 185 

Coulston, East, 
o 64c.— A hoard of coins were found in a pot at or near Baynton House, 
about 1830, but the exact spot is not now known. They ranged from 
Constantine the Great to Conatantine If., and are fully described in W. A.M.^ 
XXXV., 132—145. Coins in Devizes Museum. 

Cricklade. 

65. — Foundations, coins, etc., found "at the spot where the Roman road 
crosses the river, north of the town." W.A.M., xli.,390. 5 S. W. See also 
under Latton. 

It has been claimed that the town itself is the site of an enclosed Roman 
station or town, but the evidence is conflicting. W,A.M t xii., 126 — 9. 

CrudwelL 
o Many skeletons and some Roman coins have been found in a quarry in 
Long Furlong, Murcott. PT.^.vlf., xxxviii., 238. (8 N.E.). 

Dean, West. 

o Part of this parish is in Wiltshire but the site of the West Dean villa is 
on the boundary line, and the greater part, if not the whole of it, appears 
to be in Hants (shown on 72 N.E.). W.A.M , xiii., 33 ; xxii., 243. Arch. 
Jour., II., 86. Hoare's Modern Wilts, V., 30. 

Devizes. 

66.— Pans Lane, Wick, Southbroom, (34 S.W.). Shown on 1926 edition. 
On both sides of the railway from where it is crossed by Pans Lane north- 
ward to Southgate House. Settlement. Much pottery, etc., and an in- 
humation burial were found in 1861 when the railway was made, and 
casual finds of pottery, coins, and burials are made from time to time. A 
skeleton was found in 1929 when the " halt " known as " Pans Lane Halt" 
was made. W.A.M., xxiv., 345, Devizes Museum Cat., pt, ii., p. 50, and 
No. 352. The Penates found in 1714 "near Southbroom House," were 
probably connected with this site. Various references to finds at Wick and 
Southbroom should be included as belonging to this site. For these see 
W.A.M., xxxviii., 239 ; xliii., 503. 

A statement in Arch. Jour., xliv., 54, 1887, that a tesselated pavement 
had been found under the Old Town Hall is without any foundation in fact. 

Dilton Marsh. 

67. — Chalcot House (shown on 1926 edition of 44 S.E.). Habitation. 
Pottery, coins, etc., found. W.A.M., xxxviii., 239 ; A. W., I., 52—3. 

68. — Hisomley or Hissamley. (44 S.E.). Habitation, pottery, coins, etc. 
A.W., L, 52—3. Hoare's Modern Wilts, ii., 174. 

69.— Short Street (44 S.W.) Habitation. Coins and pottery in fields. 
A. W., L, 52—3. Hoare's Modern Wilts, ii., 174. 

Hoare remarks that all this neighbourhood seems to have been thickly 
populated in the Roman period. A.W., I., 53. See also Site 166 under 
Upton Scudamore. 



186 Romano- British Wiltshire, 

Ditteridge (parish of Box). 

* * 70. — Cheney Court (25 S. W.). " The remains of a Roman villa, and 
with them several Imperial coins, were found in July, 1813, near Alcombe, 
on Cheney Court Farm, south of Road Hill, about five miles from Bath 
These are mentioned by Mr. Cranch, who made a collection of Roman 
T-emains in Walcot, which he catalogued, and afterwards presented to the 
Literary and Scientific Institution. The architectural part of the Villa is 
said to have stood in the orchard at Cheney Court, but little or nothing 
exists there at the present day." Scarth's Aquae Solis, 119. 

Donhead St. Mary. 

71. — "Pottery and foundations in Mr. Dunstan's garden, other urns from 
Canon Short in Salisbury Museum." Information from Mr. O. G. S. 
Crawford. (69 S.W.). 

Burrington. 

72.— Habitation, S.W. of Durrington Walls, W. of Woodhenge (shown on 
54 S.E., 1926 edition). W,A.M., xl., 101. 

Romano-British pottery may be found over a considerable area here- 
abouts. It was found in the upper layers of the ditch at Woodhenge and 
on the surface there as well as on that of the circles and earthwork ex- 
cavated in the field S. of Woodhenge. Personal observation. (Cunnington's 
Woodhenge). 

72a. — Durrington Down (54 S.W.). E. of Barrow 38 and N. of Barrow 
36, on both sides of the trackway. Habitation, much pottery, including 
Samian ware found on surface. Site identified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Easterton. 

o A pot containing a number of 4th century coins was found early in the 
1 9th century somewhere in this parish. A bronze brooch with spiral spring 
all in one piece is said to have been found with the coins, but the associa- 
tion is not very certain, W.A.M., x., 178—180 ; xxxv., 403, figs. Devizes 
Museum Cat., ii , p. 42, 320—321. 

Easton Grey. 

73.—" White Walla" (shown on 8 S.W.), partly in the parishes of Easton 
Grey and Foxley. Called " Mutuantonis " by Hoare. A large settlement 
on both sides of the Fossway and of the river Avon. Marked by irregularities 
of ground and numerous finds, including a bas-relief of four figures under 
a canopy, inscribed CIVILIS FECIT. A.W., Roman Aera, 100—1. 
W.A.M., xxxviii , 249 ; xli., 391. 

In White Walls Wood a small rectangular enclosure was regarded by 
Hoare as connected with this settlement. Shown on 8 S.W. as *' Supposed 
lioman Camp." 

Easton Royal. 

74.— Easton Hill, S, of Easton Clump (shown on 42 N. W.). A " village " 



By Mrs. M. hJ. Ctcnnington. 187 

site noticed by Hoare but not dug into. A.W., I., 190, 1st paragraph. 
Irregularities and pottery on surface. 

Enford. 

75.— Combe Hill, or Combe Down, N.E. of Beach's Barn, on N. side of 
track from Snail Down, just within parish boundary where the three 
parishes meet (shown on 1926 edition of 48 N.W.). A " very extensive 
British village — it seems to have been connected with the one near Lidbury, 
by double and single ditches, or covered way?." A. W., I., 193. Wessex 
from the Air, 1928, 140. 

In reference to this site Lt. -Colonel Hawley writes — " I dug there once 
and found a T-shaped oven. The long trench of it had a peculiarity not 
noticed by me before. It had a barrier of solid chalk at half-way along its 
length, blocking it, but pierced by two holes evidently for controlling the 
draught through it." 

76. — Chisenbury Warren (shown on 48 N.W.). S.E. of the Warren, 
between it and the track. Irregularities of ground and much pottery on 
the surface ; coins and a bronze brooch found. From personal observation. 

Hoare says—'" A bank and ditch, the almost constant attendants on our 
J^ritish villages, conduct us from it [i.e., Lidbury Camp) into an adjacent 
valley, on the south-east declivities of which we once more recognise all the 
indicia of an extensive British settlement, situated not as they generally 
are, on a high and commanding point of land, but in a retired and tranquil 
valley." A.W., I., 192. It is not clear whether this refers to the Chisen- 
bury Warren site or to the next one in Rainbow Bottom, Site 77 below. 
W.A.M., xl., 28, plan of site. 

77.— Rainbow Bottom (47 N.E.). S. and S.E. of Lidbury Camp, N. of 
the track from Chisenbury Warren to Pintail Wood, between Bench marks 
375 and 401. Irregularities of ground and much pottery, and some coins on 
the surface. ^From personal observation and information supplied by Lt.- 
Col. Hawley. 

This may be the site referred to by Hoare, A. FT., 192, see Site 76 above. 

o Lidbury Camp. A few pieces of Romano-British pottery found in 
superficial deposits. W.A.M.,x\.t 20 — 21. 

* 78.— Littlecote (47 N.E.). E. of Littlecott Farm, in the field adjoining 
the road E. of Bench mark 299, S. of Gladiator's Walk. Of this site Col. 
Hawley wrote in 1924: — "There is a good deal of pottery on the fields 
on the east side of the high road, but the place does not look like a village 
site, and is much more likely to hold a villa like the one at Netheravon." 

79.— Slay Down (47 N.W.), S.E. of Slay Barrow, S. of " Ditch," about 
track close to Bench mark 527. Hypocausts and pottery found by the 
military in 1922. No account published. 

80. — On Compton Down, within 400 contour line, S. of word " Down," 
N.E. of Bench mark 407, on 47 N.W. Habitation, Site identified by Lt.- 
Col. Hawley, 1924. 

Etchilhampton. 

81.— On top of Etchilhampton Hill (40 N.E.). Habitation ? Pottery on 
surface. From personal observation. 



188 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

Erlestoke. 

82.— The Sands, or West Sands (45 N.E. and 39 S.E.). A field N.W. of 
the village, and immediately N. of Site 83 below. 

A large number of coins have been found from time to time. W.A.M.y 
xxxiii., 299 ; xxxiv., 95, plan. 

83.— The Sharp, or Sharp Sands (45 N.E.). The field S. of the Vicarage 
and of the road to Coulston, N. of Wellhead Fond. Many coins and a burial 
found in the 18th century. W.A.M., xxxiii., 298 ; xxxiv., 95, plan of site. 

This site is immediately S. of the West Sands and is probably part of the 
same area. 

Everley Barrows. See under Pewsey. 
Farley (South WHts). 

* 84.— Hound's Wood (67 S.E.). On Farley Farm, on S. side of Hound's 
Wood. Much pottery, coins, roof tiles, etc, found, but no foundations 
located. Hey wood Sumner, Excavatioyis at East Grimstead, 1924, p. 14, 
note. 

Parleigh. (Somerset). 

"At Farley Castle, 1683, a pavement dug up, opus tessellatum, now at 
Oxford in Ashmol. Museum." Stukeley's Common Place Book^ Surtees 
Socty., pub., vol. 83, for year 1880, p. 139. Included under the heading of 
Wilts, though actually in Somerset 

Canon Jackson in his " Guide to Farleigh Hungerford" 1st edition, after 
speaking of the villa near Iford, in Somersetshire, ^-mile Isl. of Farleigh in 
Temple Field, near farm road to Iford (shown on 38 N.W.), he goes on to 
say " this must be distinguished from one ^-mile east of Farleigh across the 
Avon, and perhaps across the Wiltshire border." In later editions this 
suggestion as to the site being possibly in Wilts is omitted. 

This latter site is no doubt that referred to by Scarth {Aquae Solis, 120) 
as " 5-mile S.E. from Farleigh Castle overlooking Stowford, and on a hill 
which rises N.W. above it, now occupied by Farleigh Lodge Farm, are some 
portions of an earthwork and camp." This is in Somerset though apparently 
at one time it was in Wilts. The villa N. of Farleigh Castle is generally 
known as the Iford villa. In Gent's Mag., 1823, Ft. I.. 113, the site of a 
Roman villa at Farleigh is mentioned ; this probably refers to one of the 
above-mentioned villas. 

Fifield Bavant. 

o A few objects of Romano- British date were found on the site of this 
Early Iron Age village on Fifield Bavant Down. W.A.M., xlii., coins, 
p. 464, 479 ; iron brooch, p. 465, 482 ; pottery, p. 482. 

Figheldean. 

84a.— E. of Alton Parva Farm, S. of Alton Magna, N. of Gravel Pit 
(shown on 1926 edition of 54 N.E.) Habitation. Pottery and foundations 
found. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 



Bij Mrs. M. E. Cunning ton. 189 

Fittleton. 

85.— Beach's Barn (48 S.W,for Barn see 48 N.W.). About 200 yards 
S. of Barn, irregularities of surface. When dug into " Every shovelful of 
earth contained fragments of pottery, stone roofing tiles, brick tiles, fiat- 
headed nails, etc., with occasional pieces of 8amian ware." Oyster shells 
were abundant. W A.M , xxviii., 172. 

Fonthill Bishop. 

86.— On Fonthill Down, S. of High Park. Described by Hoare as" near 
Chicklade Bottom." Shown on 58 S.E. and 64 N.E.^ Hoare says the site 
is "marked by the usual irregularities, and excavations in the ground, 
which extend to a considerable distance. On digging we found rude British 
pottery, and a great deal of Roman, with some of the fine red Samian ; also 
a small brass coin of the Emperor Carausius." A. W., I., 105—6. 

For the neighbouring sites see under Berwick St. Leonard and Chicklade. 

Povant. 

87.—" Old Churchyard " (65 S.W.). S. of P'ir Hill Plantation, E. of 400 
contour line, due W. of Bench mark 432.1. In 1915, in the course of con- 
struction of a light railway from Dinton to Fovant Camp, three stone-lined 
graves were found containing skeletons ; iron hob nails were found at the 
feet of one skeleton, and a vessel of hard grey pottery outside one of the 
cists. W.A.M , xxxix, 499, 521. 

Chiselbury Gamp (70 N.W.). Roman coins are reported to have been 
found within this earthwork. 

Poxley. See Eastosi Grey. 

Froxfield. 

* * 88.— Rudge Farm villa (30 S.W.). Foundations and a tesselated 
pavement, 17ft. by 15ft., found in 1725. Not far from pavement a well 
filled with rubbish, bones of animals and four or five human skeletons, coins 
of the lower Empire, and the well-known Rudge cup, now at Alnwick 
Castle. The cup is bronze enamelled red, blue, and green, and inscribed 
with the names of five of the stations on the Roman wall. It is thought to 
have been votive. A. PT, Roman Aera, 121, with figs : of cup and pavement ; 
W.A.M , i, 118, fig. of cup ; xxv., 204 ; xli., 426 ; Arch. Jour., xiv., 282 ; 
Morgan's Bomano- British Mosaic Pavements, 105 ; Stukeley's Memoirs, 
Surtees Society Pub., 1887, vol. Ixxx., 257—266; McCaul's Rom. Brit Inscr. 
203; Horseley's Brit. Rom., No. 74 ; Bruce's Roman Wall, 2nd edit., 252, 
fig. ; Proc. Socty. Antiq., xv., 87 ; Trans. Cumb. and West Ant. Socty., 1901 , 
70 ; Gough's Camden, I., p. 163. 

Pyfield. 

* 89.— Villa ? (28 S.E.). Part of rough pavement found. Immediately 
on the right of the turnpike at Fy field {i.e., S. 1). Smith, p. 107. A. If., 

^ Not on 1926 edition of map, 



190 Romano- Bintisl I, Wiltshwe. 

Roman Aera, 88. This would have been close to the line of the Roman 
road, Cunetio to Bath. 

90.— Totterdown (Rowden's Mead), on Fyfield Down (shown on 28 N.E.). 
A settlement dug into by Hoare, who says, " On digging into one of the ex- 
cavations, the first stroke of our pick brought up one half of a quern, or 
hand-mill, with its perforation in the centre, the tip of a deer horn, and 
various fragments of both British and Roman pottery." A. IF., II., 45. 

There is still a great deal of pottery scattered about the surface here. 

Pots found from time to time between 1886—92, in the " neighbourhood 
of Temple Down " may have been from this site. W>A.M., xxxviii., 311. 

Grafton, East. 
91. — Batt's jMead, Batt's Barn (shown on 42 N.E.). Habitation, bricks, 
pottery, etc., found in trenches. W.A.M., xxxiv., 308. 

Groveley. See Langford and Wishford. 

Grimstead, East. 

* * 92.— Villa (shown on 1926 edition of .72 N.E.). Excavations at East 
Grimstead, Hey ward Sumner, 1924. A long review of this work appears 
in W.A.M., xliii., 130—2. An article in Salisbury, S. Wilts, and Blackmore 
Museum, 1864—1924, Festival Booh, noticed W.A.M., xxxix., 283. 

Grittleton. 

92a.— "The Grove" (12 S.E.). The field formerly known as "The 
Grove " lies S. of the road to Hullavington between the field sometimes 
known as " The Churchyard " and where it crosses the Fosseway, but the 
names Upper and Lower Grove occur north of the road. Foundations, 
coins, etc , found 1843, Jackson's Hist of Grittleton, 20, note. The site of 
this field was identified by Rev, E. A. Gowring from tithe maps, 1925. 

92b.— Northfield(12S.E.). This field lies N. of the Church and E. of 
the road to Chippenham. Coffin, coins, etc., found 1852 ; Jackson's Aubrey, 
128, note. The position of this field was identified by Rev. E. A. Gowring, 
1925, from tithe maps 

"The Grove" and the North Field are, or were, of considerable extent, 
and as the exact find spots are not known the position of the fields only is 
indicated. 

o Ham. " Stone Castle " mentioned in Saxon charters, is probably the 
Roman building, foundations of which have been found in a field in this 
parish. If.^.i/., xlii., 71. 37 S.E.? 

Hanning'ton. 

* * 93. — Hannington Wick (6 S.W.). Pavements of coloured tesserse, 
painted wall plaster, bricks, pottery, etc., found. W.A.M., xxv., 232, plan. 

Heddington. 

94.— Heddington Wick (34 N.W. and 27 S.W.). According to Stukely 



By Mrs. M. E. Citnninyton. 191 

this was the site of the Roman station Verlucio ; he says that " for a mile 
together foundations, walls, coins, coals," were found here. Stukeley's 
Common Place Book^ Surtees Socty. Pub., vol. 83, for the year 1880, p. 139 ; 
Itin. Cur.^ Iter, vi., 142 ; Jackson's ^w^reiy, 5,45 ; Gibson's Camden, 103 — 4. 

Burial in a leaden coffin containing a vase of thin red ware with brown 
wash, and three rows of imbricated scale pattern. Devizes Museum Cat-^ 
II , p. 33, Nos. 233— 233a. 

Behind Old Bear Inn (Bear Farm), coins, brooch, iron scoriae, pottery, 
etc., on surface of fields. Webb's MS. Hist, of Bromham, p. 4, quoting 
Devizes Gazette, Jsm. lOtb, 1839. Parishes of Heddington and Bromham 
(26 S.E.). 

These sites are very near, if not actually connected with the site at Wans 
House (Site 44, Calne Without), regarded by Hoare as that of Verlucio. 
See also under Bromham and Chittoe. 

Heytesbury. 

95. — S.W. of Tytherington Hill (shown on 58 N.W ) Hoare speaks of it 
thus : " adjoining the track leading from Tytherington to Pertwood and 
Hindon, the remains of another large British village appear in the most 
unequivocal manner. . . . The irregularities of ground extend over a large 
tract of the hill towards the south and south-east ; the excavations produce 
the same marks of antiquity as those in the other British villages before 
described, such as pieces of iron, flat-headed nails, pottery, etc., and in one 
of them we discovered a fire-place, or hypocaustum, in the form of a cross, 
similar to those before mentioned at Knook." A.W., L, 103 — 4. 

o 95a — " At the upper end of Heytesbury Field, and near the summit of 
the hill, is a flat barrow ploughed over, which Mr. Cunnington opened in 
1800, and found about a foot under the surface, a layer of flints — intermixed 
with fragments of thick and coarse pottery — and ten small brass Roman 
coins of the Emperors Constantine, Valentine L and II., and Arcadius, 
together with some pieces of the fine red Samian pottery." A. W., I., 87. 

Heywood. 

96. — The Ham (shown on 44 N.E.). A large settlement. Foundations, 
hewn stones, and tessellated pavements found between Compton Plot 
and Heywood House. A. W., I., 53. Many objects were found in the iron 
workings and a large collection of these is at Devizes Museum known as the 
" Westbury Collection," Cat., ii , p. 69—86 (with list of 19 potters' names). 
W.A.M., xxxvi., 464—477. A well was opened in 1879, the finds are in- 
cluded in the collection. 

Cinerary urn of " Upchurch " ware with lattice pattern, found containing 
cremation and a fine bronze coin of Constantine. Devizes Museum Cat, 
II., p. 74—5, 654. Brit. Museum Guide to Roman Britain, 1922, 120—1. 

The site is generally known as " Westbury," being near Westbury railway 
station though actually in the parish of Heywood, The iron ore here was 
worked for the Westbury Iron Works, now closed. 

Hill Deverell. 
97. — W. of Church and road to Brixton Deverell (shown on 57 N.E.). The 



192 Romano- Br ifAsh Wiltshire. 

nature of this site* has been questioned (W.A.M., xlii., 252) but Hoare de- 
scribes it as follows : — " In two fields immediately behind the Parish 
Church, the usual irregularities in the ground mark the site of a large 
British settlement, and where, on digging, we found the pottery, brick 
flues, etc., etc., of the Romanized Britons." A.W., I., 49. Six houses 
were built on the site about 1921. While the building was going on the 
writer walked over the ground more than once but never found pottery of 
any kind turned out in the excavations. 

Hilmarton. 

98. — Corton Farm (21 S.E.). Habitation. Pit found with pottery, etc. 
Tf.^.i/., xxvii., 177—8. 

Horning'sliani. 

99. — Baycliffe Farm (57 N.W.), " There are evident traces of a British 
village on the right of the road leading from Maiden Bradley to Long- 
bridge Deverill." A. W., I., 50. Hoare gives no further information about 
this site. 

Huish. 

100. — N. of Church (35 N.E.). *' Some earthworks of an oblong form 
. . . and shaped regularly, in which both British and Roman pottery have 
been dug up." ^. If., II., H. 

o 100a.— Draycot Farm (35 S.E.). " Similar relics of antiquity have been 
found in the fields around Draicot Farm in the same vale." A. W., II., 11. 

Some investigations made by the farmer about 1880 in a field on Draycot 
Farm revealed foundations of a rectangular building and what appear to 
have been hypocaust pillars. The foundations showed in the crops, and 
tesserae may be found on the ploughed surface. Local tradition says " a 
great city once stood there." W.A.M., xliv., 270. Draycot Farm (Draycot 
Fitz Payne) is south of Huish and of the Church, so this last discovery of 
what appears to be the site of a Roman " villa," must be that referred to by 
Hoare. In parish of Huish or Wilcot ? 

101. — Gopher Wood. On open land on N.E. corner of wood. Earthworks 
shown on 35 N.E. Hoare says " vestiges of another British settlement, by 
no means so considerable or so irregular in its plan as the one just referred 
to " (i.e., the works on Huish Hill not here included as no Roman remains 
seem to have been found there). A.W., II., 11, 

The Gopher Wood site is, or was until recently, partly under plough, and 
in a crop of oats it was easy to trace the outline of various small enclosures. 
There is a good deal of pottery on the surface. 

Idmiston. 
101a,— All over the Down on W. side of Moll Harris' Clump (61 S.W.). 



* Hoare shows this site on map of Station 1 as N.W. of the Church ; 
the Ordnance map shows it W. and S. W. 



Bij Mrs. M. E, Cunning ton. 193 

Surface irregularities and pottery found. Information from Mr. Percy 
Farrer. 

101b. — On E. side of Porton Firs in area bounded by trees and two tracks 
{60 N.E.). Surface irregularities and pottery found. Information from 
Mr. Percy Farrer. 

101c. — In garden of Porton Manor House (61 S.W.)- Much pottery 
found. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Iford. See Westwood. 

Imber. 

102.— Wadman's Coppice, E. of (shown on 45 S.E.). "On digging on 
this spot we found fragments of pottery, animals' bones, and some large 
pieces of yellow stone resembling that found in the quarries near Bath." 
Hoare also speaks of the inhabitants as " Romanized Britons." A.W., I., 
S6— 87. 

103.— On the old Bath road, at the milestone Bath xxi., Sarum xv. (46 
S.W.). Hoare mentions another " British settlement " but gives no details. 
A.W., I., 88—89. This is apparently the second of the two sites referred to 
in W.A.M., xxxviii., 270. 

" Near the Great Penning are two barrows, one circular, the other oblong ; 
the former did not prove sepulchral, and contained only animal bones, and 
an abundance of Roman pottery, nails, etc." A. W., I., 89. 

These two mounds do not^seem to be shown on Hoare's map of Station 
III. 

During 1916, in cutting military trenches a number of burials (about 15) 
were found on the down " west " of Imber (east 1). Some were in wooden 
coffins of which the iron nails remained, two were in graves cut in the 
chalk and lined with puddled clay. Probably Romano-British. WA.M., 
xxxix., 500. 

For the village site on the down east of Imber, sometimes spoken of as 
the " Imber village," see under Chitterne All Saints. 

Keevil. 
Roman coins and pottery are said to have been found in Upper Ashton 
Field (Couple Church), west of Keevil between it and Steeple Ashton. 
Pottery from this site in the museum at Devizes is mediaeval. WA.M., 
xxxix., 101, 

Kennet, Hast. 
103a.— About 500 yards S.S. W. of the long barrow, N.E. of the " B " of 
** Boundary mounds," on W. slope of the isolated tump of 700 contour line 
(35 N.W.). Pottery found on surface. Information from Mr. H. C. 
Brentnall. 

Kilming-ton. 

o In a field called " Blacklands " (57 S.W. or 56 S.E.) at Norton Ferris. 
Hoare says he found " traces of the Romanized Britons amongst the arable 



194 Romano- Bi'itisi I, Wilishire. 

lands belonging to Norton parish, in a field belonging to me called " Black- 
lands." A.W., 1,96. 

Norton Ferris was formerly in Somersetshire, but by are-adjustment of the 
county boundary it is now included in Wiltshire. 

In W.A.M., xxxviii., 298, this site is by an error included under the parish 
of Norton Bavant. We are indebted to Mr. Benet Stanford, 1925, for this 
correction. The exact site has not been identified. 

Lacock. 

104.— Nash Hill (26 S.E ), N.E. of Lacock on edge of Wheeler's Wood. 
Pottery and coins found about 1923. Unpublished. 

" Silver Field." Coins found. Leland's Itinerary, II., 29. 

" Traces of a Roman villa have been found at Wick," Lacock. W.A.M., 
xliii., 503.* 

" Wickfield," Lackham (Lacock). Coins found, Jackson's Aubrey, 5, 95. 
This site has not been identified. 

Kingston Deverill. 

On Kingston Deverill Down (shown on 57 S.W.). In 1853 a number 
of skeletons w^ith their feet ranged round together, and some chalk loom 
weights were found. W.A.M., xxvii., 176. Romano-British ? 

In W.A.M. xxxviii., 211, this is included under Brixton Deverill. 

Langford, Little. 

105.— Grovely Wood (59 S.E.). A hoard of 300 4th century silver coins, 
6 silver rings and a fragment of glass, in a pottery vessel, and another of 
about 1000 bronze coins, also of the 4th century, in another pot, were found 
in 1906, on the N.W. brow of Ebsbury Copse on the line of the rampart?!. 
Numismatic Chron., 4th series, vi., 329—47; W.A.M., xxxv , 115—145, 
327, with figs, of pots ; Antiquity, June, 1928, 177. 

In Little Langford or Wishford parish 1 

For Grovely Works see Site 177 under Wishford. 

Langford, Steeple. 
106. — Hanging Langford Camp (59 S.W.). A settlement. Dug into by 
Hoare who says of these earthworks " Their very great irregularity and 
want of symmetry evidently point them out as originally British; and the 
articles found on digging within the area, such as nails, pottery, etc., prove 
this spot to have been inhabited after the arrival of the Romans in our 
island." A.W., I, 108. Partial excavation by Mr. R. S. Newall produced 
a brooch of La Tene I. type, and a quantity of pottery mostly of the bead 
rim type, only four pieces of Samian and no coins. Wessex from the Air, 
117. This pottery found by Mr. Newall suggests that the occupation did 
not extend much, if any, beyond the 1st century A.D., but numerous casual 
finds indicate a Romano-British settlement in the immediate neighbourhood. 
Bronze brooch with T-shaped head found in 1911. W.A.M. , xixvii., 456. 

1 There is a Wick Lane and Wick Farm, W. and S.W. of the village, 
Lackham is to the N. of it ; possibly these two Wicks have been confused 
with one another. 



By Mrs, M, E. Cumiington 195 

Hoare refers to a " British village " on Hanging Langford Down, but it is 
not clear whether this is identical with the camp. A. W., I., 106- 

107. — Yarnbury Camp (59 N.E.). Dug into by Hoare who found " coarse 
British, as well as fine Roman pottery, querns or mill stones, brass Jlbulse, 
Roman coins, iron, etc., etc. ; and a few years ago, on digging near the centre 
of the area, an entire human skeleton was found, laid with its head towards 
the north, and having round one of its fingers a plain brass ring ; and 
amongst the bones there was another nearly of the same size." A. W., 1, 90. 
A somewhat different version of the discovery of this skeleton will be found 
in W.A.M., xxxix., 401. 

Brick flues found, W.A.M ,xxx[v., 272 ; coins found, Stukeley's Itin, Cur., 
137 ; Gough's Camden, I., 149. Wessexfrom the Air, 1928, 70. 

The earthwork itself is no doubt pre-Roman, but the site seems to have 
been inhabited into Roman times. 

108. — S. of Yarnbury (59 N.E ). The works on Cow Down are of an ex- 
ceptional character and their date is not known. The site was referred to 
by Uosire {Hist, of Modern Wilts, vol. II., 170—1), but the fullest account 
will be found in Wessex from the Air, Crawford and Keiller, 1928, 162, PL 
xxvii. This is apparently the site referred to as a " British village " 
south of Yarnbury, W.A.M., xxxviii., 277. 

Laving'ton, West. 

o West Lavington Down. From the number of casual finds that have 
been made from time to time it seems probable that there is a " British 
village '' site somewhere on this down, though the exact locality does not 
seem to have been identified. See Devizes Museum Cat., ii., 308, 315 — 318, 
333, 336, 345, 377. 

Latton. 

* 109.— High Bridge (5 S.W.). Habitation. In 1865, 52 coins, a bronze 
armilla and brooch, iron spear-head and bridle-bit were found in making a 
water course, W.A.M., ix., 232 (with list of coins) ; " Near this spot a 
tesselated pavement of red, white, and black chequer pattern was found in 
1670 " ; Jackson's Aubrey, 152 ; other finds and earthworks, perhaps Roman, 
W.A.M.,x'n, 126—8. 

A hoard of " brass " coins found at Latton is said to be in the Cirencester 
Museum, W.A.M., XIV., \88. 

A coffin (Roman 1) was found in 1861 in the N.E. corner of the parish, 
E. of Vine's Brake, WA.M., xxxviii., 278. 

110.— Canal Bridge (5 S.W.). Opposite bridge, E. of road, pottery in 
ploughed field, coins from Domitian to Constantine ; W.A.M., xli., 390. 

Liddington. 

111.— The Codlings, Medbourne. Shown on 1925 edition of 16 S.W. 
Coins, brooch, bronze comb, and rings, perhaps part of armour, found, 
W.A.M., xli., 39 i. Site identified by Mr. A. D. Passmore. 

1 1 la — A quantity of Roman pottery seems to have been found in trenches 
dug during the war immediately under, and west of Liddington Castle. 
Information given by .Mr. A. D. Passmore. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. 



196 Bomano- British Wiltshire. 

Littlecot Villa. See Ramsbury. 

Longbridge Deverill. 

112.— Cow Down, Whiten Hill (58 N.W.). Habitation. On the E. side 
of the D-shaped earthwork Hoare found " the usual marks of a British 
population " and " dug up some rude fragments of coarse pottery together 
with a large piece of fine red Samian." A. W., 1., 103. 

Seven Roman coins were found in a pot in 1854 ; no details. W.A.M.f 
ii., 34. 

Brick flues are said to have been found at Longbridge Deverill, but no 
details are given. W.A.M., xxxiv., 272. 

Ludg'er shall. 

112a.— W. of Ludgershall, N. of Everley road between railway crossing 
and 8th milestone to Andover (48 N.E.). " Three headless skeletons in 
large irregular pit with various fragments of Romano-British pottery found 
in filling and about surface." Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Lydiard Tregoze. 

113.— Basset Down. Shown on 1925 edition of 15 S.W. In S.E. corner 
of the map, S. of Basset Down House, and S, of the branch road to Quid- 
hampton, immediately N. of " Lon. " on margin of map (Lon. 1°, 50' W.). 
Habitation. A rubbish heap was found in 1913 with a quantity of pottery 
including Samian ware, " evidently from some Roman dwelling near by." 
W.AM., xxxviii., 282, 635. 

Lyxieham. 

114.— Bradenstoke. Coins found near the Priory, circa 1893. W.A.M.^ 
xxvii., 177. 

Marlborough. 

It has been suggested that the earthworks on the Common at the top of 
Kingsbury Street may be the remains of a Roman camp. Lucy's Official 
Guide to MarlhoroughM H. C. Brentnall, p. 23. IF. J.J/., xlii., 116. 29 S.W. 
This appears to be the site referred to by Hoare as follows : — " I imagine 
they carried their causeway near a small camp to the north of the town of 
Marlborough (where Mr. Cunnington dug up Roman pottery), and by a 
place still retaining the name of Cold Harbour." A.W. Roman Aera, 89. 
The " causeway " referred to is the Roman road Aquae Solis to Cunetio. 

Stukeley claimed to have found " a bit of the old Roman Castrum of 
Cunetio, at Marlborough," but in a note Roger Gale says Lord Hertford 
assured him it was only a garden bank of some demolished houses. Surtees 
Soc. Pub., vol. Ixxx., 1887, p. 248. 

A small figure in relief of Fortune is built into the interior west wall 
of St. Mary's Church. W.A.M,, xxxiv., 141, 205, fig. Lucy's Official Guide, 
p. 22. 

Large sculptured head of a man supposed to be Roman, found at Marl- 
borough, is in the Museum at Devizes. W.A.M.^ xxxix., 312. 

See also under Mildexihall and Freshute. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 197 

Mere. 

115.— The Cemetery (shown on 63 N.W.). In 1856, 270 denarii dating 
A.D. 60—166, and showing 174 different types, were found here in a coarse 
earthenware vessel. W.A.M., v., 128, xxvii., 176—7. 

116. — Charnage, or Chaddenwich Down (shown on 63 N.E.) N. of 
** British Trackway." Hoare noticed irregularitips of ground and pottery 
on surface but does not seem to have dug into the site.^ A. W., I., 44. 

Chaddenwich Farm (63 N.W.). Coins, bronze brooches, and bowl of a 
spoon were found about 1911. W.A.M , xxxvii., 457. Perhaps this find is 
connected with the Site 1 16 

Mildenhall. 

117.— Folly Farm, " Upper Cunetio " (shown on 29 S. W.). Large settle- 
ment. Pavements, coins, pottery, statuette, burials, etc., found. A.W., 
lloman Aera, 71—2 W.A M„ xix., 86. 

118. — Mildenhall, " Lower Cunetio " (shown on 29 S.W.). Large settle- 
ment on London to Bath Roman road. Banks and ditches and numerous 
finds ; described by Hoare who says " Besides the very singular occurrence 
of two decided Roman Stations being situated at so short a distance from 
each other, the whole vicinity of Marlborough bespeaks a considerable 
ancient population." This refers to Upper and Lower Cunetio. A. W., 
Roman Aera, 90, with plan, figs., etc. 

Pottery from a well, late wares, rosette-stamped, etc., W.A.M., xli., 151 
— 9, figs. Coins from Vespasian to Magnentius, and Stamped Samian ware 
found, xli., 392. 

ll9.~Black Field. Shown on 29 S.W. Across the river Kennet, E. of 
*' Lower Cunetio," to which it was perhaps a kind of suburb. Coins, 
pottery, and other Roman relics are frequently found on the site. See 
references as for Site 118. 

Found at Stitchcombe, near Mildenhall, a figure rudely sculptured in re- 
lief, 11^X8X3 inches. Devizes Museum Cat,, II., p. 37, 273. 

Milston (with. Brigfinerston). 
o 119a.— In the Chalk-pit close to the Mill (54 N.E.). Colonel Hawley 
reports that many years ago he noticed a trench about 2ft. deep cut in the 
face of the chalk-pit ; he dug the trench out for a few feet and found sherds 
of pottery that might be early Iron Age or Romano- British, a triangular- 
shaped iron knife-blade, an object of baked clay with thumb impression, 
and a bone pin. These objects were subsequently given to the British 
Museum. A small " dump of calcined bones was found resting on the 
bottom of the trench." The field adjoining the chalk-pit is, or was, known 
as Church Field or Old Churchyard,^ though no Church or Chapel seems 
ever to have stood there. 

^ This site is incorrectly shown on the Index map ; it should be on the N. 
side of the trackway, S. of " w " in " Mere Down." 

' As Colonel Hawley remarks in this connection some such name as this 
is not infrequently given to sites where skeletons have been found, and often 
denotes an ancient pre-Christian burial place. See, for instance. Sites 87 
and 92a. 

2 



198 RomavO' British Wiltshire. 

Milton Lilbourne. 

120. — N. of and round about the " Giant's Grave " long barrow on Fyfield 
Down (Milton Hill), (42 N.W.) Irregularity of ground and pottery on 
surface. From personal observation. Hoare noticed the site but does not 
seem to have dug into it : he says all around the " Giant's Grave " " we 
recognise the undoubted vestiges of a very extensive British town." A. W.^ 
I., 190. 

121.— Broomsgrove Farm (shown on 36 S.W.). Kilns, pottery, etc., found 
in 1893 ; W.A.M.^ xxvii., 294 ; figs ; xxxiii., 195 (donation). Devizes 
Museum Cat., p. 86, figs. 

Minety. 

122.— Oaksey Common at the foot of Flistridge Hill (shown on latest 
edition of 9 N.W.). A large number of fragments of brick and tiles on 
ploughed field— perhaps a kiln site. W.A.M., xli , 424 ; xxxviii., 638. 

Monkton Parleigh. 

* 123. — Inwoods Plantation, Farley Wick (32 N.W.). Hewn stones and 
" About a peck's weight" of coins of the Antonine period found in a pot in 
1826. IF.J.i¥, XX., 72. 

Netlieravon. 
**124. — In the grounds S.E. of Netheravon House (shown on 1925 
edition of 47 S.E.). Yilla, A room paved with red and white tessera 
uncovered in 1607, when the Cavalry School was being built, with a bath 
adjoining. There seems to have been no account of the excavation pub- 
lished. WA.M., xxxviii., 294. A hoard of coins is said to have been found 
in the same grounds many years earlier, but no details seem to be on record. 

Hettleton. 

* * 125.— Nettieton Scrub (19 N.W.). W. of the Fosseway, N. of Broad- 
mead Brook, on the S. edge of the little copse immediately N. of " B " in 
Brook. Foundations of buildings with rough flooring, pottery, tiles, iron 
door key, etc., were found in 1912; also sculptured stones with parts of 
figures of a dog and drapery, probably representing Artemis and her dog 
(now at Castle Combe Manor). W.A.M., xxxviii., 113 — 4 ; fig. 645. 

Norton Bavasit. 

126. — Cotley Hill (52 S.W.). Mr. Cunnington opened the large mound 
on the summit of this hill ; he found no interment but quantities of animal 
bones, iron nails, and pottery including " fine black and red Samian species." 
A.W.l.,1l. 

The mound is encircled by a slight earthwork (with ditch on the inner 
side). In some " trifling cavities" on the N. side of this were found "frag- 
ments of Roman pottery ; also four small pieces of brick flues similar to 
those found in the Roman villa at Pitmead." A.W., I., 71. Other finds 
see W.A.M., xxxviii., 298. 

The " Norton," in which is a field called " Blacklands," referred to in 
W.A.M , xxxviii., 298, is at Norton Ferris. See under Kilmington. A. W.y 
L, 96. 

Oaksey (See Minety). 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington. 199 

Oare. 

o Withy Copse. (36 N". W.). Just outside the N.W. corner of Martinsell 
Camp. A rubbish heap found and excavated in 1907 — 8 contained a great 
quantity of pottery of the wheel-turned bead rim type and fragments of 
Arretine, red and black Belgic, Gaulish and Mont Beuvray wares, brooches, 
sickle-shaped key, bricks, nails, etc. The accumulation appears to date 
from about 50 B.C. to about 50 A D„ and may have been partly contemporary 
with the early years of the Homan occupation. W.A M., xxxvi., 125, figs. ; 
Devizes Museum Cat., II., p. 96—99, figs. 

Og^bourne St. Andrew. 

127 — S. of Park Barn (shown on 29 N. W.). Two coins of Carausius, pot- 
tery, bones, etc., found in flint diggings in 1892. W.A.M., xxvi., 412. 

128.— Between Barbury Castle and Barbury Castle Farm (22 S.E.). Earth- 
works and pottery on surface. Personal observation. 

129. — Between Barbury Castle Farm and the Ridgeway, west of track 
(22 8.E.). Pottery, nails, bronze brooch, etc., picked up on surface. Per- 
sonal observation. 

129a. — Uean Bottom Earthwork (22 S.E.). Round about earthworks a 
considerable amount of pottery on the surface. Personal observation. 

Ogbourne St. G-eorg-e. 

130. — Round Hill Down (23 S.W.). Considerable settlement. Dug into 
by Hoare who says " We dug up pottery of the rudest texture as well as 
that of the finest Samian kind, brass nails, part of a fibula, etc., etc. This 
village had also its religious circle situated on the southern side of it." 
A.W.^ ii., 39. The curious little earthwork referred to as a religious circle 
has been under plough since Hoare's day, but is now again down to grass. 
Its features may still be plainly traced ; the ditch is on the inner side of the 
bank, and the general appearance is that of a disc-barrow, but the ditch or 
sunken way connecting it with the settlement seems to actually lead right 
into it, and not merely to end at the bank, as it would naturally have done 
had this been merely a boundary ditch. It would be interesting and well 
worth while to excavate this circle. 

o 130a. — Hoare mentions another settlement that must be close to, if 
not actually adjoining, the Site 130 above. It is described as near Bittham 
Farm, with a covered way leading to Church Hill, where " we discovered 
the certain marks of a British settlement." A IF., ii., 38. No further de- 
tails are given and it is not shown as a separate site on Hoare's map of the 
" Station." 

Orcheston St. George. 

131. — Church Pits on Orcheston or Elston Down. Shown on 46 S.E. 
Irregularities of ground and Romano- British pottery on the surface. In- 
formation from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

This is the site mentioned by Hoare as on Elston Down, where " the 
excavations for huts, fragments of pottery, and all the usual indicia, 
evidently mark out the original occupation of this spot." A.W. I., 175 ; 
also referred to on p. 93 as on Orcheston Down. 

" Roman urn found at Orcheston, Wilts ; with fragments of two others 
of a similar kind." W.A.M. III., 268. 



200 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

Pewsey. 

132. — Close to the Everley lUrrows (referred to in W.A.M , xxxviii., as 
Pewsey Gorse). (Barrows shown on 42 S. W.). Hoare dug here and found 
" abundance of pottery, but it was chiefly of that superior species made by 
the Britons after the accession of the Eonians ; which, together with the 
broad iron headed nails {sic) and the sheltered situation, indicated this not to 
have been one of the very early settlements, which were generally placed on 
high and more exposed eminences." AW. 1., 190 — 1. The ground seems 
to have been ploughed since Hoare's time, but is now (1928) again down to 
grass, and little remains of the earthwork, but there is a considerable 
amount of pottery scattered over the ground N., E., and S. of the barrows. 

The greater part of the site is actually in Everley parish. 

Potterne. 

133.— Rangebourne Mill. Shown on 1926 edition of 40 N.W. VV. of 
public footpath, between the Mill and Cherry Orchard. Habitation. Coins, 
pottery, and stone roof tiles found on the surface when the field was arable. 
It has now (1929) been down to grass for some years. Personal know- 
ledge. 

Preshute. 

134. — Manton House (shown on 28 N.E.) A hoard of 12 pewter dishes 
and other objects was found by men levelling the ground near the house in 
1883. Pottery, coins, etc., were found scattered in the surrounding soil, 
and two skeletons in shallow graves within a few yards of the pewter. 
Devizes Museum Gat., p. 39, figs. Purchase of some of the pewter for 
Devizes Museum, W.A.M , xxxix., 152 ; xxxvii., 205 ; xxxviii, 311. 

135. — Barton Down (shown on S.E. corner of 28 N.E.). Settlement; 
Earthworks and pottery. Dug into by Hoare who found "relics of the 
Romanised Britons." A.W. II., 43. Visited in 1920 when the earthworks 
were in good condition with no pottery on surface. 

This site is not included by Hoare in the list at the end of A. W., vol. ii. 

136.— The Warren (28 N.E.). On Manton Down, due E. of The Warren, 
N. of Manton House. Settlement. Earthworks and pottery. Dug into 
by Hoare who found, as on Barton Down, " relics of the Romanized 
Britons." ^.IT., ii., 43. Described by Hoare as on " Rockley Down, near 
Marlborough." 

137.— St. Margaret's Mead (29 S.W.). Habitation. Many coins found 
here, a " brass " key, many skeletons, " fragments of black and red glazed 
Roman pottery," also " an interment or sacrifice of the bones of a cock and 
a cat." W A.M., xxii., 234 ; coins, pottery, etc., found, W.A.M., xxiii., 223 I 
bronze balance found, W.A.M., xli., 391 ; in Museum at Devizes, vase of 
New Forest ware, Cat., I., 308. A. W., ii., 35. 

It was in St. Margaret's Mead that the Marlborough Bucket was found, 
the well-known vessel with bronze repousse ornament of La Tene III. 
type, now at Devizes. Cat., I., 387. 

138 —On Preshute Down, in E. corner of parish (22 S.E.). Habitation. 
Pottery on surface and irregularities of ground. Personal observation. 

o 138a — On Granham Hill, near White Horse (shown on 29 S.W.). A 
settlement 1 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunning ton, 201 

Purton. 

* 139. — Pavenhill (10 S.W.). Habitation. Tesserae of destroyed pave- 
ment and coins found in 1896. W.A.M., xli., 393. 

140.— Purton Churchyard (10 S.W.). A Roman lamp of coarse brown 
ware found about 1890. W.A.M., xli., 393. 

■ 141. — Brickyards (10 N.W.). Ikickyards S. of Packhorse fjane. Habit- 
ation. In 1885 a small square foundation, some coins, pottery, etc., found 
by clay diggers. W A.M , xli., .393 ; xxxviii., 311. 

Ramsbury. 

* * 142.— Littlecote Park. Villa, half-mile N.W. of house (shown on 30 
N.W.). Discovered about 1729 when a fine pavement was uncovered and 
afterwards destroyed. A letter to the Earl of Hertford from Wm. George, 
who was then uncovering it, describes the pavement in detail and gives its 
size as " 40 foot long and above 20 wide." Roger Gale writing to Stukeley, 
1729, says — "the finest pavement — that the sun ever shone upon in 
England." Publications of Surtees Society, vol. Ixxx., 1887, 254 — 256. 
A. W., Roman Aera, 117 (with draught of pavement) ; Archoeologia, viii , 97 ; 
Morgan's Romano- British Mosaic Pavements, 96, 104 ; Fowler's Twenty-six 
Plates of Roman Mosaics, 1796 — 1818 ; I.yson's Britannia Romana ; 
Britton's Beauties of Wilts, III., 262. 

o 142a. — Burial, skeleton with vase at head found in 1881. Vase of buff 
ware with brown slip and three rows of imbricated pattern. Devizes 
Museum Gat., II., p. 33, 234, 234a. For similar burial see under Avebury 
14a., 

Rioundway. 

o Burial. In 1852 a leaden coffin was found near the present site of the 
barracks. Romano-British? Fr..4..1i., xxvii, 309. 

Rudg-e Villa. See Troxfield. 

Rushall. 
143.— Church Ditches. This settlement seems to lie rather to the N. of 
Church Ditches as shown on 47 N.W., but S. of Charlton Clump, or Alpha 
Clump, as called in 1925 edition of map. Numerous objects have from 
time to time been found on and about this site. See Devizes Museum Cat., 
ii,, under Rushall Down. A pewter dish or salver found in 1897 is now in 
the British Museum. Some excavations on the site were made by Lieut.- 
Colonel Hawley who found a large number of objects, including pottery, 
coins from Galiienus to end of Roman period, flat bricks, roofing tiles of 
stone and pottery, a small altar with concentric circles on four sides (in 
British Museum), a sculptured stone apparently a small capital, T-shaped 
hypocausts, etc., etc., including mineral coal (see note p. 170). Coarse hand- 
made pottery seems to occur as well as that distinctively Romano-British. 
No detailed account published. W.A.M., xlii ,227. The site was described 
by Hoare as "several acres of the richest down land I ever beheld." A. FT., 
I., 175. Mineral coal found, W.A.M., xlii., 227. 



202 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

This is the larger of the two villages spoken of in W.A.M , xlii., 227. 
For the smaller one to the east of it see under Upavon. Positions identified 
by Colonel Hawley. 

143a.— N.E. of the last, on Rushall Down, due N. of Bench mark 346, 
about midway along and on S. side of the ditch that runs E. and W. across 
Rushall Down (47 N.W.). Much pottery, etc., on mole heaps and surface. 
Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Salisbury. 

In the Archseological Review, 1888, vol. I., 40, reference is made to a 
letter signed " F. G. Nicolls," that appeared in the Standard newspaper, 
dated February 14th, 1888, mentioning the discovery of a Roman pavement 
at Salisbury. On page 282 of the same volume the discovery is referred to 
as one of the most important of the year. No further reference or inform- 
ation can be traced. Enquiries were made from Mr. J. .J. Hammond, who 
had a wide knowledge of all matters relating to Salisbury, and from Mr. 
Frank Stevens of the Salisbury, S. Wilts and Blackmore Museum, and they 
replied that though they had made various enquiries and looked up local 
records they could find no mention of this alleged discovery. Possibly the 
pavement proved to be medieval, or the description should have read 
" near" Salisbury. 

Savernake, North. 

144.— Panta wick (shown on 29 S.W.). South of town between two rail- 
way lines. Site shown as " Ancient Village." 

o 144a. N.W. of Site 144, S. of White Horse, W. of G.W.R., in hedge at 
Granham Hill, a hoard of at least 531 bronze coins dating from Licinius to 
Uonstantine II., in mint preservation, were found in a pot in 1890. Site 
shown on 29 S.W. W.A.M. xxvi., 39. Numismatic Chr on., "^vdi Series, 
No. 39, p. 282. 

145. -Red Venn, Savernake Forest (29 S.W. and S.E.). W. of Roman 
road about halfway between London road and the Grand Avenue, N.W. of 
Ashlade Firs. The hill is covered with low banks and mounds and on the 
surface quantities of pottery ; cleats, nails, and other small objects of iron 
and bronze may also be found. W.A.M. xliii., 336. 

146. Salisbury Hill Brick Works (29 S.W.). " Many silver coins of 
Julius Csesar found at the forest brick-kilns." W.A.M. xix., 29. 

Savernake, South. 

o 147.— Column Ride, Savernake Forest. Shown on 1926 edition of 
34 N.E. About 100 yards S. of Bitham Pond near the Column Hide. 
Settlement or Site of pottery Kilns ? About 3 acres in extent. Surface 
irregular and soil very black with quantities of broken pottery. The pottery 
seems to be mostly of 1st century type. W.A.M. xli., 425. 

147a.— Savernake Forest. (Shown on 36 N.W., 1925 edition). N.E. of 
Cadley, S.E. of Great Lodge Bottom, close to and W. of Roman road, just 
N. of Bench Mark 527. Romano- British pottery found in 1919. 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunningtoii. 203 

Sherston. 

Coins found, W A.M. xi., 344 ; xxxviii , 320. 

"In Sherston fields coyns plowed up; one silver of the Emperor Con- 
stantine, on the head a chaplet of laurel)." Stukeley's Common Place Book^ 
Surtees Socty. Pub., vol. 83, for the Year 1880, p. 139. 

Stanton St. Quintin. 

^-i^* 148 —Stanton Park Wood. Villa. Shown on 13 S.W. Apparently 
a considerable villa. Part of one room uncovered in 1910. WA.M., xxxviii. 
322 ; a few objects from the site in Devizes Museum. Pres. by Geoffrey 
Henslow. W A.M. xli , 215. 

148a. Old Quarries (13 S.W.). This is the quarry E of road from Lower 
Stanton to Stanton, S.W. of Hatch and Allotment Gardens, S. of the stream 
where the road turns sharply E. to Power Stanton. A cremation urn burial 
was found on the S. side of the hollow ; a T-shaped bronze brooch and a 
glass " tear-drop " were among the bones ; these are now in the Musem at 
Devizes ; the urn was not preserved. W.A M., xliii , 334. 

Stanton Pitzwarren. 

* • 149.— A Villa. Shown on 1925 edition of 11 N.W. 400 yards S. of 
railway station, where a cattle track runs under the line. Rough tesselated 
pavements found ; traces of foundations traced for about 200 yards. 
W.A. M., xli., 394 ; "another pavement in the same field near the lake," 
W.A.M.^ xxxviii., 322. 

149a.— The Lodge. Shown on 1925 edition of 11 N.W. Three-quarters 
of amileS.E. of the last, under the lodge gate on the Swindon-Stanton 
road, a vase, of soft pink pottery was found. W.A.M., xli., 394. 

Stockton. 

150.— Stockton Works (shown on 58 S.E.). A large settlement of about 
62 acres in extent, apparently originally enclosed within a single bank and 
ditch ; there are numerous banks, ditches, pits, etc., within the area and 
sherds of pottery are plentiful. It was dug into by Hoare in several places ; 
he found coins, " both British and Roman pottery, nails, tiles, brick flues, 
etc., in short all the vestiges of a numerous population." A. W., I., 106—7, 
plan. The site has been dug into on other occasions but no accounts are 
published and no systematic excavations have been undertaken. W.A.M., 
xliii., 389—394, figs, of brooches and other objects found (these are now in 
the Museum at Devizes) ; xxxiv., 272, slight reference only. Hoare's 
Modern Wilts, I., 271, Heytesbury. Mineral coal found, W.A.M., xlii., 229, 
note. Bronze brooch found, W.A.M., xlii., 133. 

151.— Cow Down ? westward of Stockton Works, what seem to have been 
hypocausts were found by men digging stone ; W.A.M., xii., 107 ; xxxviii., 
323. 

Stratton St. Margaret. See under Wanborough. 

Stratford-sub-Castle. 
152.— Old Sarum (shown on 66 N.E.). Habitation. A few fragments of 
painted wall plaster, tiles, coins and a few other objects found during the 



204 Romano- Britisli Wiltshire. 

course of excavations, 1909 — 1914, point to some Roman occupation of the 
site of the medieval town and castle. W.A.M^ xxxix., 24 — 28. 
' Discovery of Subterranean Passage, GenU' Mag.., 1795, Ft. I., 193 ; re- 
printed Gents' Mag.^ library, 1887, Romano-British remains (medieval?). 

A Roman amphora said to have been found at Stratford-sub-Castle, 
IV. A.M., xii., 194. Another amphora bought at Amesbury also said to have 
been found at Stratford-sub-Castle is now (1930) in the possession of Mr. 
B. H. Cunnington. 

It has been suggested that the Roman station of Sorbiodunum was not 
on the hill on the site of Old Saruin but to the west of it, at or near Strat- 
ford. Tr.^.J/., xxxviii., 445, 1914. 

Sutton Veny. 

* * 153. — Pitmead, or Pitt Mead (shown on 52 S.W.). A large villa, or 
two villas, about half-way between Norton Bavant and Bishopstrow, on the 
S. side of the River Wily. It is uncertain whether there were two or only 
one large villa here. Several fine tesselated pavements were found in 1786 
and mostly destroyed. One piece with a figure of a hare was taken to 
Longleat and preserved there when Hoare wrote {A. W. Roman Aera, p. 114, 
note). It is said to have disappeared since. 

In 1800 Mr. Cunnington, of Heytesbury, again investigated the site and 
uncovered several rooms ; he judged that the length of the villa was 
about 360ft. by 90ft. with a projection on the eastern front. 

Writing in Modern Wilts, 1830, iii., p. 91 (Warminster), Hoare says " Mr. 
Cunnington examined the ground in 1820, but made no new discoveries, 
except the foundations of more buildings." But Mr. Cunnington died 
in 1810, and really it was under Hoare's own direction that it was re-opened 
in 1820, as Hoare himself states, in A.W. Roman Aera, 116 (1821), "I 
examined the ground in October, 1820." 

W.A.M; xxxix., 336 (only a reference to Mr. Wyndham being with Mr. 
Cunnington when he opened it in 1800) ; xxxiii., 111. (casual reference 
only). Britton's Beauties., ii., 52 — 4. Morgan's Romano- British Mosaic 
Pavements^ 105. Hoare's Modern Wilts, ii., 175 (incidental reference only) ; 
iii., 91 (Warminster). The best and fullest account, with references to 
earlier publications, with plan of the rooms, illustrations of pavements, and 
map of site, is in A. W., Roman Aera, 111—117. 

The site is often spoken of as the " Warminster Villa," and was described 
by Hoare and others as " near Warminster." 

Swindon 

^ 154.— Westlecott, or Okus, Villa 1 (shown on 1925 edition of 15 N.E.). 
On southern slope of Swindon Hill, close to S. side of Westlecott Road, E. 
of railway. Foundations, flue tiles, painted wall plaster, coins, pottery, 
brooches, two burials, etc., found in 1897. W.A.M., xxx., 217, plan, figs. ; 
rosette-stamped ware from, xli., 394 ; additional walls found, xliv.. 244. 

155.— Victoria road, east of. Villa 1 (Shown on 1925 edition of 15 N.E.). 
Foundations, pottery, etc., found in 1906 in a clay pit. WA.M.^ xxxviii., 
45—6. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunning ton, 205 

156. — S. of Westlecott road, W. of the railway where it crosses the E. end 
of Westlecott road (shown on 1925 edition of 15 N.E.). Eubbish pit with 
pottery, etc., and burial of extended skeleton found, 1907. W.A.M., xli., 
394. 

The position of these three Swindon sites were identified by Mr. A. D. 
Passmore. 

Teffont Evias. 

157.— Upper Holt Copse (64 N.E. and 65 N. W.). Half-mile E. of village, 
near Chilmark boundary. Earthworks and much pottery on surface. 
W.A.M., xxxviii., 329. 

158. — The quarry S. of the Church, (old lime-kiln ?), (65 S.W.). Romano- 
British pottery and skeletons found. W.A.M., xxxviii., 329 ; xxxix, 499 
(casual reference only). 

Tidworth, North. 

For 159 see under Tisbury. 

I59a, — On both sides of the county boundary, half-way between Seven 
Barrows and Dunch Hill (48 S. W). Pottery, including Samian ware, etc., 
on the surface. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

159b.— Just within the county boundary, N. of Observatory Hill, S. of 
road (48 S.E.). Quantities of all sorts of pottery, Samian ware, etc., on 
the surface. Site indentified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

159c. — Perham Down (48 S.E.). E. of track, ^ of a mile S. of Brimstone 
Bottom, at N. end of Perham Down Camp. Much pottery including 
Samian ware on the surface. Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

o. — British village almost immediately under Chidbury Hill. "Found 
some remains of good masonry being part of a hypocaustum." Cunnington 
MS., II., 211. This site has not been identified. 

A Roman lamp of pottery with Christian symbol, now in the British 
Museum, is said to have been found near Tidworth House. W.A.M., xli., 
424. 

Tilshead. 

158a— On Tilshead Down (53 N.W.). S.W. of Tilshead Lodge, W. of 
Old Ditch Long Barrow, S.E. of Bench mark 371, below 400ft. contour line. 
Irregularities of surface, coins and pottery found. Unpublished. 

158b.— Between Tilshead-Shrewton road and Silver Barrow (53 N.E.). 
Irregularities of surface with pottery, etc., on mole hills. Information from 
Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Tisbury. 

159. — "The Bushes," about 150 yards S. of the copse of this name, on 
S.W. corner of 64 N.E. Pottery, etc., found. Information derived from a 
private letter. 

Outer Ashley Down Camp. " The Bushes " is apparently identical with 
the site referred to in W.A.M., xxxiv., 418, as " Outer Ashley Down Camp." 
There is a slight earthwork here which it is thought might be a Romano- 
British cattle pen, and pottery was found in the ditch. 



206 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

1 59d.— Fonthill Drive (64 N. E.)- A T-shaped hypocaust was cut through 
in making a new drive a few years ago. Information given by Mr. 11. S. 
Newall (1924). The site seems to be N. of " The Bushes," on the edge of 
the " Deer Park." 

'• In excavating for a new road in 1914 at Little Ridge a skeleton in a 
stone-lined grave" was found. Romano- British ? W.A.M,, xxxix., 103. 

For neighbouring sites see Chilmark and Fonthill Bishop. 

Tockenham. 

A figure in relief, of freestone, 2ft. Sin. high, apparently representing 
.^sculapius or Hygieia, built into the exterior S. wall of Church, W. of S. 
door. Illustrated Archaeologist, I. Jour. Roman Studies, 1926, 232, photo. 
W.A.M., xxxviii., 333. Called by Aubrey St. Christopher, Jackson's 
Aubrey, 194. 

ToUard Royal. 

160.— Berwick Down (Straight Knap), shown on 74 N.E. Settlement. 
Irregularities of surface and pottery. 

The plan of an earthwork connected with this site is given in Heywood 
Sumner's Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, plan xxviiia., pages 45 and 74. 

Upavon. 

161. — Casterley Camp (47 N.W). Enclosed settlement some 68 acres in 
extent; numerous inner enclosures ; excavated 1909—12; dates probably 
from early part of 1st century A.D. to end of Roman period ; coins few in 
number from Claudius to Constantine. ^.^. J/, xxxviii., 53— 105, plans, 
figs, of pottery, etc. A. W. I., 177, plan. 

162.— On Upavon Down (41 S.E.). N.E. of Lidbury Camp, S. of Everley 
road near Bench mark 512. Pottery, oyster shells, etc., found during the 
removal of a barrow from the Aviation course, 1912. W.A.M ,xxxvu., 603—5. 

163 — Thornham Down, between this Down and Water Dean Bottom, S. 
of Bench mark 338.9, and 346, N. of track within 400 contour line (47 
N.W.). A settlement partly excavated by Col. Hawley, area about 9 acres, 
T-shaped hypocausts, pits, much pottery, etc., found. No detailed account 
published. W.A.M. xlii., 227. (For larger village here described see under 
Rushall). 

Upton Lovell. 

164.— Knock Castle, N.W. of, W. of Quebec Barn, E. of Knook Barrow 
(shown on 52 N.E.). Considerable settlement marked by irregularities of 
surface and rectangular enclosures. Hoare, who " dug into " this village, 
found much pottery, brooches, bracelets, iron nails, hinges of doors, locks 
and keys, etc. ; also painted stucco, brick flues, fragments of glass or crystal, 
rings, beads, etc. Hoare records that he found here " pit coal " and the 
writer has also found it in rabbit holes and mole heaps here. (See note on 
the occurrence of mineral coal on Romano- British sites) A. W. I., 84—5, 
plan. A good deal of the earthworks W. of the ditch have been ploughed 
out since Hoare's time. 

165.— Old Ditch, E. of the site 164 above (shown on 52 N.E.). Marked 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington. 207 

by the same characteristics as the neighbouring Knook Castle site but 
much of it has been levelled by cultivation. A. W. I., 84 — 5. 

Upton Scudamore. 

166— Thoulston and Row Turnpike (44 S.E.). Habitation, A.W. I., 53. 
See also Sites 67—8—9, under Dilton Marsh. 

Wanboroug-h. 

167. — A large settlement or township on Ermine Street seems to have 
occupied part of the present day farms of Covenham, Lotmead, and Nythe. 
Shown on 16 N.W. as "Nidum " on 1925 edition as "Roman Town." 

There now remains little to be seen on the surface but " each turn of 
the spade in undisturbed ground brings forth a relic of Roman times." 
W.A.M. xli., 272—280 (with plan and short bibliography) ; xxxviii., 45. 
Hoare believed the site to be that of the Roman station " Nidum." A W. 
Roman Aera, 94. Pottery, nails, etc., found in post holes, Proc. Socty. 
Antiq , 2 S., xxvi., 2(9 ; W.A.M. xxxix , 130 ; (this find spot is spoken of 
as in Stratton St. Margaret, but from the description it seems to be in the 
parish of Wanborough). Coins found, W.A.M. xi., 343, xiv., 155 ; " 1689, 
near Wanborough, between 1600 and 2000 coins found in one earthen 
vessel," W.A.M. xi., 343 (from Stukeley's Common-place Book). 

"At several places hereabouts are every yeare digged up Roman coynes, 
mines of houses, and black ashes, especially about the meadow called ' The 
Nighs.'" Jackson's Aubrey, 194. 

Brooch found at Wanborough Place Farm, W.A.M., xxxix., 312. 

168. — Popplechurcb, near Aldbourne (23 N.E.). W. of Ermin Street and 
the Hungerford — Cricklade road, in field N. of Sheepwalk Plantation and 
Parly. Co. Div., between Bench marks 560.0 and 545.1. The surface of the 
field is strewn with sherds of Roman pottery. W.A.M., xxviii , 262—3. 

Warleig-h. 

W.A.M., v., 5 ; Archmological Review, I., 39 — 40. Though attributed to 
Wiltshire this place is in Somersetshire. 

Warminster. 

168a.— Mancombe Earthwork (shown on 52 N.W.), on Mancombe Down, 
N. of Battlesbury Camp. In and round about the earthwork, especially on 
the S. side, a lot of pottery, including sherds of Samian ware. Personal 
observation. 

- Battlesbury Camp. Casual finds of coins are recorded from here, but in 
view of evidence obtained from pits within the camp there is no reason to 
assume occupation in the Romano-British period. W A.M., xlii , 368. 

Much pottery said to have been found "In fields below Middle Hill." 
A. W., I., 69. Romano-British ? 

Warminster Common. " About year 1780 workmen found a small pot of 
silver denarii, from the reigns of Trajan to Septimus and Alexander 
Severus." Hoare's Modern Wilts, vol. I., 92. W.A.M., xxxiv., 272. 

Villa at Pitmead, near Warminster, see under Sutton Veny. 



208 Romano- British IViltshire. 

A mound on Arn Hill, 51 N.E. (No. 3 Goddard's List, W.A M., xxxviii., 
338). On opening, the mound was found to contain a great many flat- 
headed iron nails, and " pottery similar to what we find in the British towns, 
together with charred wood." An iron spearhead and parts of two horse- 
shoes were also found. A. IF., I., 65. Romano-British 1 

Westbury. 

o.— A leaden coffin was found in 1910 in a field adjoining and N. of road 
Westbury to Bratton, between the milestones Westbury 1 — 2, Roman 1 
In Westbury parish? This is referred to in W.A.M., xxxviii., 265, under 
Hey wood as found at Apsley Farm. (45 N.W.). 

See also under Heywood. 

Westwood. 

169.— Upper Westwood (.38 N.W.). In field E. of road from Upper 
Westwood, in the corner between it and road from Iford Lodge to Fresh- 
ford, immediately N.E. of Bench mark 278. Much pottery, including 
Samian, wall plaster, quernstones, etc., have been found on the surface. In 
the same field in 19U6 a stone coffin was found, and i's now in Bath Museum. 
W.A.M , xli., 171. Pottery fragments in Devizes Museum, 

The villa near Iford in this parish is just over the county boundary in 
Somerset. W.A.M., v , 5. 

Wilcot, see under Huish. 

Wilsford (North Wilts). 

169a. — Wilsford Down, N. of ditch between words "Wilsford" and 
" Down," N. of Bench mark 387, within 500 contour line (47 N.W.). Irregu- 
larities of surface and much pottery on mole hills marking a settlement. 
Information from Mr. Percy Farrer. 

A large number of objects have been found from time to time on Wils- 
ford Down, and many of them may have come from the Site 169a above. 
Devizes Museum Cat., II., p. 43, 325—328 ; p. 45, 338 ; p. 48, 368, 369— 
375 ; p. 61, 508 ; p. 63, 530—535 ; p. 67, 559-60 ; p. 36, 261 ; p. 33, 232. 

Wilsford (South Wilts). 

o. — Pewter found. In 1635 a quantity of pewter was ploughed upabout 
Normanton Ditch, " as much as they sold at a low price for £5." Stukeley's 
Stonehenge 32. Stukeley's Common Place Book, Surtees Soc. Pub., vol. 83, 
For the year 1880, p. 138. 

o 1 69b.— On Lake Down (60 N.W.) " opposite Durnford." A Romano- 
British village? A.W. I., 213. 

Winterbourne Earls. 
170.— At S. corner of parish (Earthworks shown on 1926 edition 67 N.W.). 
Near Clarendon Park, in the ditch of the semi-circular earthwork Hoare 
found " fiat paving stones, with which the floors of the ancient huts were 
probably pitched." Hoare also noticed that the moles had " thrown up 
great quantities of Romanised pottery." A, W. I., 227. 



By Mrs M. E. Cunnmgton. 209 

Winterbourne Gunner. 

170a. — Thorny Down, N. of Salisbury-Andover road, S. and E. of altitude 
533 (67 N.W.). Probably a dwelling ; pottery, etc., found. Site identified 
by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

170b.— Ground just N. of Church (61 S.W.). Probably a dwelling ; pot- 
tery, etc., found. Site identified by Mr. Percy Farrer. 

Winterbourne Monkton. 

171.— Hackpen Hill, or Monkton Down, on the S.W. slope, just below 
barrows 7, 8, 9, exactly E. of the village (28 N.W.) Habitation ? A large 
vessel of pottery, T-headed brooch and ring, both of bronze found. W A.M.^ 
xli., 395. 

172.— On Monkton Down, N.E. of Site 171, E. of Barrow IL, between it 
and the trackway (28 N.W.). Pottery and coins found by fiint diggers. 
Site identified by Rev. H. G. O. Kendall. W,A.M., xliii , 140. (Gift to 
Museum of finds). 

173.— Monkton Down, shown on 28 N.W. "Examined the British 
village near Glory Ann. In the first trial the pickaxe struck upon a quern 
with the hole in it, pottery of various sorts, stags' horns, animals bones, etc." 
Hoare's Note Book, W.A.M.^ xxii., 238. Gold coin found circa 1670. 
Jackson's Aubrey, 341. 

The identity of above references with this site is not very certain. 

A short distance S.W. of Barrow 16 (Goddard's List) a small vase of 
coarse pottery found containing 3 large oyster shells. W.A.M. xlii., 247 
(28N.W.). 

Winterbourne Stoke. 

174.— On High Down, near and N.W. of "The Coniger." Settlement. 
On both sides of the Shrewton-Salisbury road, just N. of track and belt of 
trees leading to Homanton Farm (53 S.E.). Hoare who seems as usual to 
have '* dug into " this " British village " found " pottery, coins, etc." A. W. 
1,, 95, 1st paragraph. 

The settlement may still be traced and pottery picked up on the surface. 

175 —On Winterbourne Stoke Down, shown on 54 S.W. Settlement. 
Earthworks and pottery on surface ; the site is well preserved. Hoare 
noticed the unusual regularity of the lay-out of this village, but makes no 
mention of having " dug into it." A. W. L, 1 16—7. 

176. — N. of Amesbury— Shrewton road, N. of and connected with Site 175 
by a " ditch " (shown on 54 S. W.). Hoare mentions but does not seem to have 
made any excavation on this site. A.W. I. 116 — 7. Much less well pre- 
served than site 175, but pottery occurs on the surface. 

Wishford, Great. 

177. — Grovely Works (shown on 59 S.E.). A large settlement, covering 
about 60 acres, resembling that of Stockton Works, Site 150. 

There are numerous earthworks and enclosures " producing all the usual 
marks of a mixed British and Roman population." A. W., I., 110—111. Air 
photography has shown that the site was originally a hill-top camp with 
triple ramparts, and that in Romano-British times these were partly 



210 Bomano- British Wiltshire^ 

levelled and ploughed over resulting in the confused plan we see to-day. 
Antiquity, .]une, 1928, 176. 

For find of coins in Grovely Wood see Site 105 under Langford. 

Woodford. 

178. — Heale Hill (60 S.W.). Uoare speaks of a settlement on the 
"southern declivities of Heale Hill," where "our spade discovered the 
indicia of British population. A. W., I., 215. Earthworks are shown on 60 
S.W., S.W. of Hooklands Plantation, N. of Bench mark 300.1. These are 
near to, if not actually the site mentioned by Hoare. 

Wraxall, North. 

**179. — A Villa in the N.E. corner of the parish near the Fossway 
(shown on 19 S.E.). The field known as the Coffin-ground from a stone 
coffin found there about the beginning of 19th century. Excavated 1859 — 
60, when the foundations of an oblong building, 180ft. by 36ft. were un- 
covered. Near the W. end was a detached building in which burials were 
found. In the main block were 16 or more rooms, hypocausts, remains of 
tesselated pavements, marble wall veneer, painted wall plaster, or stucco, 
pottery, coins, etc. Two mortaria were found whole in a sort of cupboard 
(p. 64). Capitals and other architectural fragments (p. 65). The roofing 
tiles were hexagonal of sandstone from the coal measures of the Severn 
valley (p. 66). A remarkable ornament was found made of two boar's tusks 
in the shape of a crescent, mounted in bronze with figures of three animals 
in relief, now in the British Museum, (p. 70). W.A.M., vii., 59 — 70, plans, 
figs. Scarth's Aquae Solis, 121 — 5 Gent's Mag., 1860, Pt. II, 157. 
Devizes Museum Gat., pt. IL, p. 53 — 5. Lewis' Hist, of N. Wraxall, 166. 

Among the finds was a bronze bow cushion-shaped brooch of early Italian 
type, perhaps as early as 400 or 500 B.C. Devizes Museum Gat., pt. II., 
p. 53, No. 425. 

Wroug-hton. 

180. — N. of Barbury Camp (shown on 22 N.E.). A rectangular earthwork 
enclosure " with a very Roman aspect." Partly excavated in 1886, when 
the foundations of a wall, coins, Samian and other pottery, were found. 
W.A.M., xxiii , 182—3. Devizes Museum Cat., pt. II., p. 57 ; ^. W., 11,41. 

" Wanborougb, or rather Badbury Camp, near this, much Roman coyn 
lately found." Stukeley's Common Place Book, Surtees Socty. Pub., vol. 
83, for the Year 1880, p. 139, 1721 — 1748. 

Several casual finds are described as from " Barbury," but it is not certain 
whether they were found in Barbury Castle or its immediate neighbourhood . 
These include a bronze spoon of a common Roman type with the letters 
VERECVNDA inscribed on the bow). Brook Coll., now at Devizes. 
W.A.M., xxxviii., 374. 

Wylye. 

181. — Bilbury Rings, or Wylye Camp (shown on 59 S.W.). Earthwork 
enclosure of irregular form now nearly ploughed out ; within the camp there 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington. 211 

was another irregular enclosure with its ditch on the inner side. " Excava- 
tions within the inner work have produced every species of pottery, both 
rude British as well as fine tloman, small brass coins, part of a brass armilla, 
flat headed nails, pieces of iron, paving stones, fragments of mill stones, 
and black vegetable earth to the depth of three feet." A. W. I., 108. 

Bronze brooches found, one of la. Tene III, type and one of 3rd century 
A.D. type ; in Salisbury Museum. W.A.M., xxxv., 405, fig. 

182. — Deptford Field Barn (59 N.W.), near milestone Amesbury 8 on 
Wylye-Amesbury road. Found in 1898 a skeleton burial with vase of New 
Forest ware and a "saucer-like " vessel now lost. The vase is at Devizes, 
Cat. Ft. II., p. 32, 228, fig. Other burials seem to have been found at the 
same time. W.A.M., xxxiii., 170, fig. 

Yatesbury. 

183.— Foxbury (27 N.E.). On Yatesbury Field, S. of Barrows 3—4, these 
being S. of Little London. Coins from Trajan to Valens found in early 
part of 19th century. Smith, p. 86 ; W.A.M., xviii., 331 ; vi., 259 (Museum 
entry only). Arch. Inst., Salisbury vol., p. 97. 



PRE-ROMAN SITES SHOWN ON INDEX MAP. 

Aasty. 

Bl. — On Swallowclifife Down at junction of three parishes (shown on 69 
N.E.). " On digging into the excavations of this village, I found animal 
bones, and a great deal of pottery of the very rudest and coarsest texture, 
but none of that made by the Romanized Britons ; so that in all probability 
this was one of the primitive settlements of our aborigines." A W., I., 249. 
This site was excavated by Dr, R. C. C, Clay, 1925 — 6, and proved to be of 
Iron Age date, and attributed to La Tene I. W.A.M.^ xliii., 59 — 93, figs. 

Hey wood Sumner, Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, Plan xxxvii., 62, 64, 
68 (slight references only). This site was described by Hoare as " on the 
old road over Salisbury Plain." A.W. 1., General Index, British 
Settlements. 

Bla. — Pits on Winklebury Hill (69 S.E.). Excavated by General Pitt- 
Rivers and found to be of Early Iron Age date. Excavations, IL, 242. 

Bower Chalke. 

B2. — S. of Woodminton Farm (shown on 70 S.W.). Hoare mentions but 
does not seem to have examined the site. A. IF., I., 247. He describes it as 
" Another more to the North," z>., with regard to Site B3 below. 

Dr. R. C. C. Clay reports that Iron Age pottery may be found on the 
surface. 

B3. — On the Oxdrove Ridgeway (shown on 75 S.W.). Mentioned but 
not investigated by Hoare. A.W., I., 247. Hoare described it as " On the 
Ridgeway further to the West," i.e., with regard to B5 below. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. P 



212 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

Broad Chalke. 

B4. — Wudu-burh (Camp of the Wood). Earthworks shown on 70 S.E. 
A rectangular earthwork on S. side of Knighton Hill, midway between 
Knighton Hill Buildings and where the Ridgeway (Ox-Drove) is crossed by 
the Roman road. 

As a result of excavations in 1925, it is said "summarizing our scanty 
finds, we can define Wudu-burh as an Early Iron Age earthwork sub- 
sequently used in Romano-British times." Wessex from the Air, 1928, 
131—137, PI. xxi. 

^xxmnex, Earthworks of Cranhoriie Chase (Knighton Hill Buildings), p. 
43, Plan xxii. 

The earthwork is shown on Hoare's map of Station viii., A. IF., I. 

This site should now perhaps be included among the Romano-British, 
but the map was made before the excavations took place. 

B5.— On the Oxdrove Ridgeway, S. of Marleycombe Hill (70 S.W.). A 
British village *' attended with all the usual earth-works, excavations, and 
irregularities." 4.Tf., 245. 

Since Hoare's time " the plough has been at work, and now there are no 
traces of primitive habitation, except tell-tale cooking flints, which may be 
picked up on the arable." Heywood Sumner, Earthworks of Cranborne 
Chase, p. 40. Mr. Sumner gives a plan of an earthwork under the name of 
Chicken-grove Bottom (Plan xix., 70 S.E. and S.W.), adjoining Hoare's 
village site but on the S. side of the Ridgeway, " where sherds of British 
pottery may be found." 

Mr. Sumner also gives a plan of works on Marleycombe Hill to the N. of 
Hoare's village. It looks as if both these earthworks were regarded by 
Hoare as connected with his site which he describes as " On the Ridgeway, 
North of Vernditch," Vol. I., General Index, list of *' British Settlements." 



Bulford. 

B6. — Bulford Field or Bulford Leas, near Nine Mile River (55 N.W.). 
Hoare dug into this site but does not specify the nature of his finds. A. W., 
1., 195. 

Comptoii Bassett. 
B6a.— N. of Cherhill (27 N.E.). E. of Kennel Wood and Four Acre 
Copse, just N. of Juggler's Lane. On ploughed ground, pottery of All 
Cannings Cross Type (Early Iron Age). Personal observation. 



Durnford. 

B7.— E. of Ogbury Camp (shown on 1926 edition of 60 N.E.). " The ex- 
traordinary verdure of the turf induced me to try the effects of the spade 
and the pick-axe, we immediately, under a rich and black soil, dug up 
numerous bones of animals, with fragments of the rudest British pottery." 
^.TF.,L, 220. 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington. 213 

Ebbesbourne Wake. 

B7a. — On Fifield Bavaiit Down. Part of rectangular earthwork shown 
on 70 N.W. Pits, etc., excavated by Dr. K. C. C. Clay, circa 1922, and 
proved to be of early Iron Age date. W.A.M.^ xlii., 457, figs. Sumner, 
Earthworks of Cranhorne Chase^ Plan xxvii. 

B7b. — Group of pits half-mile west of earthwork, B7a, round about bar- 
row between two tracks. Shown on 1926 edition of 70 N.W. Pits ex- 
cavated by Dr. R. 0. C. Clay and found to be of early Iron Age date. 
W.A.M., xlii., 457, figs and plan of site. 



Fig'heldean. 

B8.— Haxton, or Figheldean Down (48 S.W.). About halfway between 
Holmes Clump and Bournebottom Clump, at junction of tracks. Hoare 
dug here " within a slight earthen work " but does not describe the nature 
of the finds. A.W., I., 194. 

B9.— Dunch or Westdown Hill (48 S. W.). Now in Dunch Hill Plantation 
just within and N. of the county boundary where it takes a sharp turn. 
Hoare dug into this site and found abundant " fragments of very old and 
rude pottery." A. W., I., 179, note. 

BIO.— On Knighton Down (54 N.W.). About one mile S. of Robin Hood 
Ball. "A small British settlement, consisting of a square earthwork." 
A.W., I., 176. This does not seem to exist to-day and nothing further is 
known of the site. A great part of this down has been under plough since 
Hoare's time. 

Huish. 
Bll. — Earthworks on Huish Hill (shown on 35 N.E.). Of considerable 
extent and great irregularity. Hoare compares the site to those at Stock- 
ton and Grovely, and says that while there is the " same wild irregularity 
of plan, yet in each I could trace the addition made by a more modern 
nation ; whereas in these works now before us, all is original, and seems 
purely British." A.W., II., 10, Plate 13. There is little or no pottery to 
be found on the surface. 

East Ksioyle. 
Bl2. — Two Mile Down (shown on 64 N.W.). Hoare does not appear to 
have " dug into " this village site and no details are given. A.W.^ I., 153. 

Marden. 

Bl3. — Immediately outside, and S.W. of the remarkable earthworks at 
Marden (partly in the parish of Beechingstoke) (shown on 1926 edition of 
41 N.W.). The site of the settlement as mapped by Hoare has long been 
under cultivation and little or nothing of it can now be seen. A. W., II., 5, 
Plate I., No. 2. 

There are a number of large sarsen boulders in the stream close to the 
road bridge. Is it possible that they came from the site of the Marden 
earthworks 1 

p 2 



214 Romano- British Wiltshire. 

Monkton Deverill.. 
Bl4.— Keysley Farm (shown on 57 S.E.). " On a piece of down between 
Pertwood Farm and Keesley Lodge." " Traces of a very ancient British 
settlement are marked by the unusual blackness of the soil thrown up by 
the moles. On digging we found fragments of the rudest pottery and 
animal bones." A. W-, I., 49. 

Warminster. 
Bl6. On high ground outside N.W. corner of 15attlesbury Camp (52 
N.W.). Pottery of All Cannings Cross type on surface of ploughed land. 

Wilsford (S. Wilts). 

B15.— Lake Down (60 N.W.). On Box Hill, S. of Wilsford Group of 
Barrows. Hoare dug into it and "ifound the usual indicia of ancient pop- 
ulation." A.W., L, 213. 

Wilsford (H. Wilts). 
B17.— On Wilsford Down (41 S.W.). On 8. side of large chalk pit be- 
tween 400 and 500 contour line. A number of pits and a section of a ditch 
have been disclosed from time to time on the face of this chalk quarry. 
Some of these pits and one or two others in the field adjoining were ex- 
amined in 1910, when a quantity of Iron Age pottery, including some of 
All Cannings Cross type, and other objects were found. Devizes Museum 
Cat., II , p. 92—4. 



HOARE'S "BRITISH SETTLEMENTS." 

Included in the " General Index " in Ancient Wiltshire at the end of 
Volumes I. and IL, Hoare gives a list of " British Settlements." These 
lists are here reproduced with the addition after each entry of the number 
of the site as it appears in our list. 

Volume I. South Wilts. 
Cold Kitchen Hill, 38. 
On Charnage Down, 116. 
Near Pertwood, Bl4 . 
At Hill Deverill, 97. 

Between Maiden Bradley and Longbridge Deverill, 99. 
At Highsomley near Dilton, 68. 
At Ham near W estbury, 96. 
On Codford Down, 59. 
On Knook Down, 164 and 165. 
Near Imber, 102. 

Near Tilshead, 103 (described as near Track to Bath 21 miles). 
Between Yarnbury and Winterbourn Stoke, 18. 
Near old Trackway leading to Bath, 53. 
On High Down between Maddenton and Winterbourn Stoke, 174. 



By Mrs. M. U, Gunnington. 215 

In a field called Blacklands in Norton parish (this is Norton Ferris in 
Somerset). 

On Whiten Hill, 112. 

On Tytherington Down, 95. 

On Croft Hill, 54. 

On the next hill, 24. 

On High Park Hill, 25. 

Near Chicklade Bottom, 86. 

Stockton Works, 150. 

Hanging Langford, 106. 

Hamshill Ditches, 15. 

Grovely Works, 177. 

On Winterbourn Stoke Down, 175. 

Durrington Walls (near), 72. 

On Elston Down, 131. 

Near Weddington Wells, 143. 

On Knighton Down, BlO. 

On West Down Hill, B9. 

Near Everley, 64. 

On Easton Hill, 74. 

On Pewsey Down, 120. 

On Pewsey Heath, 132. 

Lidbury, 66 or 67. 

On Coombe Hill, 75. 

On Haxton Down, B8. 

At Bulford Leas, B6. 

On Lake Down, B15. 

On Heale Hill, 178. 

Near Ogbury Camp, B7. 

Near Clarendon Park, 170. 

Above the village of Tippets (not now in Wilts). 

On the Ridgeway, north of Vernditcb, B5. 

On the Ridgeway further to the West, B3. 

Another more to the North, B2. 

On the old Road over Salisbury Plain, Bl. 

Between Hindon and Chicklade, Bl2. 



Volume II., North Wilts. 

At Hilcot Farm, near Marden, Bl3. 

On Hewish Hill, BU. 

At Draycot Farm, Oare, and near Hewish Church, 100. 

On the down near Bittham Farm, 130a. 

On Aldbourn Chace, near Pearce's Lodge, 130. 

On Rockley Down, near Marlborough, 136. 

At Rowden Mead, 90. 

Between Cherhill and Oldborough Castle, 49a. 



216 Bomano- British Wiltshire. 

ADDITIONS. 

Bratton. 
The Vicarage Field. In 1930 in digging a drain in this field a human 
skeleton was found. A few sherds of Romano-British pottery were found 
apparently in the filling-in of the grave. Information given by the Rev. 
S. Collett, Vicar of Bratton. 

Calne (Without). 
Bear Farm (Old Bear Inn, Whetham). (26 S.E., not 28 S.W. as on page 
180). J. Stoughton Money, sometime Rector of Yatesbury, writing Jan. 7th 
1830, to the Devizes Gazette about Roman coins says : " Quantities of coins 
have been discovered from time to time in a field immediately behind the 
Old Bear Inn and brought to me (many names of Emperors given). Some 
time since I was fortunate enough to pick up a Roman ornament here 
(fibula). This and the surrounding fields are strewn with fragments of 
iron scoria. . . . From Heddington Wick I have a good coin of Galba, 
and in a field a mile further (z.c, eastward ?) masses of brickwork, fastened 
by Roman cement, were not long since brought to light." 

Preshute. 

Manton Down (28 N.E.). A decapitated skeleton was found in 1891 
" about I of a mile west of the fallen kistvaen " buried at full length, the 
skull was said to have been found between the legs and a small " ampulla " 
in the normal position of the skull. W.A.M., xxvi., 412. 



217 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH GENERAL MEETING 

OF 

THE WILTSHIRE ARCH^OLOGICAL AND NATURAL 
HISTORY SOCIETY HELD AT TROWBRIDGE, 

July 30th and 31st, and August 1st, 1930.^ 

The Society, which had met previously at Trowbridge in 1872 and 1901, 
made it its head quarters for the third time in 1930, when the Town Hall 
was most generously put at its disposal by the Urban District Council. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 30th. 

The annual business meeting was held in the Town Hall at 2.30 on Wed- 
nesday, July 30th, the President of the Society, Canon E. H. Goddard, 
F.S.A., being in the chair. The annual report was read by the Hon. 
Secretary and passed by the meeting. The oflScers of the Society and the 
members of the committee were then re-elected en bloc, with the addition 
of Mr. C. W. Pugh as assistant librarian, and the re-election of Canon 
Goddard as the President for 1931. Three new members were elected dur- 
ing the meeting. The President then brought forward the question of the 
proposal of the Air Ministry to establish a bombing area for practice, in 
the centre of the Berkshire Downs, just to the south of Weyland Smith's 
Cave and the White Horse. A resolution strongly protesting against this 
attack on the amenities of a beautiful and unspoiled portion of the Downs 
was carried unanimously, and was subsequently sent to the Air Ministry. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1929—30. 

*^ Members. — The number of members on July 30th, 1930, was 17 life mem- 
bers and 425 annual members, a total of 442, against 445 at this time in the 
preceding year. There were 16 deaths and 14 resignations, whilst 29 new 
members have been elected. We exchanged publications with 27 other 
societies. Among the losses by death are those of Lord Radnor and Mr. 
Charles Penruddocke, both of whom had in the past entertained the Society 
with great hospitality and kindness, at Longford Castle and at Compton 
Park. We have also lost our only honorary member, Mr. Edward Kite, the 
veteran Wiltshire antiquary. 

Finance. — The General Fund of the Society, from which the cost of its 
publications as well as the general expenses of the Society are defrayed, 
began the year 1929 with a balance of i'375 lis. lOd., and ended it with a 
balance of £300 14s. 5d. Considering that the expense of printing two 
numbers of the Magazine and the third part of Walters's " Church Bells of 
Wiltshire " was provided for during the year, this must be considered a very 
satisfactory result. 

The Museum Maintenance Fund, starting with a balance of £39 17s. Id., 

' The Proceedings of the Meeting were recorded in the Wiltshire Gazette^ 
July 31st and August 7th, I4tb, 21st, and 28th, 1930. 



218 The Seventy -seventh General Meeting, 

ended the year with one of £10 5s. 7d. only, having during the year pro- 
vided £25 towards the cost of the new heating apparatus, as well as £20 
spent in various repairs and fittings. 

The Museum Enlargement b'und increased automatically by the usual 
addition of the rent of the Museum caretaker's rooms, from £46 9s. 9d. to 
£59 9s. 9d. 

The Museum Purchases Fund, having a balance at the beginning of the 
year of £84 15s. Id., made grants of £15 15s. and £2 respectively towards 
the purchase of a series of water colour drawings by Mr. Kemm of Churches 
and houses in South Wilts, and a series of deeds and documents connected 
with Wootton Bassett, and ended the year with a balance of £69 9s. 7d. 

The Life Membership Account, with a balance at the beginning of the 
year of £111 10s. 7d., ended with one of ^6102 18s. 5d., one-tenth, as usual, 
having been transferred to the general fund. 

The Bradford Barn account increased its balance from ^72 3s. 8d. to 
JcSO 6s. lid. during the year. Excluding this last account, which with two 
other smaller accounts is not available for the general purposes of the 
Society, the total balances of the accounts mentioned above decreased from 
£671 4s. 4d. to ^573 lis. Id., a diminution of £97 13s. 3d. only, in spite 
of the extra expense incurred in the publication of Fart III. of " Church 
Bells of Wilts," amounting to £177 6s. 9d. 

The Museum. — The new heating apparatus, which was installed before 
the last annual meeting, gave great satisfaction during the winter. A list 
of subscriptions is printed in the June Magazine. The total cost was 
£217 10s. 5d , of which ;£165 15s, was subscribed in answer to the appeal, 
and ^25 came from the Museum Maintenance Fund. There remains a sum 
of ^£20 19s. 5d., which will have to be charged to the general fund. If 
there is anyone present at the general meeting who has not yet contributed, 
perhaps they may be moved to give a small sum towards clearing this 
deficit ofif. 

The most notable additions to the Museum during the year have been 
the objects found during the excavations at Woodhenge and in the circles 
near it, by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington. An interesting cinerary urn and 
bronze dagger from a barrow at Round way have also been given. 

The Library. As usual there have been a number of gifts of Wiltshire 
items, new and old, to the library during the year. The most important 
addition was the collection of water colour drawings by Richard Kemm 
made between 1860 and 1869, numbering 256 in all, of the interior and ex- 
terior of a great number of South Wilts Churches. Through the good 
oflBces of Mr. Frank Stevens, F-S.A., curator of the Salisbury Museum, our 
Society was able to purchase this valuable series, of which duplicates are 
retained at Salisbury, on very favourable terms, and 10 more drawings of 
the same series, together with 28 water colour drawings of Salisbury by J. 
Williams, 1870—90, were afterwards added as a gift by Mr. Stevens. This 
series of drawings, showing the interior of so many Wiltshire churches, just 
before the great wave of church restoration reached its height, is a most 
valuable pendant to the Buckler collection, made some 50 to 60 years 
earlier. 



The Seventy -seventh General Meeting. 219 

The Magazine. Two numbers, 150 and 151, were, as usual, issued to 
members during the year, containing 249 pages, the December number com- 
pleting the 44th Volume, with a very full index of 60 pages. A new feature 
appears in the June number, lately issued, in the Report on the Birds of 
Wilts, compiled by Mr. W. M. Willson, of Salisbury. It is hoped that this 
may be repeated annually, and that all observers of birds throughout the 
county will send Mr. Willson notes on their observations, 

''The Church Bells of Wiltshire:' by H. B. Walters, F.S.A. The third 
and concluding Part of this book was issued gratis to members of the Society 
with the December, 1929, Magazine. The work has taken three years to 
complete, and its publication has cost the Society in all i'347 8s. Id. The 
price to non-members is 16s., but all who were members during the last 
three years have received it gratis. The county of Wilts, the Diocese of 
Salisbury, and our own Society in particular, owe a deep debt of gratitude 
to Mr. H. B. Walters for putting the results of years of labour, and of his 
unique knowledge of English church bells, at our service. Only those who 
have themselves undertaken the work of examining and rubbing bells in 
belfries and turrets, difficult of access, know what that work entails. In 
this connection the Society's thanks are due also to all those who have 
materially assisted Mr. Walters in his work, more especially Messrs J. R. 
Jerram, A. D. Passmore, and A. F. Smith. This book is one of the most 
valuable publications ever issued by the Society. 

Excavations. The diggings at Windmill Hill, Avebury, which had been 
carried on regularly each spring for several years by Mr. and Mrs. Alexander 
Keiller, were not continued this year. The site of the " Sanctuary," the 
double circle of stones in which the Kennet Avenue from Avebur}'^ ended, 
which was destroyed 1724 — 26, as recorded by Stukeley, was re-discovered 
by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington on the top of Overton or Kennett Hill 
and has quite recently been completely excavated by them. We are 
promised a preliminary account of their surprising finds by Mrs. Cunnington 
at this meeting. The full account will appear in the Magazine. In the 
south of the county, at Ford, near Salisbury, Dr. Stone has discovered and 
opened a flint mine shaft, with adjoining flintworkers' floors, the first mine 
of the kind yet located in the county. He is continuing his diggings which 
will also be described in a later number of the Magazine. Mr. H. C. 
Brentnall has uncovered the foundations of a medieval chapel at Alton, 
hitherto unknown, and Mr. R. S. Newall superintended the total removal 
of a barrow at Boscombe, rendered necessary by the needs of the Flying 
School, with interesting results. Accounts of both these diggings will also 
appear in the Magazine. 

The Annual Meeting at Bath last year, with the visit to Stanton Drew as 
one of the principal attractions, proved very successful and enjoyable. The 
single day's excursion in June, 1930, organised this year by Mr. H. M. 
Gimson, for which about 90 tickets were taken, consisted of a visit to the 
Devil's Den, where Mr. Passmore described the Dolmen, and a walk up the 
Clatford valley behind it, which contains probably the best assemblage of 
sarsen stones now existing in England. After a picnic lunch amongst the 
stones, Mr. H. C. Brentnall gave an excellent address on the sarsens, and 



220 The Seventy -seventh General Meeting. 

the desirability of securing this valley, as it stands, for the nation, through 
the National Trust. The weather was all that could be desired, and the 
walk up this valley, an absolutely foreign country to nine-tenths of those 
who were present, was singularly enjoyable. Since that date, Messrs. 
Tattersalls, the owners of the property, have been approached by the secre- 
tary as to the possibility of the land being purchased by the National Trust. 
Messrs. Tattersalls, however, are not prepared to sell any portion of their 
their property at present. They, however, state that they have no intention 
of interfering with the stones at all. Unhappily the stones on Mr. Swanton's 
property at the head of the valley at Totterdown have been gradually 
broken up for many years past, and so much damage has now been done 
over the greater part of that area as to make it no longer worth preserving." 



At 3.30 members left in a number of cars for Farleigh Hungerford, 
where the Castle was visited under the guidance of Canon Goddard. To 
those who only knew the Castle in the days before the Office of Works be- 
gan its recent great work of stripping the walls and towers of the ivy which 
entirely hid them, and repairing and repointing the walls where necessary, 
the diflference in the appearance of the place is striking, with the present 
well-kept turf, and excavated moat and the foundations of the destroyed 
portions rendered visible. It is now an extremely interesting site, and 
members spent a very enjoyable hour in wandering about it, after which 
they made their way up the hill to an excellent tea in the tea gardens. The 
weather was all that could be desired, but on reaching Trowbridge at 6 p.m. 
it was found that heavy rain had been falling there for some time, and this 
continued almost throughout the evening. 

The Annual Dinner was held at the George Hotel, the headquarters of 
the Society, at 7 p.m., and this was followed by a meeting at the Town 
ilall, where Mr. H. H. Garlick, chairman of the Urban District Council, 
welcomed the Society in an excellent speech in which he reviewed the position 
of the county as regards its prehistoric and historical associations. This 
was shortly responded to by the President, and the company then betook 
themselves to the coffee and light refreshments most kindly provided by 
Mr. Garlick. 

After this the President of the Society took the chair and read his 
Presidential Address which will be printed later on in the Magazine. 



THURSDAY, JULY 31st. 

The motor coaches and accompanying cars left the town at 9.30 and pro- 
ceeded to Lacock Church where Mr. H. Brakespear, F.S.A., gave an 
excellent description of the architectural features and history of the building. 
After this members passed on to the Abbey, still under Mr. Brakespear's 
guidance, and were met by the owner, Miss Talbot, who most kindly threw 
open the whole house for inspection. Here for nearly two hours members 



The Seventy -seventh General Meeting. 221 

numbering here 74 wandered from one point of interest to another both 
inside and outside the house. After lunch at the Red Lion Hotel, at which 
58 were present, members left at 1.30 for Lanhill Long Barrow, where 
.Mrs. Cunnington described the excavation of it some years ago. The 
stone chamber in the side of the barrow was inspected and the members 
drove on to Littleton Drew Church, where Canon Goddard drew attention 
to the two pieces of the Saxon cross shaft which formerly stood on either 
side of the path to the N". door, but have lately been removed to the shelter 
of the porch. These with the Mediaeval Cross, now standing on the E. 
side of the Church path of which the head and the greater part of the shaft, 
but not the base, appear to be ancient, and the female effigy under a canopy 
in the S. wall of the nave, which has been badly scraped, are the chief points 
of interest about the Church. Leaving liittleton Drew at 3. 15 the party 
reached Luckington Church at 3.35. Here Canon Goddard described the 
features of the building which has been three times restored in half a cen- 
tury, from Mr. Brakespear's notes written on the occasion of a previous 
visit. The Church has many points of interest, including three small 
sepulchral headstones, two of which have curious crosses in relief, apparently 
of Norman date. These were found built upin the walls during one of the 
restorations and were preserved for many years in the Museum at Devizes, 
from which they were returned to the Church a few years ago. From 
Luckington the party went on to Grittleton, where at the Red Lion Hotel, 
tea was ready for them at 4 o'clock. 

After tea members left for Trowbridge which was reached at 6.15. At 
8 o'clock the evening meeting at the Town Hall began with a few items of 
business after the coffee, &c., kindly given by the Trowbridge members of 
the Society. The question whether the annual meetings in the future 
should take place inside or outside the county was put before the meeting 
and several members spoke on both sides — some arguing that the interest 
could no longer be kept up by visiting the well-known sites over and over 
again, and that it would be necessary to include fresh sites outside the 
county in the programme, others holding that as a Wiltshire Society, we 
should, as far as possible, confine ourselves to the county, and visit the 
smaller Churches and houses, many of which had never been visited by the 
Society. In the end the question was narrowed down to the centre for 
next year's meeting. Should this be in Wiltshire or outside it 1 This was 
put to the vote, when fifteen voted for Wiltshire and seven for a centre out- 
side it, many not voting at all. 

By this time the room had become sufficiently dark to exhibit the lantern 
slides, and Mrs. Cunnington proceeded to give her account of the recent 
excavations carried out by Capt Cunnington and herself on the site of the 
double circle on Overton (or Kennet) Hill, which formed the end of the 
Kennet Avenue from Avebury. This, the first account of the surprising 
discovery of the holes of several timber circles as well as those of the two 
stone circles known to have existed until 1724 and shown in Stukeley's 
illustration, was listened to by all present with the greatest interest, and a 
warm vote of thanks was accorded to Mrs. Cunnington at its conclusion. 
It is hoped that the full account may be printed in the Magazine for .June, 



222 The Seventy -seve7ith General Meeting, 

1931.' Coffee and light refreshments were very kindly provided by the 
Trowbridge members of the Society. A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. 
Lansdown for the trouble he had taken, as local secretary, to make the 
meeting a success. 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 1st. 

Leaving Trowbridge at 9.30, members reached Great Chalfield at 9.50, 
where Mr. R. F. Fuller met them in front of the house and gave a most inter- 
esting account of the history and architecture both of the Church and the 
House. At this point 66 members and their friends were present. The 
Church was first visited and was greatly admired, the new organ case — "a 
very pleasing fake " — as Mr. Fuller called it, and other woodwork contri- 
buting to the charming effect of the interior as a whole. The stone at the 
edge of the window sill on the N. side of the Nave near the pulpit Mr. Fuller 
pointed out, seems to have a line of interlacing work running along it. This 
stone does not seem to have been noticed before. It certainly has the appear- 
ance of being of pre-Norman date and is worthy of illustration. From the 
Church Mr. Fuller took the party round the outside of the House, noticing 
each point of the restoration and how the new portions were almost all built 
according to the evidence of what had existed before. It became clear now 
that the time allowed on the programme for Great Chalfield would have to 
be extended by half-an-hour and a telephone message was sent to Steeple 
Ashton to apprise Canon Knubley of this alteration. The interior of the 
house was thrown open, upstairs and down, to the members, who were 
allowed to wander over it at will, Mrs. Fuller helping to explain the points 
of interest. Even with the extension of the time allowed, it was difficult 
to get members out of the house, and everybody agreed that as it now exists, 
with its fine furniture, and taking Church and House together, it is certainly 
one of the most fascinating places in the county of Wilts, and that fascin- 
ation was greatly added to by the extremely kind way in which Mr. and Mrs. 
Fuller did everything in their power to make the visit a success. The next 
point on the programme. Steeple Ashton Church, was reached, as has been 
said half-an-hour late, about 12 o'clock. Here Canon E. P. Knubley, who 
knows the history of his fine church so well, acted as guide, as he has done 
on several previous occasions. 

From Steeple Ashton the cars took the party to Edington Monastery 
Gardens where lunch awaited them, and after lunch the Church was visited, 
Canon Goddard giving some account of its history and of its architectural 
interest. The Vicar, the Rev. E. Hawkins Jones, also spoke shortly sug- 
gesting that the rebus on the tomb in the S. transept probably stood for 
" Bulkington." The programme had Bratton Camp as the next objective, 
but it had been found that the char-a-bancs could not get up the narrow 



^ An abstract of Mrs. Cunnington's address was printed in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, August 7th, 1930, under the title, " The Avebury Serpent, another 
Woodhenge in Wiltshire." 



The Seventy -seventh General Meeting. 223 

track and this item had to be abandoned. Accordingly the party made 
for Bratton, approaching the Church by the curiously picturesque flights of 
steps, which, however, occupied some time in negotiating. Here the Vicar, 
the Rev. S. Collett, described the principal features of the beautiful little 
Church, a model of what a small country Church of the early 15th century 
should be. Tea at the Inn brought the proceedings to a close, and members 
were free to make their way home after a very pleasant and successful 
meeting, for which, as for so many years past, the Society is chiefly indebted 
to the excellent organisation of its meeting secretary, Capt B. H. Cunnington. 
The weather throughout, except on the first evening in Trowbridge, was all 
that could be wished, fine but not too hot. Everybody enjoyed the pro- 
ceedings, and the balance carried to the General Fund of the Society 
amounted to £22 9s. 4d. 



224 



THE FUTUEE WOEK OF THE SOCIETY. 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

By Canon E. U. Goddard, F.S.A. 

At the Trowbridge meeting of the Society, July 30th, 1930. 

Last year Captain Cunnington took as the subject of his Presidential 
address, the origin and past history of our Society. It has occurred to me, 
as his successor, that the future work of the Society might be taken, per- 
haps usefully, as the subject of the Presidential address to-day. 

The Society is now 76 years old. How far has it fulfilled the purpose for 
which it was founded three-quarters of a century ago ? How far is that 
fulfilment still an ideal of the future? 

Its founders laid down as its principal object the preparation for, and the 
compilation of, a History of Wiltshire as a whole, on the lines already laid 
by Sir Richard Colt Hoare and his coadjutors for parts of the south of the 
county in his monumental " History of Modern Wiltshire." A County 
History in those days meant a series of folio volumes which should contain 
everything that any reasonably cultured person could want to know about 
any place within the county boundaries. But reasonably cultured people 
in those days were satisfied with comparatively few lines of enquiry. The 
part the county had taken in the greater events of written history such as 
the Civil War ; a word or two, but literally only a word or two, on the 
architecture of the Manor House and the Church ; the Heraldry and 
Genealogy of the principal armigerous families who had been landowners in 
the county (this as a rule in far greater detail than any of the other branches 
of enquiry); Roman Roads and Villas, and, in Wiltshire especially, Pre- 
historic Remains. These were the principal contents of the monumental 
County Histories. In our own time the ambitious scheme of the Victoria 
County Histories set out with the avowed intention of issuing a modernized 
and up-to-date History on the same general lines of every county in the 
land. A few counties have been well dealt with, but so far as Wiltshire is 
concerned it seems extremely unlikely that any of us now alive will see that 
scheme completed. A certain number of Chapters on the Trade, the Mon- 
astic Houses, and other Wiltshire matters were written by the leading 
authorities of the time, and their writings have been buried in the store- 
house of the undertaking, apparently, for ever. 

What has our Society done in this matter ? It has published 44 volumes 
of the Magazine, containing, perhaps, between 17,000 and 18,000 pages. 
Deduct from these 25 per cent, for indexes, presidential addresses, accounts 
of meetings, and other more or less ephemeral matter, and there are left 
some 13,000 pages of fairly solid matter on archaeological, antiquarian, 
historical, and natural history subjects connected with the county. At first 
sight it might be supposed that everything of consequence had been already 
exploited, and that there was nothing left to write about, except by repeat- 
ing, more or less, what has already been sufficiently described. Yet noth- 



Presidential Address. 225 

ing could be further from the truth. A great field of work still lies before 
us, a work of discovery, of record, and of description. Let us take dis- 
covery first. 

Field Work and Excavation is in some ways the most important of all 
archaeological work. Wiltshire, in the past, has been singularly blessed 
with a succession of excavators whose names and achievements have become 
household words in the world of archaeology. Beginning with Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare and William Cunnington, F.S.A., the succession was maintained 
by the flev. W. U. Lukis and Dr. John Thurnam in the middle of the 19th 
century. Then came General Pitt Rivers, the great founder of the modern 
school of excavators all over the world, to be followed by Colonel Hawley 
at Stonehenge, by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington and Dr. R. C. C. Clay at 
half a dozen important sites, and by M r. Alexander Keiller, whose five years' 
work at Windmill Hill, Avebury, is still unfinished. 

The work of every one of these excavators has made its mark on the 
history of prehistoric discovery, and the work that is being done to-day by 
those who are with us still is at least as important as that which their pre- 
decessors did before them. An outstanding feature of that work, both past 
and present, is that it has been accomplished almost entirely by private 
enterprise and at the expense of the excavators themselves. Our Society 
has never been in a position to bear the actual heavy cost of excavation 
itself, nor so far as can be foreseen is it likely to be able to do so in the 
future. But as the county now for more than 100 years has never been 
without skilled and enthusiastic excavators willing not merely to do the 
work but also to bear the cost themselves, we may look forward to the 
future in the hope that the tradition so long established and working so 
admirably at the present time, will continue to provide for similar work in 
the time to come. The Society's part in the past has been to record in the 
pages of the Magazine the results of all Wiltshire excavations which would 
not otherwise have been fully published, a work no less important than 
that of the excavation itself. It is indeed not too much to say than an 
excavation, the results of which are not adequately recorded, had better 
never have been undertaken at all. The full publication of all discoveries, 
finds, and explorations, whether small or great, within the county, must 
always remain one of the chief objects for which the Magazine exists. 

In this connection it is worth remembering that in the case of the two 
excavations of the Avebury ditch and vallum which have been undertaken 
in our own time, no adequate account of either has ever been published. It 
is greatly to be desired that the full record of the extensive work carried 
out by Mr. H. St. George Gray for the British Association many years ago, 
should be made available if possible without further delay. Of the remark- 
able discoveries on Kennet Hill at the end of the Kennet Avenue, made 
quite recently by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington, which are to be described 
to us at the present meeting, the full account, it is hoped, will be printed in 
the Magazine next year. 

In addition to this work of publication, the Society may well do good 
service to the cause of excavation in the future, by exercising an influence 
on the direction and objects on which the excavators' energy may be spent 



226 Fresidoitial Address. 

to the best advantage. We have all of us, it is to be hoped, learned by this 
time that casual digging by amateurs in the expectation of turning 
up interesting finds, so far from advancing the cause of archseology, is 
almost always a positive hindrance and injury to it, inasmuch as it destroys 
and takes no account of possible evidence that a skilled excavator would 
have noticed and recorded. Such untrained individual digging is always 
to be strongly deprecated, but even in the case of work undertaken by 
experienced antiquaries it is becoming more and more desirable that the 
money and energy and skill available shall be used to the best possible 
advantage of archaeology in general. We are all of us of course inclined to 
think that the particular branch of archaeology which most appeals to our- 
selves is necessarily the most important to the archaeological world at large. 
The Prehistorian yearns to see every unopened barrow explored, the 
Romanist cannot bear to think of the site of an obvious Roman villa lying 
still concealed, whilst the Medieevalist on tlie other hand grudges time and 
money spent on either Prehistoric or Roman things, and would spend every 
penny of it, if he could, on the site of a priory or the earthworks of a castle. 
But in a world where money is scarce and competent diggers are few, it is 
surely desirable that their energies should be spent where their work is 
likely to be most fruitful in adding to the sum of archaeological knowledge 
that we possess already. Thus, in the prehistoric sphere the energies of 
several generations of explorers have been centred on the opening of 
Barrows, especially of the Round Barrows of the Bronze Age, with the 
result that we now know as much about these barrows and their contents, and 
all that they have to tell us of the life and customs of the people who lie 
buried in them, as we are likely to discover by any amount of further 
digging. It seems, therefore, that, except in the case of a barrow likely to 
be destroyed, or notable for some other reason, there is no good object to 
be served by the opening of more Round Barrows in the future. On the 
other hand there are many prehistoric earthworks of the age and object of 
which we are largely ignorant, which are still in need of careful exploration. 
The ISeolithic camps with interrupted ditches, of which Windmill Hill is 
the outstanding example in Wiltshire, the very existence of which was un- 
known until Knap Hill Camp was excavated by Captain and Mrs. Cunning- 
ton, would certainly repay further attention. iSuch sites again as Rybury, 
Durrington Walls, the double entrenchment near Robin Hood's Ball in 
Shrewton, the Codford Circle, the inner enclosures of the camps of Yarn- 
bury and Scratchbury, and many of the great camps themselves, and the 
ditches connected with them still await the explorer who has money to 
spend on them, before their date and place in history can be determined. 
Again, though we know so much of Bronze Age burials we know nothing 
at all of the inhabited sites of the same period. Perhaps air photography, 
which in its short lifetime has done so much in providing us with un- 
suspected sites already, will help us in the matter of Bronze Age sites in 
the future. 

Of Roman sites it cannot be said that any within the borders of the county 
promise to add anything appreciable to our knowledge of the conditions of 
life during the Roman period, and enough Roman villas have probably been 



By Canon E, E. Goddard, F,S,A, 227 

examined already to tell us all we are likely to learn of their plans and the 
country folk who lived in them. To a great extent the same may be said 
of the sites of mediaeval monastic houses of which so many have been laid 
bare in different parts of England during the last 30 years. In this case, 
again, it is unlikely that much further knowledge of monastic life is to be 
gained by excavation. 

On the other hand Saxon sites are rare in Wiltshire. Cemeteries, indeed, 
are suflBciently well-known, but inhabited sites of early Saxon times, if such 
could be discovered, would well repay investigation. Of the early Norman 
Motte and Bailey Castles, again, we have several examples which have 
never been explored, such as Binknoll, Norwood, Clack Mount, and 
Stapleford, any of which would be quite worth examining. 

Turning now to matters of record and description, it is most desirable 
that someone should take up the work of describing the architecture of at 
least some of the many old Churches which have never been described as 
yet, on the lines of the full and careful accounts of which we have so many 
in the Magazine, by Mr. C. E. Pouting and Mr. H. Brakspear. Again, and 
this is a matter which requires no technical knowledge as architecture does, 
there are the monumental inscriptions in a great number of Churches 
and churchyards waiting to be copied and added to our already large collec- 
tion in the Library of the Museum. Of other objects connected with Churches, 
the effigies and armour of Wiltshire Churches have never been properly 
described or illustrated. They form an extremely interesting and important 
subject which I should like to commend to the notice of the Rev. R. Jeffcoat, 
who is admirably equipped to undertake this work. Again, the painted 
glass of Wiltshire still awaits description as a whole, as do also the mediaeval 
mural paintings, and the woodwork. Although it cannot compare with 
that of Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, or East Anglia, the Church woodwork 
of Wilts still includes a whole series of excellent Jacobean pulpits, and a 
smaller number of earlier screens and bench ends. To illustrate these 
properly might well afford work of absorbing interest. 

Church matters which are actually being dealt with include the enumer- 
ation of the Scratch Dials on the exterior walls of Churches, which have 
just been listed by Mr. Dymock. His list will appear as soon as possible 
in the Magazine. The heraldry of Wiltshire Churches which was begun 
years ago by Mr. A. Schomberg has recently been carried further by the 
Rev. R. St. J. B. Battersby, who, it is much to be hoped, will continue the 
good work, though he has recently migrated from Wilts to Dorset. Mr. 
A. F. Smith has also helped in this direction. 

Among subjects of more general interest the place names of the county 
await adequate treatment by some expert etymologist. On the other hand 
anyone without any technical knowledge at all could do useful work by 
copying from old maps and terriers the field names of any single parish. 
The old cottages of Wilts, with their differences of material and consequent 
architectural distinctions, in the north-west and the south of the county 
well deserve to be treated of and illustrated before they are improved out of 
existence, whilst the domestic architecture of many larger houses has never 
yet been described. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. Q 



228 Presidential Address. 

The subject of Roman Wiltshire as a whole naturally suggests itself as 
one that should be dealt with. I am therefore, happy to say that this gap 
will be filled in the December Magazine, with the result of many years of 
labour by Mrs. Cunnington, who will give a catalogue with references to 
every known site of the Koman period in the county, arranged under parishes, 
and brought up-to-date, exhaustive and complete so far as any such list can 
be. 

Parochial histories of any given parish are of course most desirable, but in 
order to give them any value, they require considerable knowledge on the 
part of the writer, and are not to be dashed off in a hurry, by anybody, as 
letters in the papers would sometimes lead one to suppose. 

Again, family histories and pedigrees offer a very wide choice of as yet 
untouched material, to anyone with a genealogical turn of mind, and in this 
connection I would mention that one of the Society's most urgent needs at 
the present moment is to find somebody who would undertake the task of 
arranging and cataloguing and of rendering available for reference the very 
large collection of old Wiltshire deeds now preserved in the Museum Library. 
This work would mean the expenditure of both time and trouble, but it 
would have its own special interest for anyone who knew anything of 
Wiltshire families and topography in the past. It is most desirable that 
the Society should do all in its power to afford a refuge for the preservation of 
old Wiltshire deeds, but it is not encouraging to would-be donors if nobody 
can be found to deal with such deeds after they are deposited in the 
Library. To do so, as well as to carry on the ordinary somewhat heavy 
routine work of the Library, is altogether beyond the powers of the present, 
and possibly of any future, librarian. 

The Museum. We come now to what is really the most pressing problem 
which lies before the Society in the immediate future — the present con- 
dition and the development of the Museum. This was one of the two 
great aims set before the Society at its foundation, and for many years past 
every effort has been made to confine its collections to objects strictly con- 
nected with the county and to decline all other gifts. I suppose that the 
ideal condition of things would be that each county should have its ov^n 
central museum in which its local collections should be preserved. Owing, 
however, to geographical conditions, that ideal is not possible in Wiltshire. 
Devizes is, indeed, as near as possible the actual centre of the county, and 
it seems likely — though I hardly dare whisper this in Trowbridge — to be- 
come more and more the centre of county administration, but not even the 
County Council can alter the fact that the Plain and the Downs will always 
divide north and central Wilts from the south of the county. The south 
will always look to its Museum at Salisbury, and our own Museum must 
always serve more especially the northern half of Wiltshire. The newer 
Swindon Museum is, and probably will always remain, more oid^general, as 
opposed to a Wiltshire collection, adapted more especially to the educational 
needs of its own large town population. 

It has been suggested that we might transfer our valuable geological 
and bird collections to one of the other Museums and so gain room for 
more purely archaeological matter. There are two objections to this sug- 



By Canon E, H. Goddard, F.S.A. 229 

gestion. By this step we should be definitely altering the status of our 
Society, which was founded, and is at present, not only an Archaeological 
but also a Natural History Society. The second objection is even more de- 
cisive, for neither of the other Museums could take our collections. It is 
true that for some years the interest of the archaeological side has over- 
shadowed that of the natural history side, but there are signs that this may 
be to some extent remedied in the future, and until a chance of establishing 
some central county museum of natural history seems within the bounds of 
possibility, the removal, more especially of our geological collection, is 
hardly to be contemplated. 

What is then to be done ? It is, of course, at bottom a question of money, 
and it has got to be faced. Museums are going to fill a bigger place in the 
national estimation in the future than they have in the past, and it is con- 
ceivable that when the millenium comes, grants in aid may be within our 
reach, but at present they are limited to £5 a year from the County Council. 
I feel strongly that we ought to be preparing seriously by the formation of 
a fund now, which shall enable us to move forward when an opportunity 
of extension occurs. We have indeed such a fund already in existence, 
The Museum Enlargement Fund, into which the rent of the caretaker's 
house, amounting to ^13 a year, is automatically paid. The balance of that 
fund is at present £69. I cannot help thinking that if that fund can be in- 
creased to a more important sum, those who are interested in the Museum 
might come to see that it was worth while to add to it by gifts, or by legacies 
in their wills. In more than 40 years 1 cannot recollect more than one 
legacy, and that of only i'5 left to the Society by a member ! And yet 
short of directly charitable or religious objects I cannot think of any object 
more likely to be of permanent use in the future to which a testator might 
devote a legacy. If only we in the north of the county could find some 
such rich benefactor as Mr. Wyndham has proved to Salisbury Museum 
in the south, we should soon be able to escape from the stigma we now 
sufi'er from, of having certainly one of the most valuable collections in any 
provincial museum housed in perhaps one of the worst buildings in England. 
Meanwhile one should practice what one preaches. I have proposed to the 
committee to hand over to the Enlargement Fund a sum of £100, on con- 
dition that they meet it with a grant of a like amount from the General 
Fund of the Society, which making with the present balance a sum of ^269, 
shall be allowed to accumulate, and will, it is hoped, attract to itself other 
gifts or legacies in the future. It is very difficult nowadays to raise a large 
sum of money to meet a sudden emergency, but if in a few years time the 
Society could depend on a sum of £1,000, or even £500, it would be in afar 
more hopeful position for a forward move, if the opportunity occurs. ^ 

So much for the Museum, a word now as to the Library. 

The Library. The present condition of the Society's Library is the result 

^ The following sums were given to this fund during the meeting, in re- 
sponse to this appeal, in addition to the £100 given by the President:— 
Capt. and Mrs. Gunnington, £25 ; Dr. G. S. A. Waylen, £25 ; Mr. C. R. 
Everett, £2 2s.; Mr. G. H. Freeman, 10s. 6d.; Mrs, Goddard, £6. 

Q 2 



230 Presidential Address. 

of a policy consistently followed for many years past of building up gradu- 
ally a collection of books, pamphlets, excerpts from magazines, drawings, 
illustrations, portraits, and manuscripts, which are connected in any way with 
the county of Wilts. This collection has not been confined to archseological 
or historical subjects, but has been designedly extended so as to include all 
matters of distinctly V\i]tshire interest. The Society has never been in a 
position to buy largely, or expensively, except on one or two special occasions, 
such as the initial purchase of John Britton's books, and that of the Buckler 
collection of drawings, when a special fund was raised on each occasion, nor 
has any considerable collection of books ever been given or bequeathed to it. 
By dint, however, of encouraging small gifts, and picking up items as oppor- 
tunity offered, a great mass of Wiltshire material has been brought together. 
It may indeed be objected that a great part of our many large volumes of 
indexed " cuttings and scraps," our series of bound volumes of Wiltshire 
sale catalogues, and the 130 bound volumes of Wiltshire pamphlets of all 
kinds, are in the nature of rubbish, which no one will ever want to look at, 
and are not worth the space they occupy, or the trouble taken to collect 
them. But we have to recollect that the rubbish of to-day is the treasure 
of to-morrow, and if the present policy of collection is adhered to steadily 
in the future, the Society's Library will eventually become a mine to which 
all seekers of information on the past history of Wiltshire will naturally 
resort, because there can be found what cannot be found anywhere else. It 
is, of course, possible that in the future, some central reference library for 
the county may be formed, possibly under the auspices of the County 
Council, with the same object as that which brought the Society's collection 
into being, namely, the gathering, arrangement, and preservation not only 
of local material of all sorts of the past, but also of the present day, which 
will become the past for the next generation. If and when this happens, 
it may well be desirable that the Society's collection should be amalgamated 
with, and form the basis of, a wider county scheme. At present, however, 
no public library within the county has ever taken any steps towards col- 
lecting local material on any considerable scale, and the Library of the 
Society stands alone in setting this ideal before it as the primary object of 
its existence. For that reason it is earnestly to be hoped that its collection 
of Wiltshire material, and of the works of Wiltshire men, in spite of the 
fact that they do occupy a very considerable space, will still be kept under 
the same roof as the Museum, at least until accommodation is provided for 
a really comprehensive county library of reference for all sorts of Wiltshire 
matters. That, of course, would be the ideal consummation, but until that 
time comes, the Library should, in my opinion, continue as a definite part 
of the Society's work, and the librarian of the future, if he regards his office 
seriously and continues the policy of the past in the collection of modern 
material as it appears in the books, newspapers, and magazines of the 
moment, and the arranging, binding, and cataloguing of that material, will 
find more than enough to engage his interest and occupy all his spare time. 

In one particular, indeed, it is possible, that even in the not distant future, 
the County Council may, by the erection of an adequate record chamber in 
its new buildings, not only provide for the accommodation of Wiltshire 



Bij Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A. 231 

manorial documents, which under the existing scheme go to the Library of 
Bristol University, but may also be able to accept for preservation the large 
numbers of miscellaneous Wiltshire Deeds which the Society finds it difficult 
to accommodate in its Library. This is really one of the most urgent needs 
of the present time. 

We have been considering chiefly the archaeological and antiquarian 
activities of our Society. Let us turn for a moment to the natural history 
side. The Birds in Wiltshire have been fully dealt with in the past, and in 
the recently issued Magazine is contained the first of what it is hoped may 
be a series of annual reports on birds which may bring our knowledge up 
to the present time. Everybody can help in this work by reporting any- 
thing interesting or unusual that they observe in the bird world, to 
the Rev. M. W. Willson, of Warminster, who has undertaken the com- 
pilation of these reports. In Botany, the main object ahead of us is 
the issue of an appendix to Preston's " Flowering Plants of Wilts," which 
shall bring that valuable work abreast of modern knowledge and practice, 
more especially in the recording of new species or varieties of plants which 
have come to be recognised and distinguished in recent years. Mr. and 
Mrs. E. Marsden Jones, the accomplished botanists, of Potterne, have under- 
taken the compilation of this appendix. They specially ask for the help of 
all who are interested in the wild flowers of Wilts. 

Entomology has never yet been adequately taken up for the county as a 
v^^hole. Splendid work has been done in the Marlborough neighbourhood 
by the College Natural History Society, but beyond that district scarcely 
anything has been recorded. The Lepidoptera, Uoleoptera and Diptera, 
not to mention the obscurer orders of Wilts, still await their vates sacer. 

In Geology again, great work has been done in the past, but for some 
reason or other it has gone altogether out of favour with the present gener- 
ation. An immense work is still waiting to be done, and I only know of 
one first-class geologist, Mr. W. J, Arkell, who is doing admirable research 
work on the Jurassic fossils of North Wilts. 

The project of the South Western Naturalists' Union, launched some 
years ago with the idea that the counties of the South- West of England 
might combine for work on natural history subjects, so far as Wiltshire is 
concerned, has not borne fruit at all. 

So much for Archaeology and Natural History. Even if we were fulfilling 
our whole duty in these respects, we have still to remember that our Society 
is aflBliated to, and represents for this county, the Council for the Preserva- 
tion of Rural England, upon whose efforts the guarding of the amenities of 
the country will depend so much in the future. In this connection one 
particular matter has recently been brought to our notice, by the single 
day's excursion recently held. We visited on that occasion the Valley of 
Stones at Clatford, extending northward from the Devil's Den. Few of 
those present had ever seen it before. All must have been struck by its 
unique character and interest. There is nothing like it elsewhere. It is 
the last unspoiled stronghold of the Sarsen Stones which once played so 
large a part in the scenery of the North Wilts Downs. Even the head of 
that valley itself, at Totterdown, is already spoiled by the breaking up of 



232 Presidential Address. 

the Sarsens on a large scale. Only the lower part, now chiefly the property 
of Messrs, Tattersalls, remains untouched. If that valley is not preserved 
for posterity, our successors will have almost as much cause to curse us, as 
if we had allowed Stonehenge itself to have been built over. Through the 
kind offices of one of our members, the committee was able to get into touch 
with the owners, Messrs. Tattersalls, and to enquire as to the possibility of 
the valley and its stones being purchasable for the National Trust. Messrs. 
Tattersall replied most courteously that they had no intention of interfering 
with the stones at all, but that for the present they could not entertain the 
idea of selling any portion of the property. We may apparently conclude 
from this, that at least for some years to come, the stones are safe, but it 
is a matter for our committee to remember, and an object to be diligently 
kept in mind. 

This brings me to a too long deferred end. I have tried to indicate what 
kind of work the future has for our members to undertake, and what 
particulars matters call most loudly for attention. What is wanted most 
of all by the Society is young blood. We, of the old generation, have done 
what we could. We want to hand on the torch to those who have life and 
enthusiasm before them. 



233 



GLAZED FLINTS. 
By W. J. Arkell, D. Phil., M. Sc, F.G.S. 

A note on page 87 of the June number of vol. xlv. suggests that the 
glazing on flints from Knowle, CoUingbourne, etc., may be desert polish as 
described by R. E. Cheesman in Arabia. Mr. Passmore recently showed 
me some more of these remarkable flints, discovered by him in Wiltshire, 
and it is an important point that some of the nodules and implements are 
glazed not only on the fractured surfaces but also on the cortex, while 
none of them show a dark sun-patina. 

Such implements and nodules, evenly glazed on fractured surfaces and 
on cortex, are common in situ in the Palaeolithic terraces of the Nile, where 
they have not seen the light of day since they were embedded by the heavy 
rains of the Pleistocene. In the Abbassiya gravel pits near Cairo the pre- 
Chellean and Chellean gravel terrace is conspicuous for the glaze on its 
pebbles and implements, while the constituents of the Acheulean gravel, 
which overlies it, are unglazed and fresh. In Upper Egypt, where the 
Mousterian terrace contains white matt implements and pebbles, the 
Upper Palaeolithic gravels and implements are generally highly glazed as if 
wet. It is noticeable that the glazed implements are always more or less 
rolled, evidently by being carried along in| the river bed, not unevenly 
abraded and cut like those which have been subject to sand polish while 
lying on the surface of the desert. The common " vernis du desert " or 
polish of the surface implements which have lain on the desert is of quite 
different appearance to the practised eye, and is, of course, always accom- 
panied by a dark brown to black sun-patina. 

The absence of dark patina in the glazed implements from the gravel 
terraces and the presence of glaze on fractured surfaces and cortex alike 
seem to me to preclude the notion that the glaze is the result of desert 
exposure. The highly rolled state of the implements in the glazed gravels 
would seem to point to water action as the cause, though to what extent 
the effect is purely mechanical and to what extent chemical is at present 
uncertain. In the hope of finding whether any chemical film could be 
identified on the water-polished flints by which they could be distinguished 
infallibly from those polished during exposure on the surface of the desert, 
I submitted a small collection of glazed flakes of both types to Mr. A. 
Lucas, chemist to the Department of Antiquities, Cairo. He agreed 
that the unpatinated flakes could not have been glazed on a desert surface 
and were in all probability water-polished, and he hopes to pursue the 
question further in the laboratory when opportunity arises. 

The matter is of considerable importance, since far-reaching deductions 
have been made as to the occurence of desert periods in Egypt in Lower 
Palaeolithic times from the finding of glazed flints in situ in terrace gravels. 



234 Glazed Flints, 

Lest any such deductions should follow in regard to this country, it may 
be as well to state that the weight of evidence is definitely in favour of the 
polish on the Wiltshire flints having been acquired in running or percolating 
water. It is not necessary to visit the cataracts of the Nile, where the 
water-rounded rocks glint like glass in the sun, high above the reach of 
modern floods, to see the efi'ects of running water upon rocks, for they may 
be observed in any stream where sarsen stones have lain for ages upon the 
bottom or protruding through the water. 

The following account of patination by solution (as opposed to sun-patin- 
ation) quoted from Professor W. J. SoUas's " Ancient Hunters," Ed. 3, 1924, 
p. 81, may be of interest. 

" Flint is a very finely granular admixture of quartz and opal. When 
exposed to the action of underground water the opal is dissolved away, 
leaving the quartz unaffected. 

In the first stage of patination, when but very little opal has been re- 
moved, the quartz granules form an almost infinitely thin film and the 
black flint showing through gives a faint blue colour to the surface : this is 
the well-known blue patina. 

With the flow of time and the continued action of the solvent the opal is 
further removed till the quartz forms a porous layer of considerable thick- 
ness ; it may be as much as a quarter of an inch or more. The patina is 
then a dead white with a matt surface. 

If, as often happens, the percolating water contains iron in solution, this 
may be deposited in the pores as a ferric hydrate, which confers a red or 
yellowish colour on the patina. 

Finally, the water may contain silica in solution and deposit this in the 
pores and on the surface of the patina, which then acquires a brilliant 
polish." 

From the last paragraph it will be seen that a necessary condition of the 
brilliant polish is that the water should be charged with silica. Mr. 
Passmore informs me that he has observed that the glazed flints recently 
discovered by him were associated with pockets of sand, and a similar 
source of silica is always present in the deposits containing the Egyptian 
glazed flints. 



235 



THE STAINED GLASS IN SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. 
By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 
[A Lecture given in the Cathedral, July 9th, 1930.] ^ 

One of the Plinys, who lived in the first century of the Christian era, tells 
us* that in former times a merchant ship touched on the coast of Syria, and 
that the crew landed at the mouth of the river Belus, where the beach was 
composed of fine white sand, which, he says, was still, in his day, of great 
repute for glass making. The cargo of the vessel consisted of " nitrum," 
that is to say of natron, a natural carbonate of soda, which was much used 
in the days of old for washing.^ The crew wanting some hot water, lit a 
fire upon the sand, and used pieces of natron to prop up their kettle. To 
their astonishment, they observed a stream of molten glass running down 
from their camp fire. The natron had acted as a flux, and caused the sand 
to melt in the heat of the fire. 

This story reminds us of the fact that ordinary glass is composed of sand 
melted and run together, and all the better if the sand contains a good deal 
of silica, such as that formed of powdered quartz or flint. This, however, 
needs an intense heat. But if a flux is used with it, such as potash or soda, 
to which lime, magnesium, or lead has been added, to enable the glass 
to resist moisture, the sand can be melted at a much lower temperature. 

But, even if Pliny's story of the discovery of glass by these ancient 
mariners is true, it is not a record of its first "invention," for glass making 
was practised in Egypt as far back as B.C. 2400, when, amongst other pur- 
poses:, it served for the imitation of precious stones. From Egypt, in later 
times, it was introduced into Europe, and was used by the Greeks and 
Bomans, as indeed it had been by the Egyptians, for all sorts of domestic 
utensils. 

The use of glass for windows does not appear to have been known until 
after the commencement of the Christian era. So far as I am aware, the 
earliest known specimens are those discovered during the excavations at 
Pompeii, which city had been destroyed by the volcanic eruption of 
Vesuvius, A.D. 79. Excavations which have been carried out at Silchester 
show that its use was also known in this country during the time of the 
Roman occupation. 

Glass, however, was looked upon as a costly luxury ; and in those days 
as well as in the early Saxon times, there would be but few Churches or 
dwelling houses which possessed glass windows. The apertures, which 
served to give light and air, were fitted with shutters, which could be closed 
at night, or when the rain beat in. or the cold winds blew strongly in their 
direction. Sometimes they were fitted with oiled cloth, or horn laminae. 

' This paper was printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 24th, 31st, and 
Aug. 7th, 19.30. 

'' Hist. Nat., xxxvi., 26. ^ Jtremiah, II., 22. 



236 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

In our own country, window glass appears to have been introduced from 
France towards the close of the seventh century, when Benedict Biscop, as 
St. Bede informs us,' brought glass makers from France, who, after they 
had glazed the windows of the Church and new Monastery at Wearmouth, 
taught their art to the Anglo-Saxons. 

About a century and a half ago, a copy was discovered, at Lessing, of a 
work by a certain monk, Theophilus,^ who seems to have lived about the 
latter half of the 11th century, from which we can learn what was then the 
method of making a window. Chalk, he says, moistened with water, was 
spread evenly upon a wooden panel. When dry, the outlines of the design 
were sketched on it, the various colours being marked with letters or figures, 
and the corresponding pieces of glass laid in their place. Outlines, show- 
ing through, were traced on the pieces of glass with moistened chalk, the 
glass being then cut out according to the outlines with a red-hot iron. The 
panes of glass were then painted with brown, which was changed into 
enamel in the kiln. The pieces of glass were again laid upon the previously 
prepared panel and leaded up. 

The colours of the glass were produced in the crucible by the white glass 
being mixed with a metallic oxide ; and the depth of colour was in some 
measure due to the length of time during which the glass was being heated 
in the pot. 

In those days there was no such thing as a painted window. Only small 
pieces of fkit glass could be made. And the colouring or staining was done 
in the crucible. What is sometimes spoken of as "glass painting" con- 
sisted of the putting together, mosaic fashion, of small pieces of variously 
coloured stained glass. These were joined together by casing them with 
lead strips, which followed the contours carefully, and fulfilled the same 
functions as heavy outline drawing in mural paintings, etc. 

The only colour applied with the brush was a black or brown pigment, 
sometimes termed Grisaille, which was afterwards fixed by a process of 
enamelling : the heat of the kiln causing the surface of the glass to fuse 
sufficiently to enable it to absorb the brown pigment, and make it a part of 
itself. With this tint the finer outlines, the features, hands, hair, folds of 
garment, and shadows were produced. 

Stained windows are a product of the Church. There is but little of such 
glass, if any, now to be found of earlier date than the eleventh century. In 
our own country some few remains of glass of Norman times may still be 
found at York and Canterbury Cathedrals, and in one or two of the 
Churches in Kent and Durham. In the Romanesque period, the windows 
were relatively small, and the large wall spaces gave room for mural paint- 
ing. But with the change from Norman to Gothic, as the windows became 
larger and more numerous, and more light was brought into the Church, 
coloured windows were more frequent ; consequently less room was left for 

' Vita Beaiorum Ahhatum Wiremuthiensium (See Migne Patrologia 
Latina, xciv., col. 717). 

^ Theophilus De componendis fenestris (from his Diver&arum Artium 
SchedulaJ. 



By Canon J. M, J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 237 

mural painting, and in a measure " glass painting " took its place. The 
painted window served partly as a shade against the glare of the sun, partly 
(in conjunction with the wall paintings) as Bihlia pauperum^ for the in- 
struction of the uneducated, so that from the introduction of scriptural 
subjects, or of some episodes from the history of the saints, people who were 
unable to read might learn by the eye. Still more, in those ages of faith 
these pictures served for the greater glory of God and the beautifying of 
His Sanctuary. 

We can imagine what the interior of our Cathedral must have been like 
in the latter half of the thirteenth century, when possibly the walls, and 
certainly many of the windows told their pictured story ; and throughout 
the whole Church there was a unity of endeavour, a unity of plan, a perfect 
harmony in design and colour. But where are those pictures now 1 Time 
and climate have told their tale. The custodians of the Cathedral at differ- 
ent times, as the centuries rolled by, have had their own ideas. The 
Puritan has been guilty of no small amount of destruction ; The would-be 
reformer has sometimes been an iconoclast. There is a tradition that the 
Cathedral glass suffered badly at the hands of Bishop Jewel. But its worst 
enemy has been the so-called " restorer." And the name which is held in 
utmost abhorrence, by those who care for the Cathedral to-day, is that of 
James Wyatt, the architect. He had a passion for vistas and for light, and 
throughout the Cathedral, which was entrusted to him for restoration, he 
seems to have removed, and often destroyed, the priceless old glass, and to 
have filled the windows in its place with quarries of clear glass. As the 
following letter shows, much of the old 13th century glass was actually 
destroyed for the sake of the lead casing. The fragments were used to help 
with the filling up of the city ditch, or with the levelling of the ground near 
the Chapter House. 

John Berry, glazier, of Salisbury, to Mr. Lloyd, of Conduit St., London, 
1788,* 

Sir, 

This day I have sent you a Box full of old Stained and Painted glass, 
as yo desired me to doe, which I hope will suite your Purpos, hit is the best 
that I can get at Present. But I expect to Beate to Peceais a great deal 
very sune, as it his of now no use to me, and we do it for the lead. If you 
want more of the same sorts you may have what thear is, if it will pay you 
for the taking out, as it is a Deal of Truble to what a Beating to Pecais 
is ; You will send me a line as soon as Possible, for we are goain to move 
our glassing shop to Nother plase and then we hope to save a great deal 
more of the like sort, which I have. 

Your most Omble Servant, 

John Berry. 

What happened eventually to the glass which came into Mr. Lloyd's 
hands we have no means of telling. Fortunately some number of pieces 
escaped destruction, and were stored, for many years, in the roof of the 

* Cf. inter al. Ancient Painted Glass in England, by P. Nelson (Methuen), 
p. 48, and History of Salisbury, by E. E. Dorling, pp. 82, 83. 



238 I'he Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral, 

Lady Chapel and elsewhere. Ultimately at diflferent periods they have 
been replaced in the windows of the Cathedral. 

Some pieces, however, found their way to Grateley Church, Hants, where 
they may now be seen : — 

(a) Part of a Medallion of the Annunciation, viz., an Angel, with the 
name Gabriel on a scroll above. 

(b) A very fine Medallion set in a square of ornamental work represent- 
ing the Martyrdom of St. Stephen (whose head is painted upon a piece of 
light ruby glass), with the legend Stephanus orans expirat. 

(c) A few borders and some scroll work. 

Of other ancient glass, not now in existence, or not now in the Cathedral 
that there are records of, I might mention the following : — 

(a) In the windows of the library were figures which possibly com- 
memorated benefactors to the library, or distinguished men of learning. 
These may have been destroyed in 1756 when the authorities decided to 
pull down one-half of the long library instead of restoring it. Amongst 
these, "in the 6th window on the left-hand side," was the representation of 
8t. John of Beverley, • who below his figure was said to be the first Master 
of Arts 2 in the University of Oxford. 

(b) That "part of the ancient glazing and enrichment in a window of 
the nave," which is figured in a sketch made in 1794, published in Carter's 
Ancient Architecture (Plate Ixxix., p. 57). This was a portion of the Jesse 
window. 

(c) " Three great windows, newly glazed in rich colours (A.D. 1620) to 
make the story of St. Paul," mentioned by Dr. Simpson, according to 
Gleeson White.^ 

The ancient glass which remains to us consists partly of what one might 
call " Picture, or figure windows," and partly of " pattern windows." 

The latter, from the greyish colour of the patterns, are usually described 
as Grisaille ; and the remains of the Grisaille or painted patterns, of which 
we have from twenty or thirty varieties, are by common consent regarded 
as some of the most interesting and most beautiful specimens in existence. 

Grisaille, then, is plain white glass, painted with black enamel, and pro- 
ducing conventional foliage, or other pattern, usually upon a cross hatched 
background. Mr. Winston has shown that they are composed of a variety 
of patterns, arranged in such a way that panels composing each pattern over- 
lap and partially conceal those beneath. [A simple example of this may be 
seen in the window in the north of the chancel at Bishopstone, where, if I 

' Cf. Anth. Wood's Hist, of Oxford, 1674, folio. Lib. I. col. 1 1., and Saint 
Cuthhert or the Histories of his Churches at Lindisfarne, etc., by R(obert) 
H(egge), 1625. Edition by J. B. Taylor, F.S.A , 1816, p. 17. 

^ Rut this was purely imaginary, for he died A.U. 721, 180 years before 
the death of the legendary founder of the first College in Oxford (Alfred 
the Great), and more than 400 years before the actual foundation of the 
University. 

^ Salisbury Cathedral, in Bell's Series (1891), p, 94. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. B. Hist. Soc. 239 

remember rightly, there are only two strata or layers. A comparison is 
suggested with the modern example on the south side of the chancel in the 
same Church]. The advantage of Grisaille is the greater translucency, ob- 
tained by the preponderance of white or clear glass, and the use of less lead 
casing. The light admitted is good and clear, whilst the painted orna- 
mentation prevents it from becoming too glaring. Our Salisbury Grisaille 
is remarkable for its more elaborate borders ; and it is sometimes jewelled 
with small pieces of ruby or blue. 

Some of the figures belonging to the old glass at Salisbury are in med- 
allions ; others are under canopies ; whilst one appears to have belonged to 
a rose window, but where was it fixed ? 



The old glass now preserved in the Cathedral is to be seen in : 

i. The three windows at the west end of the nave. 

ii. The remains of the Jesse window, with other ancient glass, in the 
south aisle of the nave. 

iii. In the two central lights at the top of the large window on the south 
of the south-west transept (Grisaille). 

iv. In the same S.W. transept, on the west, adjacent to the figure of 
S. Nicholas. 

V. The large window on the south of the south-east transept (Grisaille). 

vi. Part of the glass, the Grisaille, in the window at the east end of the 
south choir aisle (behind the Hertford monument). 

vii. Part of the glass, the Grisaille, in the window at the east end of the 
north choir aisle (behind the Gorges Monument). 

Scarcely any of the ancient glass is in its original position ; and, as will 
be noticed, much of it consists of fragments pieced together. The greater 
part of it was produced in the 13th century, and was apparently placed in 
the windows of the Cathedral as soon as they were ready for it, in the middle 
of that century, or in those of the Chapter House some thirty or forty years 
later (about 1 280). 

Jesse Window, 

Some of the oldest glass that we possess is that now placed in a two-light 
window in the south aisle of the nave, the remains of a Jesse Window, 
that is to say the genealogical tree, or pictorial descent of our Lord in His 
human nature from Jesse the Father of David (Isaiah, xi., 1— -10). It is 
but a collection of fragments ; but, if complete, it would show Jesse lying 
at the base, whilst a tree would issue from his loins, bearing as fruit on its 
branches some of his descendants, Kings of Judah, ancestors of our Lord 
according to the flesh ; and at the summit would be the Blessed Virgin with 
our Lord in her arms, or more probably, in addition, the crucifix. Amongst 
the branches at the sides would be attendant prophets, who foretold His 
coming, or angels, ever ready to do His bidding. 

The window well merits careful inspection with a good glass. It is 
indeed one of the greatest treasures of the Cathedral. Winston, to whom 



240 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

the student of old glass owes so very much, in his classical essay on^ " The 
Painted Glass at Salisbury," describes it thus : — 

" The whole Jesse is on a ruby ground, the colour of which is 

extremely rich and intense. The main stem is white and formed of 

short lengths of foliage, each terminating in a trefoil or cinquefoil, 

according to the ordinary convention of the thirteenth century. The 

offshoots are of the same character as the parent stem, but some of the 

leaves at the termination of the scrolls are of diflferent colours. Small 

bunches of grapes are occasionally introduced. The attendant figures 

are small and slim ; and the heads have a certain classical character. 

All the draperies are full of small folds expressed by outlines so strong 

and black as almost to render the use of broader and softer shadows 

unnecessary. The colouring of every part of the design is rich, deep, 

and vivid. The blue, which is of the peculiar grey, though rich hue, 

common at this period, and the flesh colour are of strong tint. The 

white glass is of a greenish-blue hue ; it is but little affected by the 

atmosphere, and on the whole is not quite so deep as the rather later 

white glass taken from the Chapter House, and which is now in the 

west triplet. The date of the Jesse is certainly in the first half of the 

thirteenth century. It may be placed as early as 1240." 

In the same window will be noticed thirteenth century medallions of (a) 

the Adoration of the Magi, (b) the Angel appearing to Zacharias in the 

Temple, and (c) a circle containing two figures, a bishop and king, which 

was formerly in the Chapter House. It will be seen how very careful the 

artists have been to ensure that in years to come it should be quite clear 

which was the new glass inserted to fill up the vacant spaces, for it is 

arranged in diamond-shaped quarries. 

[Missing portions of the original window now in Grateley Church, Hants, 
and those figured in Carter's Ancient Architecture^ but now lost, have 
already been alluded to]. 

It is thought that this Jesse window now occupies the very position 
which it had in the thirteenth century. For a time it was in the great 
north transept. Thence it was removed to the great west window of the 
nave when that was made up between the years 1819 and 1824, where it 
remained just for a century before it was removed to its present position. 
This was done in 1924 in memory of Canon Gordon, to whom we are in- 
debted for the window in the S.E. transept, over the door into the vestry. 
His commemorative tablet is in the south choir aisle. 

West End of the Nave. 
We turn now to the windows at the west end of the nave. In the en- 
graving of the west front, given in Britton's Account of Salisbury Cathedral 
(Plate v.), the windows at the end of the aisles seem to be glazed with clear 
glass in diamond-shaped panes. The large triplet in the centre was filled 
with rather plain patterned glass with double borders. Britton's volume 
was published in 1810. 

^ Salisbury volume of the Proceedings of Arch. Inst., pp. 138. (Quoted also 
by Westlake, Vol. I., p. 77). 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. B. Hist. Soc, 241 

Allusion has been made to Wyatt's destruction of the glass. Even at the 
time of his so-called " restoration," his drastic methods did not meet with 
universal approval, and a reaction set in. Possibly, horror at some of the 
more immediate efforts of the French Revolution may have had its influence. 
The destruction of the monasteries across the Channel, too, resulted in the 
coming into the market of various works of art ; and to that, I think, we 
may ascribe the addition of the larger figures now in our large west window, 
and in the windows at the east of the two choir aisles. At any rate it was 
decided by the Cathedral authorities, in 1819, that in the triplet, forming 
the great window at the west, should be placed the ancient stained glass 
from various parts of the Cathedral, together with some which had been 
"collected on the Continent ;" and on March 13th of that year the orders 
were given to Mr. John Beare, " glazier of this fabric " to arrange the glass 
in the window. This was done, and it was completed in the early summer . 
of 1824. 

The Salisbury Journal of June 7th, 1824, speaks thus of its completion : — 
"The great window of our Cathedral is now completed. It is com- 
posed of various portions of stained glass, some taken from different 
parts of the Cathedral, and other parts were purchased in London, hav- 
ing been collected on the Continent. The whole has been extremely 
well arranged by Mr. Beare, ^ of this City. It is very appropriate to 
the elegant edifice in which it is placed, and from the brilliancy of the 
effect cannot fail to satisfy the lover of ancient glass." 
The arms of Henry VII. taken from a window in the South Aisle of the 
Nave, and now at the top of the central light, suggest that some restoration 
or alteration of the windows was carried out a few years on one side or 
other of 1500 ; whilst the arms of John Aprice, who held the Prebendal 
Stall of Gillingham Minor from 1555 to 1558, which may be seen in the 
northernmost window at the west end, suggests that he may have been try- 
ing to undo some of the destructive work done in the time of Edward VI. 
Bp. Jewell is credited with having destroyed some of the glass. Is there 
any proof of this 1 At any rate, the presence of his coat of arms, dated 
1562, at the top of the window on the south side of the west end, seems to 
show that he had something to do with the glass either in the way of 
demolition or repair or both.^ 

The coats of arms at the bottom of the great triplet were formerly at the 
top of some of the windows in the Chapter House.^ Winston's argument 
seems to show clearly that they give the date of the windows of the Chapter 
House, and incidentally its completion, to be about the year 1272. 

The shields represent (1) Clare, Earl of Gloucester, (2) a made-up shield, 
(3) Provence, (4) France, (5) England, (6) Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, 
and (7) Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. 



^ John Beare died August 10th, 1837, and was buried in the Nave of the 
Cathedral, a little to the east of the north door. 

' Cf. Frere's Visitation Articles, iii., pp. 16, 30. 
^ Carter's Ancient Architecture, p. 57, plate Ixxix. 



242 The Stained Glass in Salishury Cathedral. 

As has been stated, the glass in the north and south windows of the west 
end, with the exception of the heraldic shields, is (late) 13th century 
Grisaille from the Chapter House. 

The glass in the large triplet is mainly 13th century glass from the 
Cathedral, with a little (the arms, etc.) from the Chapter House, excepting 
for the large figures, which are 15th and 16th century, and originally were 
in France. Rouen is mentioned as one locality, Dijon as another. A 
Church, in, or near, Exeter is also spoken of. 

The large figures on the left-hand side (reading downwards) represent 
St. Peter, St. Francis (or possibly S. Paul the hermit), and a female saint. 

In the central light, below the arms of Henry VII., in a circle is a figure 
which from the cross in the halo has been assumed to represent our Lord. 
Below is a triptych (of 16th century French glass) in the centre of which 
is the Crucifixion, with St. Mary and St. John ; whilst in the leaves are St. 
Mary Magdalene and St. Joseph of Arimathea. Below this is a circle con- 
taining the figure of a bishop in front of whom is a blue cross. A little 
lower, is a large figure of an Archbishop seated and holding a crozier. Be. 
low this are some heart-shaped medallions, two of which represent the 
Invention of the Cross ; the central one, a Crucifixion with St. Mary and 
St. John ; and the two lower ones, Angels bearing Instruments of the 
Passion. It is these last three which are said to have come from a 
Church in or near Exeter. 

In the northern light are a Bishop, standing ; St. Anthony ; and a female 
saint, crowned (16th century). 

It is this window from which the remains of the Tree of Jesse were taken 
in 1924. Some other old glass which has been found in the roof of the Lady 
Chapel, etc., etc., has been used to fill up the vacant spaces, and some new 
glass has been added, which at the distance harmonises well with the old, 
but it has been so carefully designed that close inspection reveals at once 
the fact that it is modern, whilst it preserves the rich and glittering general 
appearance so familiar to all who know the Cathedral, 

East Window of the Choir (in the gable above the High Altar). 

The glass in this window was given in 1781 by Jacob, second Earl of 
Radnor. 

Subject. — The lifting up of the Brazen Serpent in the Wilderness. (Num- 
bers xxl.). 

Artist. — It was executed by Pearson after a design by Mortimer. 

Winston says, of this window,' that " its design is, in principle, not un- 
suitable to a glass painting ; there are no overpowering masses of heavy 
shadow, and the more positive colours are carried to the extreme verge 
of the picture. The colouring is lively, and the picture has a certain 
degree of brilliancy. Pot metal glass, as well as enamel colours and 
stains is employed." 



^ Salisbury Vol. of Proceedings of Archaeological Institute (1849), pp. 156 

—158. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.B, Hist. Soc. 243 

But he thinks it not altogether suitable for its situation, because the 
severe and solemn character of the architecture seems to demand in the 
glass painting simplicity of composition and colouring, as well as depth 
of tone. The mullions, or rather portions of wall, which separate the lights, 
are of such a breadth that the idea of the continuity of the subject is 
weakened if not destroyed. 

North- West Transept (North end). 

The great window on the north is a Memorial to Eleanor^ widow of Dean 
Hamilton, and was erected by her daughter, Dame Katharine Jane Hulse 
of Breamore House, Hants (August 30th, 1895). 

Subject. — It is an imitation of some of the ancient thirteenth century 
glass of the Cathedral and is geometrical in design. 

Artist. — This work was executed by Mr. A. O. Hemming, of Margaret 
Street, Cavendish Square. 

The two-light window, to the east of the great window, was formerly in 
the south-west transept, but was moved here in 1924, to make room for the 
War Memorial windows. 

The westernmost light is a Memorial to Sir George Alfred Arney, Knight, 
Chief Justice of New Zealand, who died April 7th, 1883. 

Subject.— Piloses receiving the Law. Moses bringing the Tables of the Law 
to the people. The Sermon on the Mount. 

Artist— Remming. 

The remaining light is in memory of Louise Emily Bowes Read (died Nov. 
23rd, 1883) and her infant son, Sidney Bowes Watson Read (died Dec. 
2nd, 1883). 

Subjects. — The dying mother and her babe. The Heavenly King, with 
attendant angels receiving them. Angels with the Crown of Life. 

" In the sight of the unwise they seem to die ; but they are at peace." 
{Wisdom, iii., 2, 3). 

Artists. — Ward and Hughes. 

North- West Transept (East side). 

On the east side are three two-light windows. In the northernmost win- 
dow, the light to the left was formerly in the S.W. transept, but was moved 
here in 1924. It is a memorial, placed here in 1883, to Charles Garland 
Ferrinder, who died April 2nd, 1879. (He was Senior Verger). 

Subject.— Melchisedec, Abraham offering Isaac, Moses and David. An 
Angel with harp. 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

The other light in this window is in memory oi Andrew Bogle Middleton, 
who died December 13th, 1879. 

Subject.— iBdJid^h. bringing water to the city (2 Kings, xx., 20). " The 
Water of Life " (our Lord and the woman of Samaria). (S. John, iv., 14). 

Artists.— Wdivd and Hughes. 

I VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII, E 



244 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

The two-light window in the centre was formerly in the south-west tran- 
sept, and moved here in 1924 to make room for the War Memorial windows. 

The glass in the light to the left is in memory of the Ven. William 
Macdonaldf Canon Residentiary and Archdeacon of Wilts, who died June 
24th, 1862. 

Subject. — The Entombment and Resurrection of our Lord. His Body being 
prepared for burial. The Angel and the two Maries at the Tomb [S. 
Mark xvi., 1—7). Our Lord's appearance to St. Mary Magdalene {St. John^ 
XX., 11—17). 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 



The other light is in memory of (a) Bishop John Douglas, who died May 
18th, 1807, and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, where he was 
Dean ; (6) of his son, Precentor William Douglas, who was also Arch- 
deacon of Wilts, and died March 19th, 1815 ; and of other members of the 
family. 

Subjects. — Scenes from the Resurrection Life of our Lord. His appear- 
ance to the two disciples at Emmaus. His showing Himself to St. Thomas. 
His charge to St. Peter. Below are the arms of the See impaling I and 4 
Douglas 2 and 3 Ogstoun. All enclosed in the Garter with motto and en- 
signed by a mitre. (Bishop Douglas was Chancellor of the Order of the 
Garter). 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

North Choir Aisle (between the two Transepts). 

1. A two-light window in memory of the Ven. Anthony Huxtable, Arch- 
deacon of Dorset and Prebendary of Torleton, who died Dec. 1st, 1883. 

Subjects. — (Above) The Archangels Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel ; 
(below) {a) Gideon's oflfering consumed by fire, and his charge to fight the 
Midianites, {Judges, vi , 16, etc.) ; (6) Isaiah's vision and commission {Isaiah^ 
xi., 8, etc.). 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

2. A two-light window in memory of Catherine Swayne (wife of 
Chancellor Robert George Swayne), who died May 30tb, 1883. 

Subject. — Our Lord's reply to His disciples as to the greatest in the 
Kingdom of Heaven {S. Matt., xviii., 1—10). 
Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

Morning Chapel (North-East Transept) West Side. 

The two windows on the west side of this Transept are two of the most 
beautiful modern windows in the Cathedral. They were given anonymously 
as a thankofi'ering for the Service of Intercession held weekly in this Chapel ; 
but it is now no secret that the donor was Miss Louisa Maude Ottaway. 

Subjects. — {a) The Transfiguration. (6) The Ascension. 

Artist. — Powell, of Whitefriars. 



Bij Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R. Hid. Soc. 245: 

In the Transfiguration window, the main figure is that of our Lord on 
the Mount, with outstretched arms. From His head issue rays of light, — 
the main ones taking the form of a cross on the arms of which His hands 
seem to be placed. On either side of Him are Moses and Elias, who are 
speaking with him of His forthcoming Passion. At the summit of the 
window is a hand pointing downwards, — below which are angels with a 
scroll, on which is inscribed " This is My Beloved Son." At the bottom of 
the window, below the mount, as in Raphael's celebrated picture at the 
Vatican, are the three Apostles, St. Peter, St. John, and St. James. 

At the summit of the Ascension window is a golden crown ; below which 
is the figure of our Ascending Lord, from whose body proceed golden rays 
in all directions. Below this, again, are Angels with a scroll on which are 
the words " The same Jesus shall come again, in like manner, as ye have 
seen Him go into Heaven." 

At the bottom of the window are the eleven Apostles with the three 
Maries. 



The upper windows on the west side of this transept are filled with figures 
of Angels. These are also by Powell, and were placed here in 1929, from 
a part of the legacy left by Miss Ottaway (who died Feb. 24th, 1923, and 
was buried in the Cloisters) to complete the scheme. 



Morning Chapel (North end). 

Another of the best and most interesting of the modern windows in the 
Cathedral is the memorial of three lights to Bishop Allan Beecher Webb, 
who was Dean from 1901 to 1907. 

Artists. — Messrs. Powell, of Whitefriars. 

Subject. — The Heavenly Jerusalem. 

The following is the artists' description of the window : — " The lowest 
tier is of three great lights. At the top of the central light is a representa- 
tion of the Heavenly Jerusalem, four square, showing the three gates on 
the south, east, and west. The city, in its design, idealises the most 
beautiful architecture that man has conceived. Below the city is a figure 
of our Blessed Lord, robed as Priest and King, manifesting His Presence to 
the Church in Paradise, receiving adoration of prayer and praise. On 
either side are archangels, and next, below, angels offering incense. 

" In the top of the side lights are angels of praise ; and below them a row 
of standing angels holding a scroll upon which are the words, *I am He 
that liveth and was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore.' Below 
these again, are seated angels harping with their harps. Immediately be- 
low the figure of our Lord in the central light, is a fountain from which issue 
streams of the * Water of Life ' flowing across the side lights through the 
' Garden of Paradise.' On the left of the fountain are Old Testament 
saints, with David nearest our Lord ; and, on the right, New Testament 
saints, with the Blessed Virgin Mary nearest. 

" Below, and filling the three lights are kings, queens, bishops, priests, 

R 2 



246 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

warriors, women, and little children, some of whom are represented as re- 
freshing themselves with the water issuing from the fountain, a great 
multitude of saints adoring Christ. 

" The second tier (on the level of the triforium) consists of six lights and 
tracery. These are filled each with a seraph of, alternately, ruby and sap- 
phire, the lower portion showing a rainbow ' like unto an emerald,' thus 
uniting with the three great lights below." 

" The topmost tier, which is at a great height, consists of four lancets. 
These are filled with a crowd of angelic faces, treated in a similar manner 
to the old Grisaille glass." 

North-East Transept (Morning Chapel). North end (towards the east). 

Two-light window in memory of Morris Miles, of Southampton,who died 
February 9th, 1908, and other relatives of his wife Maria Miles. 
Subject, — Those who saw visions. 

(On the left) St. John and St. Peter, Jacob and Moses. 
(On the right) St. Peter and St. Paul, Isaiah and Ezekiel. 
Artist.— Vovf^W, 

North-East Transept (Morning Chapel). East side. 

The three-light window on the left is a memorial to Isabel Elizabeth 
Hamilton^ widow of Bishop Walter Kerr Hamilton, who died August Uth^ 
1886. 

Subjects. — Above: Three of the Archangels — St. Gabriel, St. Michael, 
and St. Raphael. 

(In the centre) Six corporal Acts of Mercy, to the thirsty, the hungry, the 
naked, the strangers, prisoners, and the sick. 

Below : The Nativity, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection. 

Artists. — Burleson and Grylle. 

The other two-lights are memorials to John Watts and his son Robert 
Rowley Watts. 

(a) John Watts was for 44 years Rector of Tarrant Gunville in Dorset, 
and Prebendary of Netheravon. He died June 2nd, 1872. 

(b) Robert Rowley Watts was for 35 years Vicar of Stourpaine, Dorset. 
He was Prebendary of Netherbury in Terra, which stall he endowed, and 
Sub-Dean of the Cathedral. 

Subjects. — (a) The Presentation of our Lord in the Temple. 

(b) The Baptism of our Lord. 
Above these are figures of angels with scrolls which bear the names of 
the Fruit of the Spirit (Love, Joy, Peace, etc.), {Gal., v., 22). 
Artist. — Powell. 

North Choir Aisle (North side). 

The two-light window, east of the north-east transept, is blank. 
The next is a memorial to William, bth Earl of Radnor, 1841 — 1900. 
Subjects.— khovQ :— The four Archangels, St. Gabriel, St. Michael, St.. 
Uriel, and St. Raphael. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R. Hist: Soc. 247 

Below : — St. William of York, St. Jacob (James) the Apostle, St. Edward, 
King and Martyr, and St. Laurence. 

At the bottom of the window are armorial shields : — the ancient arms of 
Bouverie ; the arms as now worn ; and the arms quartered with, or impal- 
ing Pleydell and Chaplin. 

Artist.— FoweW, of Whitefriars, from a painting' by Helen, Countess of 
Radnor. 

The two remaining two-light windows on the north side of this aisle are 
blank. 

East End of the North Choir Aisle. 

The glass at the east ends of both north and south choir aisles is un- 
fortunately hidden by the huge monuments in front of them. The window 
on the north may be best seen either from the ledge at the back of the High 
Altar, from within the choir, or from the choir aisle some way further to 
the west. 

If the illustration in Price's book is correct, the whole window was filled 
with clear glass when he wrote in 1774, and it will be remembered that the 
Hungerford Chapel stood on the east side of it from 1464 until 1787, when 
it was pulled down by Wyatt, The entrance to the Chapel was in the 
north wall of the Lady Chapel. 

We may, I think, §afely assume that the present glass was inserted some 
time in the earlier part of the last century, perhaps about the year 1819, 
when there was a reaction from the drastic methods of Wyatt, and the 
Cathedral authorities began to care for colour and for the treasures of 
former days as well as for vistas and light. And so in this window was 
placed some of the ancient glass from the Cathedral or the Chapter House, 
and also some later, but still ancient glass which had been obtained from 
the Continent. 

Subjects. — In the two outer lights the glass is the old thirteenth Grisaille 
" pattern " glass from the Cathedral or Chapter House. 

Most of the glass, if not all, in the centre light is foreign. 

In the circle at the top of the window is the Agnus Dei, which apparently 
is painted, as distinguished from stained glass. Immediately below, and 
connected with it, is depicted the visit of the three " men " to Abraham 
{Genesis xviii.). As the Latin words imply it is typical of the Holy Trinity 
{Habraham tres vidit, ^ unum adoravit). It is probably Flemish, or 
possibly Dutch of, at the earliest, 16th century date. 

Below this are a series of somewhat older subjects, but not necessarily 
connected with each other. They are mainly French of the 15th and 16th 
centuries. The subject of the one immediately below Abraham's visitors I 
have been unable to make out. Then, in descending order, come 
Our Blessed Lord with St. Mary and St. John. 
The Visitation of the Sick. 
A Bishop with a Mitre. 
St. Christopher. 
St. John administering the Blessed Sacrament to Our Lady. 

' From a Great Grandmother's Arm Chair ^ p. 197 



248 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

The coats of arms at the bottom of the window are modern, probably of 
the date when the window was made up (early 19th century), and represent, 
though not in proper heraldic colours, New Sarum, Old Sarura, Bishop 
Seth Ward, and Hungerford. 

The Lady Chapel (East). 

Wyatt has the unenviable reputation of having destroyed a great deal of the 
ancient glass of the Cathedral. And we know that to a certain extent this 
is true ; but much had gone before his time ; and in the abridgement of 
Price's work which was published in 1774,' some fourteen or fifteen years 
before Wyatt's years of destruction, a plate is given of the east end, which 
shows that at that time there was no stained or painted glass either at the 
termination of the choir aisles or of the central portion of the Lady Chapel 
itself ; but only diamond-shaped quarries of plain glass. 

In 1791 some painted glass was inserted in the east window of the Lady 
Chapel' in front of which then stood the only altar in the Cathedral. It 
was a painting of the Resurrection, designed by Sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
work having been carried out by Francis Edginton, of Birmingham. It can 
be seen in Plate XXIV. of Britton's Description, as well as in the Plate 
opposite p. 178 in Dodsworth, both of which books were published in 1814. 

Winston was of the opinion that Edginton's method of executing the 
window entirely on white glass with enamel colours and stains produced an 
unsatisfactory result, the effect of which was not at all in accordance with 
Sir Joshua Reynold's intention. The colouring was weak and its brightest 
lights dull ; and the red-brown enamel in the landscape and sky, unaided 
by pot-metal glass, wholly failed of producing that supernatural lurid 
appearance which appears to have been intended by Sir Joshua. This 
window was removed in 1854 to make way for the present window, which 
is a Memorial to Francis Lear^ sen., who was Dean from 1846 to 1850. 

Subject, — Scenes from the Life of our Lord (contained in a number of 
medallions). 

Artist. — Wailes, of Newcastle. 

The window is an unsatisfactory one. It is no secret that its removal is 
contemplated, and a new one is to take its place, the artist being Mr. Comper. 

Other memorials to Dean Lear are the Font in the Cathedral, and All 
Saints Church, West Harnham. 

The Lady Chapel (North Side). 

These two two-light windows, in 1791, were also painted by Edginton. 
They were filled with a quarry pattern, having a dull red rose stained in 
the midst of each quarry, and thickly covered with a reddish brown ground. 
Winston, who wrote in 1849, spoke of the effect being like that of the East 
window dull and heavy, without being deep or impressive. 

^ Description of that Admirable Structure, the Cathedral Church of Salis- 
bury, etc., London, Baldwin, 1774, p. 27, and plate 12 facing it. 

^ c./. Winston Salisbury Volume of Arch. Institutes Proceedings^ pp. 155, 
156. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.E. Hist, Soc, 24Q 

The present windows are a Memorial to George David BoyUr^eain 1880 
—1901. 

Suby'ects.— Incidents from the Acts of the Apostles (Medallions). 
Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

Lady Chapel (South Side). 

These two windows, in 1791, were similar to those on the north side of 
the chapel. 

At the present time the two-light window to the east commemorates 
Miss Mary Harley Fisher ^ who died April 1 1th, 1871. 

The two lights to the west were placed here in 1872 and are in memory 
of Bishop Burgess (1825—1837). 

Subjects of both windows.— Scenes from the life of our Lord (medallion). 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

East End of South Choir Aisle. 

At the back of the Hertford Tomb, which is placed right against the 
window, as may be seen from outside, is clear glass. At the sides is the old 
Grisaille, and at the top is 16th century Flemish (or Dutch) painted glass 
representing our Lord's Baptism. In the circle above is the Dove, emblematic 
of the Holy Spirit {S. Matt., iii., 17). 

Both this, and the whole of the glass at the end of north choir aisle are 
worthy of careful study. 

The modern coats of arms below are merely conventional arrangements. 

South Choir Aisle (From the East). 
Two two-light windows in memory of George Morrison, who died April 
4th, 1884, at Downton. 

Subjects. — Scenes connected with the Resurrection. 

(a) (bottom) Sealing the stone before the Sepulchre and setting 

a watch. 
The angel rolling away the stone, 
(above) (2) St. Peter and S. John at the empty sepulchre. 
(1) St. Mary Magdalene telling S. Peter and S. 
John that our Lord's Body is not in the 
sepulchre. 

(b) (bottom) Mary Magdalene sees the two angels in the 

sepulchre (*S'. John, xx., 12). 
Our Lord meeting two Marys on their way back 
from the sepulchre, and worshipped by them 
{S. Matt., xxviii., 8, 9). 
(above) Our Lord showing his hands and feet to the dis- 
ciples {S. Luke, xxiv., 36 — 39). 
Our Lord in the midst of the Seven Golden 
Candlesticks {Rev.^ i., 18). 
Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

South Choir Aislr. 
A two-light window of eight panels in memory oi Mary, Countess of 
Radnor (1880). 



250 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedral. 

Subjects.— Holy Women of the Old and New Testament. 

(Below) Sarah, Hannah, Ruth, Esther. 

(Above) The four Maries. 
Artist.— FovieW, from a design by Holiday. 



A two-light window, in memory of Jacob, Uh Earl of Radnor (1891). 
Subjects. —Holy men of the Old and New Testaments. 

(Below) Jacob, Moses, Joshua, Solomon. 

(Above) St. Joseph the Carpenter, St. James, St. John, St. Joseph 
of Arimathea. 
Artist. — Powell, from a design by Holiday. 

The South-East Transept. 

The large three-light window on the south is composed of pieces of 
ancient glass, some dating from the middle of the 13th century, which 
originally were in the Cathedral windows, the remainder of the later part 
of that century, and from the Chapter House. For more than a century 
these pieces of Grisaille, which had been saved from Wyatt's destruction, 
were stored in the roof of the Lady Chapel. But in 1896 they were col- 
lected by Canon Gordon, and arranged and placed in this window at the 
cost of Mrs. Hamilton. 

Artist. — Ancient glass, arranged by Hemming. 



The small two-light window to the left of the door leading to the 
Vestry was erected in 1876 by her son to the memory of Mary Wharton^ 
daughter of the Rev. J. H. Jacob, Vicar of Tidworth, and from 1805 until 
his death in 1828 Prebendary of Ruscomb. 

Subject. — The raising of Lazarus {St. John xi.), 

(a) Martha coming to meet Jesus. 

(b) Lazarus bidden to come forth from the grave. 
Artists, — Clayton and Bell. 



The two-light window on the east side is a memorial to Officers and 
Men of the 62nd Wilts Regt. 

(a). — (In the southern light), to those who fell in the Sutlej campaign, 
1845 — 6 ; of whom 7 officers and 137 N.C.O.'s and privates fell in the attack 
on the Sikh batteries at Ferozeshah, 21st Dec, 1845 ; and 1 officer and 12 
others at Aliwal and Sobraon, Jan. and Feb., 1846. 
Subject. — Cornelius, the centurion {Acts, x.). 
St. George and the Dragon. 
Thy prayers and thine alms, etc (ver. 4). 
Thy Holy Spirit fell on all, etc. (ver. 44). 
Can any man forbid water, etc. (ver 47), 
St. Michael, the Archangel. 
Artists. — Messrs. O'Connor, Berners Street, Oxford Street. 



By Canon J, M. J, Fletcher, FM. Hist. Soc, 251 

(b). — (In the northern light), to those who fell in the war in the Crimea, 
1854—55. Placed here October 1859. 
Subject. — Joshua. 

An Angel. 

The Commission of Joshua (Numbers xxvii., 18, 23), 

In failure (at Ai) (Joshua i., 6—10). 

Victorious (at Bethoron) (Joshua x.), 
Artists. — Messrs. O'Connor, Berners Street, Oxford Street. 

South Choir Aisle. 

A two-light window, in memory of Leopold George Duncan Albert^ Duke 
of Albany, youngest son of Queen Victoria, a resident in Wiltshire (at 
Boyton). Born 3rd April, 1853, died 28th March, 1884. 
Subjects. — (a) Jacob's Dream, the ladder from earth to heaven. 

(b) The sealing of the servants of Cod. (S. John below writing 
what he heard). Eev. vii., 4. 
Artists.—Clsiyton and Bell. 



Hidden away, in a great measure, alas, by the Mompesson tomb and by 
the organ case, are two of the masterpieces of Sir E. Burne Jones. 

Subjects.— An geh Praising : and Ministering Angels. Two of an intended 
series of six— of the Hierarchy of Angels. 

They are a Memorial to Capt. George Eyre Townsend, R.A., who died 
Feb. 1875, and were designed by Sir E. Burne Jones and executed by 
William Morris. 

Of these windows Herbert Read ^ writes : " The best work of Morris and 
Burne Jones was done during the * seventies ' and * eighties ' of the last 
century. . . . The most outstanding examples are to be found in 
(amongst others) the two windows in Salisbury Cathedral." 

And Malcolm Bell, in his well-known work ^ on " Sir Edward Burne Jones," 
thus speaks of the windows " As an example, but one of many that might 
be cited of his admirable use of wings and drapery alone to secure a decor- 
ati'-e effect, we may refer to the two splendid windows in Salisbury 
Cathedral, executed in 1879, the Angeli Laudantes and Angeli Ministrantes. 
In each there are two figures only ; in the first harping upon harps of gold ; 
in the second pausing in the path of mercy to rest awhile their weary 
sandal-shod feet, and bearing the palmer's cloak marked with a cockle shell 
of St. Jago, the pilgrim's staff and bottle and bag of meal ; but so elaborate 
is the modelling of the garments, so skillful the arrangement of the wings, 
that the whole heavenly host could not produce a more complete effect of 
well-filled space, without confusion, in which each line and shadow is full 
of interest and importance. The cartoons for these, in coloured chalks, 
were sold in 1898 for fifty-one guineas." 

1 English Stained GlasSt by H. Read, p. 224. 
^ Sir Edward Burne Jones, a Record and Review, by Malcolm Bell, 4th 
edition, London, Geo. Bell & Son, 1898. 



252 The Stained Glass in Salisbury Cathedrak 

Great South Transept (War Memorial). i 

The two two-light stained windows or) the east side, together with the 
adjoining one at the south, are a part of the memorial to the men from the 
diocese who gave their lives in the Great War of 1914—1918. Two of these 
were placed in the windows on the north side of the nave in 1920, when it 
was intended that the north aisle of the nave should be regarded as the 
Warrior Aisie ; but in 1924, when it was decided to set apart S. Michael's 
Chapel in this transept as the War Memorial Chapel, the windows were re- 
moved here, and a third (the northernmost one) was added. The addition 
of figures, &c , in the window, at present blank, is still needed to complete 
the scheme. 

Subject. — Saints and heroes, leading up to " The Supreme Sacrifice,", our 
Lord Crucified, and in Glory, in the windows on the south. In the other 
windows the figures are in two tiers. In the upper tier are David and 
Jonathan, St. Paul and St. Peter ; St. Michael, St James the Great, St. 
Luke (representing physicians), Uorcas (nurses and V.A..D.). In the lower 
tier are the figures of Bishop Robert Bingham, Bishop Richard Poors, St. 
Alban, King Alfred ; and the four national patron saints, St. George, St. 
Andrew, St. Patrick, and St. David. In the top canopy in each light are 
shields representing Kins; George V., the Prince of Wales, and the towns of 
Calne, Shaftesbury, Marlborough, and Chippenham. In the broad shaftings 
up the sides of the windows are little figures representing the virtues with a 
figure of a soldier and sailor resting on their rifles on either side. In the 
topmost part of the canopy are small figures in niches representing Jeremiah, 
St. Matthew, Isaiah, and St. Luke, 

The two lights still wanting should carry on the idea and contain figures 
of Deborah and Joshua, William Longespee, Elias de Dereham, &c. 

Artists.— C\2iYton and Bell. 

Great South Transept (South End). 

The two centre lights in the upper tier of the great south window in this 
transept contain ancient glass from the Chapter House. 

When Winston wrote, the remainder of the glass in this window consisted 
of copies of early English patterns, etc., of which he said — " These windows 
aflford one of the many proofs that, however closely the design of ancient 
glass is copied, the imitation cannot be complete unless the texture of the 
ancient material is copied also." But the modern glass in this window is 
more recent still, for the imitation of the old 13th century glass in it 
was inserted in 1880 as a memorial to Dean Hamilton (1850—1880) who 
had been a munificent promoter of the restoration of the Cathedral under 
Sir Gilbert Scott. 

Artist.— Sd^mQ^ Bell, under the direction of G. E. Street. 

In one of the windows of the triforium on the west side of this transept 
is the figure of S. Nicholas, which was the oflfering of past and present 
choristers as a memorial of Miss Elizabeth Jane Vaux, who died November 
iVth, 1910, and in acknowledgment of her kindness to them. 

Artist. — Powell. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R, Hist. Soc. 253 

The glass adjacent to this figure is some of the ancient glass. 

South Aisle of the Nave. 

Two-light window in memory of William Martin Coates (physician), 
(1886). 

Subject. — Miracles of recovery from sickness and death : Healing of Jairus' 
daughter ; Widow's son at Nain ; Centurion's servant ; Woman with Issue 
of Blood. 

Artists. — Clayton and Bell. 

Two-light window, given by their children in memory of John Henry 
Jacob and Henrietta Sophia, his wife (1870). 

Subject. — Christ blessing children and His care for them. 

Artist. — H. Holiday, of Hampstead. 

Small window by door to Cloisters, in memory of John Charles Brown 
Angell, died April 7th, 1879, and Sophia Patterson Angell, died Jan. 27th, 
1874. 

Subjects. — Manoah and Hannah. 

Artist. — Powell. 

The Chapter House. 

The seven shields at the bottom of the large window at the west end of 
the Nave of the Cathedral, were originally in the Chapter House, with 
another shield now lost (which is given in Carter's plate) where they 
appear to have been arranged in pairs in the four lower lights of the window 
on the east side of the octagon. Incidently they seem to fix the date of 
the building of the Chapter House to be about 1280, 

The windows all round were apparently filled with Grisaille glass of that 
date. What remained of it has been at one time or other removed to the 
Cathedral. The Chapter House was restored in 1856 in memory of Bishop 
Edward Denison, who died March 6th, 1854. The present windows were 
placed here in June, 1861, presumably as a part of the memorial, excepting 
those on the north which are in memory of (a) Clementina Charlotte Denison 
and (b) of James and Anne WicJcens. The figures in the tracery are copies 
of those formerly in the Chapter House (13th century), but now in the west 
window (angel), or in the " Jesse " windows (bishop and king) on the south 
side of the Nave of the Cathedral. The coats of arms above the President's 
seat are those of (1) Canterbury impaling Salisbury Cathedral, and (2) 
Salisbury Cathedral impaling Denison. 

Artists. — Ward and Hughes. 



254 



THE KEMM DRAWINGS OF WILTSHIRE CHURCHES. 

During 1929 the Wilts Archaeological Society were enabled by the kind- 
ness of the authorities of the Salisbury Museum to purchase from them a 
large series, 256 in all, of water colour drawings, all made by Mr. Richard 
Kemm between the years 1860 and 1869. 

The collection was given to the Salisbury Museum by Mrs. Kemm, per- 
haps the widow (?) of Richard Kemm, in the year 1910—11.^ It is in any 
case probable that the author of the drawings lived at or near Amesbury. 

The Salisbury Museum retains another set of these drawings of which 
those sold to our Society are duplicates. The price paid for these drawings 
was the exceedingly moderate one of £31 10s., of which half was paid in 
cash from the Museum Purchases Fund, whilst the other half was com- 
muted for Life Membership of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society by the 
Salisbury Museum. These drawings when received were roughly mounted 
on large card mounts. From these they have been detached and mounted 
in two large albums specially made to contain them, 23in. by 18in., each 
containing about 100 leaves, and bound in dark green leather, lettered 
" Kemm Drawings," Vols. I. and II. These volumes have been placed in 
the same case as the Buckler Drawings in the Society's Library. They fill 102 
leaves in Vol. I. and 33 leaves in Vol. II., the remainder of the volume be- 
ing available for other large drawings or prints. These drawings are amongst 
the most important additions to the Library collections since the acquisition 
of the Buckler drawings some years ago. They deal with about 63 parishes 
in the county, the large majority of them being in S. Wilts. They are not 
comparable with the Buckler drawings on the score of artistic excellence— 
but they are evidently the work of a draughtsman who was well versed in 
architecture, and can apparently be depended upon as accurate representa- 
tions of the buildings and objects depicted. Their special value lies in the 
fact that they were all made about 50 years later than the Buckler draw- 
ings which date from about 1810, and they include a much larger propor- 
tion of views of interiors of churches, and of architectural details. These 
views of interiors were almost all made before the great wave of Church 
restoration in the seventies and eighties of the I9th century, and they de- 
pict the old-fashioned pulpits and reading desks and pews, with hatchments 
and royal arms and tables of the commandments, most of which entirely 
disappeared within 30 years of the time when these drawings were made. 
Therein lies their merit, and it seems worth while to print the full cata- 
logue of them which follows, for the benefit of those who may wish to en- 
quire into the pre-restoration condition of their parish churches. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

1 Mr. W. C. Kemm, writing in Wilts Arch. Mag., xi., 243 (1868) says that 
his father lived at West Amesbury House for 25 years. Possibly Richard 
may have been brother to W. C. Kemm. 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 255 

Amesbury Abbey. Architectural fragments found at. Five water cols. 
1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 6, 7, 8. 

Shields of arms from. Water col, R. Kemm Draw- 

ings, I. 6. 

Stone coflSn, mortars, &c., found at. Water col, R. 

Kemm drawings. I. 9. 

Amesbury Church. Exterior. N. [Chancel, N. Transept, and Annex, Tower]. 
Water col. 1863. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 1. 

Corbels under Eaves, N. and S. of Nave. Four water 

cols. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 3, 4. 

Interior. Two Angels holding Shields, N. side of 

Chancel. Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, 
1.2. 

Interior. Chancel N. Wall, Doorways. Water col. 

1868. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 2. 

Interior. Roof Corbels, Nave, S. Aisle and Transept. 

Two Water cols. 1865,1864. R. Kemm Drawings, 
L 5. 

Stained Glass. Chancel N. Side. Water col. 1863. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I. 2. 

Amesbury. Grey Bridgfe and Lodge. Water col. 1863. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 9. 

Amesbury. King's Arms Inn and Street. Water col. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 12. 

Amesbury. Old House. Two Water Cols. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, 

I. 11. 

Amesbury Park. Chinese House. Water' col. 1868. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 10. 

Kent House, S.W. Water col. 1868. 

R. Kemm drawings, I. 10. 

Axford. Chapel and House. Exterior. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 12. 

Details. Windows, Piscinas, Door. Water 

col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 13. 

Barford St. Martin Church. Exterior S.W. [W, end, S. side, S. Transept 

and Tower]. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I., 13. 

Interior, looking E. [E. Window, Roof, 

Crossing, Pulpit]. Water col, R. 
Kemm Drawings, I,, 14. 

Font. Sculptured Figure in Chancel. 

Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 15. 



256 The Kemm Draiuings of Wiltshire Churches. 

Barford St. Martin Church. Tomb [Cadaver]. S. side of Chancel. 

Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, 
II., 33. 

Baverstock Church, Details. Stoup, E. Window, Base of Cross in Ch. yd. 
Water coL 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 15. 

Bedwyn, Gt., Church. Effigy of Adam de Stokke in S. Transept, and 
Monument to Frances, Duchess of Somerset, in 
Chancel. Two Water Cols. 1868. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I., 16. 

Bemerton Old Church. Exterior S.E. [Porch, Nave, Chancel, Ch. yd.]. 

Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, 1.17. 

Interior, looking E. [Windows, Pulpit, Pews]. 

Water col. 1864. 11. Kemm Drawings, I. 17. 

S. Door, Font, and Cover. Water col. 1863. 

K. Kemm Drawings, L, 18. 

Berwick St. James, Church. Exterior N.W. [Tower, Nave, Porch, 

Chancel]. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I., 19. 

— — — — Interior, looking N.E. [Font, Pulpit]. 

Water col. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, 
I., 18. 

Details. N. Door (Norman), Corbels in 

Nave, Piscina, Niche in Chancel. 
Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 19. 

Boscomhe Church. Exterior, S.E. [Nave, Chancel, E. Window]. Water 
col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 20. 

Interior, looking E. [Font, Pulpit, Pews]. Water col. 

1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 20. 

Britford Church. Exterior S.W. [W. End, Nave, Tower, S, Transept]. 
Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 21. 

Interior looking E. [Pulpit, Pews, E Window]. Water 

col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 21. 

Bulford Church. Exterior, S.W. [Porch, Tower, W. Window]. Water 
col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 23. 

Interior looking E. [Pulpit, Pews.] Water col. 1866. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I., 22. 

S. Door and E. Window. 1865. Water col. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 22. 

Details [N. Door of Nave, Window N. Side of Chancel, 

Pulpit panel, Font, Piscina, Chest]. Water coL 
1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 23 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches, 257 

Bulf or d House., Front. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 24. 

Burcombe Church. Exterior. S.E. [Tower and Porch, Nave, Chancel, E. 
Window). Water col. 1869. R. Kemm drawings, 
I., 24. 

Interior, looking E. [Font, Arcade, E. End]. Water 

col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 25. 

Chisbury Chapel. Desecrated. Exterior. N.E. [N. and W. Windows 
and Door.] Water col, 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, 
I. 26. 

Interior, looking E. Water col. 1868. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 25. 

Details. [N. door, N. and W, Windows inside.] Water 

col. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 26. 

Chisenbury House. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 27. 

Chilton Poliat Church. Effigy, S. Chancel Wall. Water col. 1865. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 27. 

Chitterne All Saints Church. Exterior. S.E. [Tower, Nave, Chancel, 

Porch.] Water col. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 28. 

Interior, looking E. [Font and Cover, 

Pulpit, Roof, E. End.] Water col. 1866. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 29. 

Details. [Windows, Niche over Door, 

Shields on Screen, Glass.] Water col. 
1860. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 28. 

Chitterne All Saints, St. Andrew's, Desecrated Chapel. Exterior. Water 
col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 29. 

Chitterne St. Mary's Church. Exterior. S.E, [Tower, S. Door, Nave, 

Chancel, E. End ] Water col. 1860. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I. 30. 
Interior, looking E. [Pulpit, Stone Screen, 

E. Window, Pews, Roof.] Water col. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 31. 
Interior. N. Chapel. Font and Cover. 

Water col. 1860. R. Kemm Drawings, 

I. 30. 
Tomb, Arch, and Window in Chancel. 

Water col. 1860. R. Kemm Drawings, 

1.31. 

Codford St. Peter Church. Details. [Font and Cover, Saxon Sculpture, 

Sedilia, Brass Matrix, Shields], Water col 
R. Kemm Drawings, I., 32. 



258 The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 

CoUinghoiirne Duels Church. Exterior, S.W. [Tower, W. Window, Nave 

Porch, Chancel]. Water coL 1865. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I., 33. 

Interior, looking E. [Arcades, E. End, 

Pulpit, Pews, Royal Arms]. Water coL 
1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 32. 

_ — Capitals in Nave, Font. Water col. 1865. 

R. Kemm Drawings, 1 , 33. 

CoUinghourne Kingston Church. Exterior, S.W. [Tower, W. Window, 

Nave, S. Aisle, Porch]. Water col. 
1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I, 34. 
■ — — Interior, looking N.E. [Nave Ar- 

cades, N. Aisle, Clerestery, E. End, 
Roof]. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 36. 

Capitals, Nave Arcade. Water col. 

1865. R. Kemm Drawings, 1. 34. 

Monument to Sir Gabriel Pile and 

Wife. Two Water cols. 1865. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I., 35, 

— — Brass to Joan Darrell, and Mural 

Mont, to Gertrude Pile. Water col. 
R. Kemm Drawings, II., 34, 

Dean, West, Church. Exterior, S. W. [ W. End of Nave and Aisle, S. Side, 
Porch, and Turret]. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I., 38. 

_= Details [Window, Tomb recess, Font, Poppy Head]. 

Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 40. 

■ Monuments to, Sir Robert Pierrepont, Eliz. Tirell, 

John Evelyn and wife, Sir John Evelyn. Four 
water cols. 1864, 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, 
L, 36—38. 

Dean, West, House. Seat of Sir John Elwell. E. and W. Sides. Two 

water cols, [Copied from a view cir. 1775 — 1781]. 

R. Kemm Drawings. I. 39. 

Dinton Church. Exterior N. W. and S.E. [W. End, Nave, N. Porch, Tower, 

N. Transept. E. End, Chancel, S. Transept, Nave, 

Tower]. Two water cols. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, 

I., 41. 

Interior, Looking E. [E. End, Pulpit, Pews], Water 

col. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 40. 

N. Door, Cross Base in Ch. yd. Water col. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 42. 

Details [Font and Cover, 3 Piscinas, Corbels]. Water 

col. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 42. 



Tlie Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 



259 



Durnford Church. Exterior, N.E. and S.E. [Tower, Porch, Nave, Chancel, 
E. End]. "Yvfo Water cols, 1863,1864. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 43. 

Interior, looking E. [Chancel Arch, E. Window, 

Gallery, Pews, Pulpit]. Water col, 1863. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 44. 
— ^ - — Old Glass, Nave Window. Water col, 1864. Pi. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 44. 

N. and S. Doors (Norman). Water col, 1864. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 45. 

Enford Church. Exterior, with Spire before its fall. S.E. [Tower and 
Spire, S. Porch, Nave, S. Aisle, Chancel, E. End]. 
Undated. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 46. 

Exterior, N.E. [Tower, N. Aisle, Sacristy, Chancel, E. 

End]. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 46. 

Interior, looking N.E. [Norman Pier, Chancel Arch, 

Arcading on Chancel Wall, Pulpit, Reading Desk, 
Seats, Royal Arms]. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 47. 

Font and Cover, Cross Base in Churchyard. Water col, 

1865. R. Kemm Drawings. I. 45. 



Farleig^h Castle Chapel. 



[Font, Armour, Chairs, 
1868. R. Kemm Draw- 



Interior, looking E. 
Flags.] Water col. 
ings, I. 48. 

Tombs of Sir Edw. and Sir Walter Hungerford ; 
Sir Thomas Hungerford and wife ; Sir Edw. 
Hungerford and wife ; Fragments of Hunger- 
ford Tomb. Five Water cols. 1868. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 48—50. 

Incised Slab on floor. Mural Monument to Mrs. 
Mary Shaa. Water col. 1868. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 51. 

Side Chapel, Tomb of Mrs. Mary Shaa. Water 
col. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 51. 



Parleigh Chapel ? 



Glass. Portrait of Sir Thomas Hungerford 1 
col. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 48. 



Water 



Pigheldean Church. 



Exterior. S.E. [Porch, S. Aisle, Nave Clerestory, 
Chancel, E. End, Tower and Spire,] Water col. 
1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 52. 

Interior, looking N.E. [Nave Arcades, E. End, Pul- 
pit.] Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 53. 

Details. Corbels in Nave, Piscina, Stoup. Water 
col. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 53. 

Two eflBgies. Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 
54. ' 



VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. 



260 The Kemm Draivings of Wiltshire Churches, 

Fittleton Church. Exterior. S.E. [Tower and Spire, S. Porch, S. Aisle, 
Nave Clerestory, Chancel, E. End.] Water col. 1865. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 54. 

— Interior, looking E. [E. Window, Pews, Pulpit, E. 

Window of S. Aisle.] Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 55. 
— — — - Details. Five Windows. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 55. 

G-rimstead, West, Church. Exterior, S.E. [Tower, S. Aisle, Chancel, E. 

End]. Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I., 56. 

— - - — - Interior, looking N.E. [N. Arcade, N. Aisle, 

E. Window, Pulpit]. Water col. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I., 57. 

Details [Font, Piscina, Brass Matrix.] Water 

col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I., 56. 

Hey-teshury Church. Exterior, N, W. [W. End, N. Aisle, Nave Clerestory, 
N. Transept, Tower] . Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 58. 

- — - Exterior, S.W. [W. End, S. Aisle, Nave Clerestory, 

Porch, S. Transept, Tower]. Water col. 1865. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 58. 

' — — Interior, E. End. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 57. 

- — — Doors to Hungerford Chantry (outer and 

inner). Corbels. Water col. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 59. 

„^ — ___„ Fragment of Tomb in Hungerford Chantry. 

Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, 
I. 60. 

■ Stone Screen and Door, Hungerford Chan- 

try. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 59. 

— - Details, Hungerford Chantry. Water col. 

1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 60. 

Hungerford Church. Mural Tablets to Henry and Sir R. de Hungerford. 
Water col. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings. I. 62. 

Churchyard, EflSgy, and Tomb of Sarah Duke. Water col. 

1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 61. 

Hungerford. House, Birthplace of Edward Duke. Front. Water col. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 61. 

Idmiston Church. Exterior. N.E. [E. End, Chancel. N. Aisle, Nave 
Clerestory, N. Porch.] Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 63. 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 261 

Idmiston Churcli. Interior, looking N.E. [Arcades, Roof, Chancel Arch, 
Monument, Pews.] Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 66. 

Interior. N. Aisle, looking E. [Roof, E. Window. 

Pews.] Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, 
I. 66. 

— Interior. S. Aisle. [Roof, Window.] Water col. 1865. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I. 67. 

Details, Corbels, and Bosses, Nave and Aisles, and Gar- 

goyles. Four water cols. 1864 and 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 64, 65. 

Mural painting, St. Christopher. S. Aisle. Water col. 

1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 67. 
Mural Tablet to Rev. John Bowles. Water col. 1864. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I. 62. 
- — Monument of Giles Rowbach, Font, Gargoyles. Water • 

col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 68. 

Idmiston, Old Farm House, near Church. Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 63. 

Imber Churcli. Exterior. N.W. [Tower, N. Aisle, N. Porch,] Water 
col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 72. 

Interior, looking S.E. [Arcades, E. Windows, S. Aisle, 

Pulpit, Seats.] Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 70. 

Details. [Font and Cover, Inner N. Door.] Water col. 

1867. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 68. 

Details. Piscina and Corbels. Water col. 1867. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 71. 

Effigies (2). Two water cols. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 69. 

Glass. Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 71. 

Lake House. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 72. 

Langfford, Little, Church. Details. [Cross Slab and Canopy ; Arms on 

outside Wall ; Two Cross Slabs built into 
wall ; Cap of S. Door.] Water col. 1866. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 73. 

_ — - — S. Door (Norman), Font. Water col. 1866. 

R. Kemm Drawings, I. 74. 

Langfford, Steeple, see Steeple Langford. 

Littlecot House. Front. Water col, 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 76. 

Ludgershall Castle. Ruins. Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 
80. 

s 2 



262 The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches, 

Ludgershall Church. Exterior. S.E. [Tower, Doors, S. Transept, Chan- 
cel, E. end.] Water col.. 1864. R. Kemm 
drawings, L 76. 

_ __ Interior, looking N.E. [Chancel, Pulpit, Royal 

Arms, N. Transept, Pews.] Water col. 1864. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 79. 

. „™„ Details. Font, Piscinas. Water col. 1865. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 81. 

— - Details. Angel on Brydges Tomb ; Matrix of Brass ; 

Caps of Transept Arch. Water col.. 1864. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 79. 

• • Shields on Tomb of Sir R. Bridges and Monogram. 

T VI o water cols. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 
78. 

Tomb of Sir R, Brydges and wife. N. and S. sides. 

Two ivater cols. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 
77. 

Ludgershall Cross. Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 80. 

Maddington Church. Exterior. N.W. [Chancel, N. Porch, Nave, Tower, 
W. Window.] Water col. 1867, R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 81. 

- Interior, looking S.E. [E. End, Pulpit, Arcade, 

Hoof.] Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, 
I. 82. 

Milston Church. Exterior. S.E. [Doors, Windows, Bell Cot.] Water 
col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 83. 
__== ___ Interior, looking S.E. [E. End, Pulpit, S. Window.] 
Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 82. 

— S. Door. Inside and outside. Water col. 1865. R. 

Kemm Drawings I. 83. 

Milston Old Rectory. S. and N. sides. Three water cols. 1863,1865. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 84, 85. 

Netheravon Church. Exterior, N,W. [W. Door, Tower, N. Aisle, Nave 
Clerestory.] Water col. 1866. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 85, 

Interior, looking S.E. [Font, Arcades, S. Aisle, E. 

Window, Chancel Arch, Pulpit, Pews.] Water 
col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 86. 

— — Details, Piscina, N. Aisle, Corbels in Nave. 

Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 86. 

-^ W, Door and Caps. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm 

t, . Drawings, I. 87. 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 263 

Newton Toney Church. Font, Brass Matrix. Water col, R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 88. 

Cross Bases (2) found. Water col. 1867. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 88. 

Newton Toney Manor House. Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Drawings, 

I. 87. 

Orcheston St. George. Exterior, N.W. [W. Window, Tower, Nave, N. 
Porch.] Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, I. 89. 

— — Interior, looking E. [E. End, Screen, Pulpit, 

Pews, S. Window.] Water col. 1867. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 90. 

Tower Arch, N. Door. Water col. 1867. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 89. 

Orcheston St. Mary Church. Exterior, S.E. [Tower, S. Porch, Nave, 

Chancel, E. End ] Water col. 1867. R. 
Kemm Drawings, I. 91. 

— — Interior, looking N.E. [Arcade, Chancel 

Arch, E. End, Pulpit, S. Aisle.] Water 
col. R, Kemm Drawings, I. 90. 

Pewsey Church. Tablet to Rev. Jos. Townsend. Water col. R. Kemm 
Drawings, I. 94. 

Pitton Church. Exterior, S.W. [W. End, S. Porch, Tower.] Water col. 
1863. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 91. 

Interior, looking S.E. [Font and Cover, E. End, Pulpit, 

Pews.] Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 92. 

S. Porch, inside and outside. Water col. 1863. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 93. 

Porton Chapel of Ease. Exterior, S. [Nave, Chancel, E. End.] Water 

col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 93. 

Interior, looking S.E. [Font and Cover, E. End. 

Royal Arms, Pulpit, Pews.] Water col. 1863. 
R. Kemm Drawings, I. 94. 

Ramsbury Church. Exterior, N.E. [Tower, N. Aisle, Darell Chapel, 

Chancel] Water col. R, Kemm Drawings, I. 95. 
— — Interior, looking S E. [Arcades, E. End, Pulpit, 

Roof, Royal Arms.] Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 98. 
Darells Aisle. [Tombs and Architecture.] Water 

col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 97 
Darells Aisle. Tombs, N. & S. Sides. Water col. 

1864. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 96. 



264 The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 



Kiamsbury Church. 



Rushall Church. 



Darells Aisle. Details. [Niches, Window, Canopied 

Niche over W. Door,] Water col. 1864. K. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 95. 
Tomb N. side of Chancel. Water col. 1864. R. 

Kemm Drawings, I. 96. 
Corbels of Nave Roof. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 

Drawings, I. 99. 
Monument to Sir Will. Jones. Water col. R. Kemm 

l^rawings, I. 97. 

Exterior, S.W. [W. End, Tower, Nave.] Water col. 

1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 99. 
Interior, looking N.E. [E. Window, Pulpit, Poore 

Pew, Seats.] Water col. 1865. R. Kemm Draw- 

ings, I. 102. 
Details. [Bench End, Font and Cover, Gargoyles, 

Portions of Tombs, Tower Arch, W. Window.] 

Four water cols. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 

100, 101. 



Salisbury, St. Edmund's Church. 



Effigies found. Water col. 1866. R. 

Kemm Drawings, 11. 1. 
Details. Two Piscinas, Niche, Recessed 

Tomb, S. Aisle Wall. Two water 

cols. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, 

11. 1, 2. 

Two Piscinas, Tomb under Arch, Brass, 
Cross Base in Churchyard. Two 
water cols. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 
3. 

Mural Paintings. [Three on N. Wall of 
S. Aisle and one on S. Wall.] An- 
nunciation, Visitation, St. George and 
the Dragon, The Magi. Four water 
cols. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 4— 6. 

Salisbury. Wag-gfon & Horses Inn and old houses. Summerlock Bridge, 

Yhh%xion. Water col. 1868. R. Kemm 
Drawings, II. 2. 



Salisbury St. Martin's Church. 



Salisbury St. Thomas' Church. 



Stapleford Church. 



Exterior, S.E. [S. Porch, S. Transept, Chancel.] 

Water col. 1868. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 6. 
Interior, looking N.E. [E. End, Arcades, Side 

Screen.] Water col. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, 

U.S. 
Cross Slab in Churchyard, Brass Matrix, Coffin and 

Cross Slab in Porch. Water col. 1866. R. Kemm 

Drawings, II. 7. 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 265 

Stapleford Church. Crucifix Relief in E. Gable, Corbels etc , Piscina, 
Canopied Tomb, Sedilia. Two water cols. 1864. 
R. Kemm Drawings, II. 7, 8. 

Nave Arcades (Norman). Two water cols. 1866, E. 

Kemm Drawings, 11. 9. 

S. Door, Font. Water col, 1866. R. Kemm Draw- 

ings, II. 10. 

Steeple Lang-ford Church. Details. Font, Incised Slab, Caps of Chancel 

Arch, Pulpit Panels, Bench End. Three 
Water cols. 1866. R. Kemm Drawings, I. 

74, 75. 

Sutton Veny Church [Old]. Exterior, S. [Nave, Transept, Tower, Chan- 
cel.] Water col. R. Kemm Drawings, 
II. 10. 

Interior, looking S.E. [E. Window. Chancel 

Arch, Royal Arms.] Water col. 1866. R. 
Kemm Drawings, II. 11. 

Teffont Ewyas Church. Font and Mural Monument. Water col. R. 

Kemm Drawings, II. 34. 

TefFpnt Mag-na Church. Font and Piscina. Water col. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, II. 35. 

Tidworth, North, Church. Exterior, S.W. [W. Window, Tower, Nave, 

S. Porch.] Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 
Drawings, II. 12. 

Interior, looking E. [E. Window, N. Window, 

Chancel Arch.] Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 
Drawings, II. 11. 

Font, Niche. Water col, R. Kemm Draw- 

ings, II. 12. 

Trowbridge, Parish Church. Monument of Geo. Crabbe. Water col. 

1868. R. Kemm Drawings, 11. 13. 

Upavon Church. Exterior. N. W. and S.E. [W. Window, Tower, N. Aisle, 
Nave, N. Porch. Chancel, Nave, Tower]. Two Water 
cols. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, 11. 14. 

Interior, looking N.E. [N. Aisle, Chancel Arch, E. 

Window, Royal Arms, Commandments, Roof]. Water 
col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 13. 

Font, with details. Water col. 1865. R. Kemm 

drawings, II. 15. 

Warminster Church. [Brass, Piscina, Bench End]. Water col. 1866. 
R. Kemm Drawings, II. 18. 



266 The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches. 

Whiteparish Church. Exterior, S.W. [W. End, S. side]. Water coL 
1867. R. Kemm Drawings, 11. 17. 

Interior, looking N.E. [Arcades, Chancel Arch, E. 

End]. Water col. 1867. 11. Kemm Drawings, 
II. 16. 

=— = Capital, Helmet, Hatchment. Water col. 1867. 

R. Kemm Drawings, 11. 15. 

East Window. Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings II. 16. 

Wilsford Church. Tablet to E. D. Clerk. Water col. 1864. R. Kemm 
Drawings, II. 17. 

Winterhourne Dauntsey Church. Exterior, S.W. [W. End,S. Side, Tower, 

Chancel]. Water col. 1864. R. 
Kemm Drawings, II. 19. 

Interior, looking E. [Font, Screen, E. 

End, Fews]. Water col. 1865. R. 
Kemm Drawings, II. 18. 

Details, S. Door, Stoup, Effigy, Font 

and Cover, 2 Piscinas. Water col. 
1864. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 19. 

Winterbourne Earls, Church. Exterior. S. [Entrance Porch, Ruined 

Wood Turret, Nave, Chancel.] Water 
col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, II: 21. 

- — Interior. Looking E. [E. End, Chancel, 

Pews, Chancel Arch, Roof.] Water 
col. 1864. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 22. 

S. Door. Outer and Inner- Water col. 

R. Kemm Drawings, II. 20. 

Details. Brass Matrix, Cross Slab, Font 

and Cover. Water col. 1864. R. 
Kemm Drawings, II. 20. 

E. and W. Windows. Water col. 1863. 

R. Kem^ra Drawings, II. 23. 

Winterbourne Earls Manor Parm House, and Church. Water col. 1864. 

R. Kemm Drawings, II. 21. 

Winterbourne Gunner Church. Exterior. S.W. [W. Window, Tower, 

Nave, Porch, Chancel, Churchyard.] 
Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, II. 25. 

Interior. Looking S.E. [Chancel 

Arch, Arcade, E. End, Royal Arms.] 
Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, II. 24. 

S. Door (Inner). Font and Cover. 

Water col. 1864. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, II. 23. 



The Kemm Drawings of Wiltshire Churches, 267 

"Winterbourne Stoke Cliurch. Exterior. S.W. [W. End, Nave, S. Door, 

S. Transept, Tower.] Water col. 1865. 
R. Kemm Drawings, II. 25. 

Interior. Looking E. [E. End, Pulpit, 

N. Window, Pews.] Water col. 1867. 
R. Kemm Drawings, II. 26. 

Details. Aumbry and Piscina, Font and 

Cover, N. and S. Doors. Two Water 
cols. 1865. R. Kemm Drawings, II. 27. 

Tower Gargoyles. Water col. 1867. R. 

Kemm Drawings, II. 28. 

Winterbourne Stoke Manor House. Water col. 1867. R. Kemm Draw- 
ings, II. 28. 

Wishford Church. Two Effigies. Two Water cols. 1866. R. Kemm 
Drawings, II. 29. 

Details. Glass, Font, Brass Matrix, Figures on 

Grobham Tomb, Banner, etc. Three water cols. 
1866. R. Kemm Drawings, 11. 30, .31. 

Wolfhall House (The Laundry). Water col. 1865. R, Kemm Drawings, 
II. 32. 

Old Barn. Exterior and Interior. Tvjo water cols. 1865. R. 

Kemm Drawings, II. 32, 3.3. 

[In addition there are nine drawings at present unidentified.] 



In Salisbury Museum there are 27 drawings by Mr. Kemm of the same 
series, of which there are no duplicates at Devizes. They are as follows : — 

Amesbury Church. Chest. Cascade in Park. West Amesbury House. 

Bedwyn, Little, Church. Stone on floor and Piscina. Capitals. 

Britford Church. Font and Piscina. 

Durnford Church. Font. 

Durringfton Church. Exterior. 

Dean, West, Church. Exterior. 

Pigheldean. Old Cottages. 

Pittleton Church. Font. Monument in Chancel. 

Knock Church. Exterior, Interior, Doorway. 

Langford, Little, Church. Tomb in Chantry Chapel. 

Langford, Steeple, Church. Exterior. 

Milston Church. Glass in N. Window. 

Milton Lilbourne Church. Exterior N.E. and S.E. Interior. Font, 

Hungerford Hatchment, Door, Window, and S. Porch. 
Norton Bavant Church. Exterior N.W., Interior, Gargoyles. 
TefFont Evias Church. Ley Tomb. 
TeflFont Magna Church. Screen. 



268 



WILTS OBITUAEY. 
Rev. Gilbert Alfred King, died Aug. 25th, 1930, aged 72,s.of 

the Rev. Bryan King, Vicar of Avebury. St. Alban's Hall and Merton Coll., 
Oxon., B.A., 1882; M.A. 1895. Deacon, 1882. Priest, 1883 (Oxford). 
Curate of Freeland (Oxon.), 1882—83; Monks Kisborough, 1883—85; 
Avebury, 1885—95. Vicar of Easterton, 1895—1924. Vicar of Mullion 
(Corn.), 1924 until his death. Married the 2nd daughter of Canon A. B. 
Thynne, Vicar of Seend, who died 1929. A pronounced High Churchman. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 28th, 19.30. 

John Joseph Hammond, died June 5th, 1930. Buried at 
East Coker (Som ). Born June 17th, 1863, s. of the Rev. J. W. Hammond. 
Rector of Codford, 1861—68. Educated at Marlborough Coll., 1875—79. 
He served his Articles with Mr. R. M. Wilson, of Salisbury, and was 
admitted Solicitor, 1887. He succeeded Mr. A. R. Maiden in 1913 as Clerk 
to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, and Clerk of the Peace for the City, 
holding both offices until his death. He married 1914 Miss Mabel Cicely 
Troyte-Bullock, who survives him. He was much interested in the Topo- 
graphy of Wiltshire and Salisbury, especially on the side of Genealogy and 
Heraldry. Of the latter he had an unusually wide knowledge. He will be 
greatly missed at Salisbury by his many friends. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal, June 6th, 1930. 

He was the author of the following : — 
Some Notes on Clarendon and its Palace. A Paper read before the 

Salisbury branch of the Church of Engfland Layman's Union. 

Salisbury Journal, July 25th, 1908. 
Audley House, Salisbury, Article in Salisbury Journal, Feb. 6th, 1909. 
Transcriptions of Marriagfes from the Reg-isters of Boyton, 1560-1837, 

and Sherrington, 1667--1837, in Wiltshire Parish Registers, Marriages, 

1912, vol. xii., pp. 93—113. 
The Reg-isters of the Parish of Wylye. Published by Rev, G. R. 

Hadow from Transcripts by T. H. Baker and J. J. Hammond, 1913. 

lO^in. X 7in., pp. x. + 4 + 252 + 1. 
William Pitt and Stratford-sub-Castle. Note, Wiltshire Gazette, April 

21st, 1927. 
Notice of " The Salisbury Avon, by Ernest Walls, 1929." Wiltshire 

Gazette, July IStb, 1929. 
Heytesbury Alms House Accounts, 1592. W.A.M,, xliv., 257—259. 
Three Inventories of Plate and Furniture belong-ing to Salisbury 

Cathedral. fF.^ ilf., xliv., 407— 410. 
A Missing- Chapter in Salisbury History. (The course of the Rivers and 

Canals in the City). Salisbury Journal, 1928. Reprinted as a Pamphlet, 

7iin. X 4|in., pp. 15. Folding Map. 



Wilts Obituary. 269 

His principal contributions were published in Wiltshire Notes and 
Queries^ as follows : — 

Sir Walter Raleigh's Portrait. VI., 97, 98. 
Notes on the Hydes ofWilts and Cheshire. VI., 337—344, 385—390, 433— 

437, 498—503(1909—10); VII., 116—118, 377—380. 
Thomas Smith, of Bossington Hall, Hants. VI., 381—884 (1909). 
(Review of) Catalogue of Pictures in the collection of the Earl of Radnor. 

VI., 478—480. 
Notes on a Portrait of the Rev. Thomas Hickman. VII., 49—57 (1911). 
Goldston of Alderbury. VII., 322—325. 
Raleigh of Downton. VII , 332, 333. 
Goldsborough and Wansborough. VII., 573, 574. 
Bishopstone, S. Wilts. VII , 426—428. 
Clarendon Park. VIII., 1—7. Folding Map. 
Edward Ledwich's connection with Wiltshire. VIII., 187, 188. 
A Monument in Britford Church ('* Duke of Buckingham's "). VIII., 

212—214, 

Rev. William Noakes Dawson, died June i4th, i930, aged 

39. Buried at Chirton. Son of Rev. T. Dawson. Educated Jesus Coll., 
Oxford. B.A. 1913, M.A. 1916. Wyclifife Hall Theological Coll., Oxford, 
1912. Deacon 1913, Priest 1914 (London). Curate All Hallows, Bromley, 
1913—15 ; Heaton, 1915—18; Temple Church, Bristol, 1918—22; Vicar of 
All Saints, Fishponds, 1922—26; Vicar of Chirton, 1926 until his death. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 19th, 1930. 

Cal. Edwin Law, died June 13th, 1930, aged 83. Buried at 
Cheltenham Cemetery. Born June 16th, 1846, at Christian Malford. Son 
of the Rev. Vanbrough Law, Rector. Joined the South Gloucestershire 
Regt., 61st Foot, in 1865, with which he served in Ireland, Canada, Ber- 
muda, Malta, and India. Later on he served with the 28th Regt., becoming 
Major in 1886, but rejoined the 61st and served at Aden in 1893, retiring 
with the rank of Lt.-Col. after 28 years service. Yachting, polo, cricket, 
hunting, pigsticking, and shooting, all came naturally to him as a sports- 
man, and after his retirement he took up chess with such success that in 
1895 and 1896 he was chess champion for Wiltshire and played in many 
matches for the county, defeating the world chess champion (Lasker) in 
1899 at Cheltenham. He retained his keen interest in the Gloucestershire 
Regiment to the end of his life. He married in 1898 Fanny Rose, daughter 
of the Rev. R. Waller Dartnell, Rector of Huish, who survives him. His 
later years were spent at Cheltenham where he was well known and very 
popular. 

Long obit, notice in Gloucestershire Echo, June 14th, 1930; and the 
Cheltenham Chronicle and Gloucestershire Graphic, June 2 1st, 1930, with 
ten excellent photos of scenes at his funeral. 

Rev. James Henry Scholelleld, died suddenly May 8th, 
1930. Educated at CC.C. (Cambs.). B.A. 1878; M.A. 1882. Deacon 



270 Wilts Obituary. 

1878, Priest 1879 (Yorks), Curate of St. Stephen's, Sheffield, 1878—81 ; 
Oundle 1881—83 ; Bilton (Yorks) 1884—87 ; Landewednack (Corn.) 1888— 
89; Calstok 1889—90; Vicar of Mullion (Corn.) 1890—1924: Vicar of 
Easterton 1924 until his death. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 15th, 1930. 

Robert Butler, died January 1st, 1925, aged 65. Buried at 
Preshute. S. of Robert Butler. Born at Longparish (Hants), his father 
shortly afterwards removing to Collingbourne. He succeeded his uncle, 
Stephen Butler, at Stitchcombe Farm, which he held until his retirement in 
1919, when he came to live at Preshute. He acted for nearly 40 years as 
guardian for Mildenhall and afterwards Kennett. As chairman his ser- 
vices were recognised by the gift of a silver bowl and candelabra. He 
was afterwards for years chairman of the Rural District Council. He was 
a J. P. for Wilts, an alderman of the County Council, and a member of im- 
portant committees of the Council. He was also chairman of the House 
Committee of Savernake Hospital and a governor of Marlborough Grammar 
School. As an agriculturalist and judge of horses and pigs he was widely 
known. He acted for many years as churchwarden and as a member of the 
Diocesan Conference. He left a widow and three daughters surviving. 
He was widely known and respected in the county, especially in the Marl- 
borough neighbourhood. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, January 8th, 1925. 

Dr. J. Ireland Bowes, died May (?) 1929. Buried at Devizes 
Cemetery. Born, 1850, at Eltham, Kent. Son of Will. Bowes. Graduated 
at Guys Hospital. Senior medical officer of Northampton Asylum. Came 
to Devizes as medical superintendent at the County Asylum in 1881, an 
office he resigned in 1914. Married, 1879, Sophie, younger daughter of 
William Butlin, of Dustin House, Northants. He leaves two sons, William 
and Richard, and one daughter, wife of Dr. W. J. Leach. On leaving the 
asylum Dr. Bowes was presented with tokens of the esteem in which he 
was held both by the staff and by the patients. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 6th, 1929. 

Lt.-Col. Algernon Corbett Turner, M.C. Killed in a 

street accident in London, July, 1930. Aged 41. Buried at Foxley. Born 
January 31st, 1889. Only son of Col. W. W. Turnor, of Pinckney Park. A 
very well-known figure in the Malmesbury neighbourhood, especially from 
his connection with the Beaufort Hunt. His funeral was attended by 
some 500 people, a contingent of sixty men of his regiment, the Royal 
Horse Guards (Blues), with their trumpeters, being present, the non- 
commissioned officers acting as pall bearers. He leaves a widow and four 
children. 

Sir Richard Huugerford Pollen, sth Baronet, died Aug. 

19th, 1930, aged 52. Born June 23rd, 1878. Son of Sir Richard Hunger- 
ford Pollen, Bart., who died in 1918, and Lady Frances St. Aubyn Pollen. 



Wilts Obituary. 271 

Educated at Eton, 1891 — 96, and Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
Lieut, in the 4th Batt. Gloucestershire Regt., 1899 — 1907. Served at St. 
Helena during the S. African War. J. P. for Wilts. He was unmarried, 
and is succeeded by his brother, John Lancelot Hungerford Pollen, born 
1884. He had lived for some time at Sharnbrook, Bedford. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, August 21st, 1930. 

Col. William Henry Haydon, died August 7th, 1930, aged 

86. Buried at Brokenborough. Son of S. Haydon, of Millmead, Guildford. 
Educated at Eton, 1854, and Woolwich, gaining commission in the Royal 
Engineers at 16. Served in India and elsewhere. J. P. for Wilts, 1899. 
Rural District Councillor for many years. A member of the Beaufort Hunt 
since 1894, He lived at Maidford Park, Norton, and before that at Burnham 
House, Malmesbury. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, August 14th, 1930. 

Robert Charles Warner, died April i6th, i93o, aged 8i. 

Buried at Oaksey. For many years he represented Crudwell division on 
the County Council. He was a great supporter of secondary education, and 
the erection of the Malmesbury Secondary School was largely due to him. 
To Oaksey Elementary School he gave a large building in 1929 to be used 
for open-air classes. He was a generous benefactor to IVIalmesbury Cottage 
Hospital. He was Vice-chairman of the Rural District Council. He pro- 
vided at his own expense the present water supply of Oaksey in 1920. He 
had been churchwarden at Oaksey for many years and gave many benefac- 
tions to the Church. He also gave a playing field to the village. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 24tb, 1930. 

Canon Edward Steward, died April loth, i93o, aged 78. 

Buried at Boyton. Born at Eaton Hall, Norwich, he spent his early life in 
Norfolk and was a freeman of the city of Norwich. Magdalen Coll., Oxon. 
B.A. 1874, M.A. 1877. Deacon 1877, Priest 1878 (Win.), Curate of Bram- 
shott (Hants) 1877 — 79; Chaplain and Lecturer, Sarum Training Coll. for 
Mistresses 1880—89, and Principal of the same 188 9—1913. Rector of 
Boyton 1907 — 09, with Sherrington 1909—24, when he resigned. Canon of 
Salisbury, non-residentiary, 1890 until his death. In his early days he was 
much of a sportsman, shooting, fishing, and hunting, and rowing for his 
college. He was best known in the Salisbury Diocese for his 33 years' con- 
nection as Lecturer and Principal, with the Training College for School 
Teachers at the King's House in the Close at Salisbury, where he was 
instrumental in building the Chapel. He was naturally much concerned 
with the welfare of Church Schools and religious education. An apprecia- 
tion of his life and character in the IHmes was reprinted in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, April 24th, 1930. 



272 



WILTSHIRE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

j^jq- J5^ — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

The Ancient Bridges of the South of England. By 
B. Jervoise, A.M. Inst. C.B., on behalf of the Society 
for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, with an 
Introduction by C. R, Peers, 1 930. Cr. 8vo., pp. xvi. + 128, 

78 illusts. Price 7/6 net. 

This is a most excellent little book on a subject which is hardly touched 
elsewhere. Henceforth, whenever there is a proposal to widen or re-build 
an old bridge, anyone who is interested will only have to turn up the 
reference in the index and he will find all that he needs to know about its 
age and character. The bridges over the Thames and its tributaries occupy 
the first twenty-nine pages. It is noted that the " Town Bridge " at Crick- 
lade is probably of the end of the 18th century, and that Hannington Bridge 
dates from about 1841. Halfpenny Bridge, on the road from Lechlade to 
Highworth, was built under the Act of 1792. The Kennet Bridges in Wilts 
are unimportant except the fine brick bridge of three segmental arches at 
Chilton Foliat, and that at Ramsbury Manor of five brick arches with stone 
keystones and the unusual feature of '* billeted " brick string courses at the 
road level. The bridges of the Salisbury Avon and its tributaries occupy 
pp. 69 — 75. The bridges over the Wylye at Bishopstrow, Codford St. Mary, 
Wylye, Stoford, and Wilton, as also those over the Winterbourne stream at 
Stapleford and Winterbourne Stoke, and those over the Nadder at Tisbury 
on the road to Ansty, and at Upper and Lower Chicksgrove, Panter's Bridge 
between Tisbury and Fovant, Dinton, Barford St. Martin, Wilton, and 
Stockton " are almost all identical in design and built of faced blocks of Chil- 
mark stone. In most cases they have projecting keystones and stringcourses 
at the road level." It is curious that the Winterbourne stream is here called 
the Till, a name for which there seems no authority, arising as it does from 
a mistaken derivation of the name " Tilshead," Bullbridge on the Wilton- 
Stratford Tony road has no projecting keystones and " looks rather older 
than the others." That at Tisbury on the E. side of the railway station is 
of a difi"erent type, "possibly built early in the 19th century." The Palladian 
Bridge in Wilton Park, built by Inigo Jones, is of course noticed. Over the 
River Bourne at Salisbury are St. Thomas's Bridge, late 18th century and 
recently widened, and the fine Mediaeval bridge at Milford, here illustrated, 
a stone causeway with a pair of arches at each end crossing two streams 
which join at this point. Three of the arches are pointed and one is seg- 
mental. The cutwaters reach to the level of the road. It has evidently 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 273 

been widened. Below this is Muttons' Bridge so-called from a field adjoin- 
ing shaped like a shoulder of mutton, a series of small arches, some of stone 
and others of brick. On the main Avon stream a small brick bridge at 
Pewsey has the date 1797 on a stone block. There are no bridges of interest 
between Pewsey and Araesbury, except " Grey " or " Countess " bridges 
just north of Amesbury of the typical late 18th century style. The fine 
stone bridge of five segmental arches across the Avon in Amesbury is 
illustrated. Its date 1775 is carved upon it. Fisherton Bridge at Salisbury 
built in 1872 retains one of its old arches under the street. Crane Bridge 
has five arches on the northern side and only three on the southern. It was 
widened in 1898. The change of name from Ayleswade to Harnham Bridge, 
built in 1245, is discussed at some length; the bridge is described and 
illustrated. Both the Coombe Bissett bridges are illustrated, the late 18th 
century road bridge, and the mediaeval pack horse bridge with three pointed 
stone arches but no parapets. The Downton bridges are modern. On the 
Bristol Avon, bridges built of dry walling are noticed at Brokenborough, 
Luckington, Easton Grey, Easton Town, Pinkney, and Westport, of which 
Pinkney is illustrated. 

Great Somerford and Dauntsey have late 18th Century bridges, the first 
of stone, the second of brick with stone facings. "The bridge at Chippenham 
(illustrated) has the appearance of being of late 16th century date, owing 
to its having been widened on both sides. The core of the bridge, however, 
is of much earlier date, some of the arches being of ribbed construction 
typical of the 15th century." Reybridge, at Lacock, is dated 1745. South 
of Lacock Abbey, on the Bowden Hill road, are two stone bridges separated 
by a causeway. That nearest Lacock of five arches is inscribed " G. Banks 
1809," the date of the rebuilding of the two semi-circular arches, the other 
three are pointed and of the 14th or 16th century. This bridge is illustrated. 

Melksham bridge "is a typical 18th century structure with string course 
and projecting keystones." The bridge over a small tributary on the road 
to Melksham Forest, shown in Andrews & Drury's map of 1773 as " Ludhorn 
Bridge," is of slightly later date. At Monkton is a packhorse bridge over 
the Avon with four arches. At Semington there is a late 18th century 
bridge over the Semington brook with three semi-circular arches. Similar 
bridges are at Staverton and Trowbridge. Bradford-on-Avon town bridge 
has two pointed arches with chamfered ribs dating possibly from the 14th 
century, which were widened on the downstream side early in the 17th 
century. Both sides of this bridge are illustrated. The Barton bridge near 
the Barn is also illustrated. It has four pointed arches without ribs with 
three massive cutwaters on the upstream side only. It has now no parapet. 
River bridge at Farleigh Hungerford has three semi-circular stone arches 
with projecting keystones. So also has Freshford bridge, built in 1783. 
Iford bridge has two semi-circular arches with a figure of Britannia over 
the cutwater on one side. Limpley Stoke bridge (illustrated) has four flat 
segmental arches with carved keystones. "The piers and cutwaters are 
very massive and appear to be of much earlier date than the arches." There 
are stone bridges over the By Brook at Castle Combe and Slaughterford 
The bridge at Box station is of the late 18th century type. 



274 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Neolithic Camps in Wilts. An extremely interesting paper 
on '• Neolithic Camps " by E. Cecil Cur wen appeared in Antiquity for 
March, 1930, Vol. IV., 22, in which no less than seven sites in Wiltshire 
are dealt with. The first of these to be noticed was Knapp Hill Camp, ex- 
cavated by Capt. and Mrs. Cuunington in 1908 and 1909, and described in 
W.A.M. xxxvii., 42. Here for the first time it was suggested that the dis- 
continuous rampart and ditch dated from Neolithic times. Windmill 
Hill, Avebury, which has been excavated gradually every year since 1925 
by Mr. and Mrs. Alex. Keiller, has three pages of description and a plan 
showing the three concentric disconnected ditches, as well as an air photo- 
graph. This account is the more important in as much as Mr. Keiller has 
hitherto published no account of his finds, preferring to reserve this until 
the whole site has been excavated. In the process of cleaning out the 
ditches the stratification of the finds has been exactly recorded, with the 
result that all the pre-beaker vessels are found to have had round bottoms, 
many of them bowls of thin, hard, smooth, black ware, with thin upright 
lips. Others have big handles, and oblique parallel scorings on the rims. 
All this type of pottery occurs helow a sterile stratum, above which occurs 
the highly decorated ware of the West Kennet Long Barrow type, associated 
with which is Beaker ware. These two are clearly contemporary though 
the Beaker ware outlived the West Kennett. The sterile layer thus •' con- 
stitutes an absolute time barrier between . . . the Neolithic period 
below and the Bronze Age above." Polished flint axes occur below the 
sterile layer. Leaf-shaped, lozenge-shaped, and chisel-pointed arrow heads 
occur at all levels, but barbed and tanged arrow heads only at the Beaker 
level. Arrowheads with one barb only are found lower than those barbed 
and tanged but not in the lowest levels. Flint saws, scrapers of all kinds, and 
knives are common at all levels. Antler picks and " rakes " occur, and a series 
of combs ' each formed from the beam of an antler by cutting one end longi- 
tudinally so as to produce a ring of ' teeth ' surrounding the medullary 
canal." Of one of these an illustration is given. A nicely carved chalk 
phallus also occurred. The Neolithic ox was a small beast with rather long 
horns, quite distinct from the Iron Age breed. Sheep, goat, pig, and two 
or more breeds of dog existed, but there are no horse bones. These items 
show what important results are attached to the Windmill Hill Diggings. 
A sketch plan of two concentric interrupted ditches near Robin Hood's Ball 
in Shrewton parish is given, apparently of Neolithic origin. The inner 
ditches of Yarnbury and Scratch bury are shortly mentioned, and at Rybury 
Camp, just above the All Cannings Cross Iron Age settlement, an air view, 
with a plan showing the suggested Neolithic features of the camp, as well 
as an interrupted ditch on the Knoll to the S. of it are given. The main 
ditches of the camp are assumed to be of the Iron Age. Another possible 
site is revealed by an air photograph of two apparently concentric ditches 
in a ploughed field on Overton Hill, just N. of the Bath Road where it 
crosses the first ridge to the west of the ridgeway. Two round barrows 
appear to have interrupted the course of these ditches. 

Fyfield Manor, the Residence of Mrs, Bishop, by 

Chr. Hussey. Country Life, Aug. 30th 1930, pp. 260—265, with good 



Wiltshire Books, Pam'pldets, and Articles, 275 

illustrations of the Wicket gate from the lane ; South front from the lane ; 
Back court, facing north ; W. gable of the front ; East wing ; Dovecot ; Old 
yews in N. enclosure ; Modern garden parlour ; Staircase N. of the hall ; 
Detail of ceiling beam in drawing room ; the Hall ; Cellar beneath staircase ; 
Kitchen door and old stair ; on the old Staircase ; a Jacobean door ; 
Ground plan. Fyfield (in Pewsey Vale) " is the house of a small squire 
of about 1700." The remains, however, of moulded cross beams in the 
main roof which were clearly once exposed to view in an open-roofed hall 
" assign the first building of the house to the latter half of the 15th 
century." The stone foundations of this 1 5th century manor house are 
still existing as the base for the brick house of circa 1550, to which the 
floor and ceilings and brick walls belong. At right angles to the hall of the 
15th century at its east end runs a range containing the solar on the first 
floor, now represented by a panelled bedroom, in the ceiling of which are to 
be seen the bases of the arching beams of the solar roof. The probability is 
that the 15th century house " was a clunch-walled building with a small 
hall three bays long and low ceiling rooms adjoining at either end. In the 
middle of the 16th century an extensive reconstruction was undertaken, the 
walls were brickfaced, the level of the upper floor was raised, and a floor 
was inserted in the hall." The gables were added about 1600. Henry 
Hungerford, who married Elizabeth, d. of Sir Edward Seymour, of Berry 
Pomeroy, owned Fyfield and died in 1750. His father, Edmund, was the 
son of Matthew. Probably Fyfield was bought by either Henry or Edmund. 
Henry by his will entailed it on his nephew, Wadham Wyndham, of Dinton, 
and through him it came to the Penruddockes and was sold by the late 
Charles Penruddocke. It was bought by the present owner in 1924, Con- 
siderable works of repair and uncovering of old features have been since 
carried out under the direction of Mr. Darcy Braddell. The only new work 
of consequence was the construction of the passage along the courtyard face 
of the hall, connecting the oflSces in the west wing with the living rooms in 
the east. 

The Rood Ashton Estate. For Sale by Auction 

February 12tll, 1930. Sale Particulars, Folio, pp. 58, with ten 
poor phototype views of the following : — Hood Ashton House (3), Home 
Farm, Ashton Mill Farm, New Grounds Farm, High Street, all in Steeple 
Ashton ; Spiers Piece Farm ; Home Farm, Rood Ashton ; East Town Farm, 
West Ashton. Two folding maps. 

A Machine for Drilling Corn, 1789. Note by w. H. 

Yeatman Biggs, in Notes and Queries, vol. 159, July 12th, 1930, p. 25. 

Moses Boorn, of Barford, in the parish of Downton, applies for Letters 
Patent, 26th Sept., 1789, setting forth that he has " by long study and 
experience and at a great expense invented a new machine or engine for 
sowing all sorts of grain and corn in drills or rows, which would sow or 
plant any number of drills or rows from 3 to 13 or upwards according to 
the width of the machine at any depth, and with any quantity of . . . 
in each drill or row required, or to use in all kinds of lands, &c., &c." The 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIII. T 



276 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

drill was much like a modern one with a wedge-shaped seed box across the 
top of the frame. " Moses Boom did not apparently make a success of 
the sale, nor recover ' his great expense,' as there was an ejectment order 
against him from the house, land, and stables, in 1789." 

East Wiltshire ITillages, the Old and the New. 

An article in the Andover Advertiser is reprinted in the Wiltshire Gazette, 
September 4th, 1930. It deals pleasantly with the condition of the down 
country round Everley and the Collingbournes more than half a century ago 
when the sheep were (so says the writer) of the Dorset breed, producing 
lambs twice a year, so that lambs specially reared for the purpose were 
ready for the London market at Christmas. The mutton, too, was excellent, 
and the wool, though not large in amount, was adapted for the making of 
the finest cloth. Nowadays the Hampshire Down breed is the commonest 
round Everley. 

The Case of Constance Kent. By John Rhode, 
Geoffrey Bles, London [1928]. Cloth, svo , pp. VIII. + 278. 

Portrait of Constance Kent, view and plan of Road Hill House. This is 
the 8th of the " Famous Trials Series." It sets forth in full the whole story 
of the murder of her four-year-old half-brother by Constance, daughter of 
Samuel Saville Kent, then resident at Road Hill House, just within the 
Wiltshire border in the parish of N. Bradley. Before this he had lived at 
Baynton House, in Coulston. The murder took place on June 29th, 1860, 
when Constance was 15, and the mystery in which the matter was at once 
involved caused an excitement not only in Wiltshire but throughout the 
whole country, hardly equalled in the case of any other murder trial in the 
latter half of the nineteenth century. In this book the evidence is examined 
and the conduct of all the parties concerned commented on, largely in the 
light of the excellent reports and articles oi the Somerset and Wilts Journal 
and of the book published in 1861 by J. W. Stapleton, Surgeon, " The Great 
Crime of 1860." Six years later, when Constance was 21, the mystery was 
solved by her voluntary confession and her subsequent condemnation to 
death, the sentence being commuted to penal servitude for life. 

English Folk Cookery, a Food and Cookery Survey 
of the English Counties. II.— Wiltshire By F. 

White. Article in Food and Cookery and the Catering Worlds Vol. 
XXXV., Feb. 1930, 4to., pp. 41 — 45. Cookery is interpreted in a wide sense, 
two and a half pages are taken up with the geography, scenery, archaeology, 
and agriculture of Wilts, with lists of books useful for the study of Wilt- 
shire matters in general and its cookery in particular. Then come two 
and a half pages of recipes more especially connected with the county — 
including Devizes Simnels and Frumenty wheat for Mothering Sunday, 
Lambs' tails, Curd cheesecakes, and Lardy cake. 

Church of St George, West Harnham. [1930.] Pamph- 
let, 6|in. X 4|in., pp. 8, with seven small illustrations. Four pages by 
Canon J. M. J. Fletcher on the parish and prebend, the Saxon cemetery, 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 277 

&c., followed by four pages on the architecture of the Church, and its chief 
points of interest. A useful and accurate little guide. 

Calue Parish Church Roof Repairs. Report by Mr. 

H. Brakspear, F.S.A., on the condition of thereof timbers and the method 
of repair proposed, with an appeal and first list of subscriptions promised 
towards the ;^2,500 asked for. A photograph ot the nave showing the roof 
is given. Wiltshire Gazette. 

Avebury, a Guide to the Circles, the Church, the 
Manor House, etc., Silbury Hill. Compiled by Mrs. 

M. E. Cunuington. One Shilling. Pamphlet, demy 8vo., 
with folding plan of the Circles and view of the Church, pp. 20. Printed 
and published by C. H. Woodward, Devizes. 

So far as the Prehistoric Remains of Avebury and its surroundings are 
concerned, this little "Guide" is as nearly perfect as anything of its size 
and price can be. The information it contains indeed is fuller, more 
accurate, and more up-to-date, than that to be found in almost any other 
book on the subject, large or small. It is arranged under the following 
headings :— Derivation of the name Avebury ; The Village and the Monu- 
ment ; How to see the Circles ; The Monument as it was ; The Stone 
Circles ; The Ditch and Bank ; The Kennet Avenue and Entrance ; The 
Sanctuary ; The Beckhampton Avenue ; The Longstone Cove ; Size of 
Avebury compared to that of Stonehenge ; Number of Stones ; The Sar- 
sen Stones ; Stones unhewn ; Meaning of the word " Sarsen " ; The Date ; 
What was Avebury ? ; Avebury and the Druids ; Orientation ; Destruction ; 
Excavations ; How evidence of date is obtained from Excavations ; 
Silbury Hill ; The Barrows ; Incidents connected with Avebury ; Visited 
by King Charles II.; The Church; The Manor House and Dove Cot. 
Under each of these headings, the facts relating to it are given, very readably 
but in the fewest possible words. 

Not only is there an entire absence of theorising or imaginative writing 
on Avebury as the *' Capital of Britain," &c., &c., in the manner of so many 
writers on the subject, but a vast amount of information accurate and full 
enough to satisfy the wants of not merely the tourist visitor, but also of the 
visiting archaeologist, are given under each head. If there is a criticism to 
be made it is that the Church and the Manor deserve a little more space 
than the one page out of twenty allowed them. But the Church at Avebury, 
though it is one of the most interesting in Wiltshire, is naturally so com- 
pletely overshadowed by the prehistoric interest of the place, that its eclipse 
is not to be wondered at. In all other respects this little booklet is a model 
for other similar " guides." It even goes so far as to print this direction at 
the beginning for the guidance of intending visitors :— " On no account 
should fires be lit. No litter or rubbish of any kind should be left about. 
Every scrap of paper, empty boxes, tins, bottles, etc., should be taken away 
by those who bring them. This can be no hardship to anyone. If these 
things can be carried there, they can just as easily be taken away." 
Excellent ! Compilers of guide books generally please copy. Everybody 
should avail themselves of this first-rate shiilingsworth 

T 2 



278 

ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRARY. 
Museum. 

Presented by Mk, Wentworth (through Me. E. C. Gardner). A fine 
greenstone polished celt from near Eeckhampton. 

1, „ Mr. R. Nan Kivell. The entire collection of Romano- 

British and earlier objects, found by him during exca- 
vations on Cold Kitchen Hill, Stockton Works, etc., and 
described and figured in the Wilts Arch. Magazine. 

„ „ Mrs. W. Pullen. The remarkable greenstone axe found at 

W. Kennet in 1911 and described W.A.M., xli., 373. 

„ „ Mr. F. Coleman. A freestone mortar dug up at Cricklade. 

„ „ Mr. Robinson, of Castle Combe, Fossil shells of Phola- 
domya, from Poulter's Mill, 

Library. 

Presented by Lady St. John Hope, A Bibliography of the published 

writings of Sir William St. John Hope, with Memoir 

by A, Hamilton Thompson, 1929. 
M „ The Rev. C. V. GoDDARD. Chapters on the Parish History 

of Shrewton by the Rev. F. Bennet, in the " Shrewton 

Parish Magazine," 1882. 
„ „ Mr. E. Lawrence. Nine extracts from Court Rolls of 

Wroughton, re Buckland Family, 1732—1801. 
„ ,, The Author, W. J. Arkell, F.G.S. " Palaeolithic Man and 

the Nile-Fayum Divide, A study of the region during 

Pliocene and Pleistocene times. 1929, 4to. 
,f „ Captain B. H. Cunnington. Typed copy of extracts 

transcribed from Records of Wilts Quarter Sessions ; 

"Aubrey's Miscellanies," 1926 edition. 
„ „ Me. E. O. p. Bouverie. A number of Autograph Letters of 

distinguished Wiltshiremen of the 19th century. 
„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade. Eight Wiltshire Estate Sale Particulars. 

,, „ The British Record Society. Three Maps of property at 

Heddington and Standen and two large boxes of old 

Wilts Deeds. 
„ „ Mrs. Nuth, of Beechingstoke Manor, a number of old Wilts 

deeds. 
„ „ Mr. H. B. Pitt. Sixteen old Wilts Deeds. 

„ „ Miss Olivier. " Moonrakings : a Little Book of Wiltshire 

Stories." 1930. 
„ „ Mr. H. Symonds, F.S.A. Bound volume of the " Salisbury 

Journal," 1746—8. 
„ „ Lt.-Col. Will. Hawley, F.S.A. Thirteen volumes of 

" Archseologia." 
„ „ The Publishers. " The Ancient Bridges of the South of 

England," by E. Jervoise. 1930. 
„ „ The Author, W. J. Arkell, D.Phil., B.Sc. " The Generic 

Position and Phylogeny of some Jurassic Arcidse," 1930. 
„ The Publisher, Mr. C. H. Woodward. " Avebury : A 

Guide to the Circles, the Church, the Manor House, 

etc., Silbury Hill," by Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 1930. 



Printed and Published by C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes- 




THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS {Continued) 

WILTSHIRE— The TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF JOHN 
AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Kev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price i;2 10s. 

WILTSHIRE INQUISITIONES POST MORTEM. CHARLES I. 8vo, 
pp. vii. + 510. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price ISs. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. IIL, ED. L, and ED. TI. 8vo, 
pp. XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price ISs, 

DITTO. THE REIGN OF ED. III. 8vo., pp. 402. In six parts 
as issued. Price I3s. 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY of the GREAT STONE MONUMENTS of 
WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE, and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Deo., 
1901, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c., by 782 authors. 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
VViltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, ^1 10s., and to non- 
members, £2. 

THE CHURCH BELLS OF WILTSHIRE, THEIR INSCRIPTIONS 
AND HISTORY, BY H. B. WALTERS, F.S.A. Published in III. Parts, 
Price 168. (N.B. — Separate Parts can no longer be sold.) 

A CALENDAR OF THE FEET OF FINES FOR WILTSHIRE, 1195 
TO 1272, BY E. A. FRY. 8vo., pp. 103. Price 6s. 

WILTSHIRE TOKENS. 

The Society has a considerable number of 17th and 18bh 
century Wiltshire Tokens to dispose of, either by sale, or exchange 
for others nob in the Society's collection. 

Apply to Capt. B. H. Ounnington, F.S.A. Scot., Curator, 
Museum, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE BIBLIOGRAPHY. A Catalogue of 
Printed Books, Pamphlets, and Articles bearing on 
the History, Topography, and Natural History of the 
County. Compiled by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., 1929. 
Part I. — Wiltshire as a whole. Part II. — Individual Parishes 
arranged alphabetically. 8vo., Cloth, pp. 276. Price 4s. 6d. neb, 
post free 5s. Published by the Wilts Education Committee of 
THE County Council. To be obtained from the County Educa- 
tion Office, Trowbridge. 

BOOKBINDING, Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archseological Magazine bound to match previous volumes 

Or in Special Green Cases. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 



The North Wilts Library and Maseiim at Devizes. 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose have been given since then by about sixty Members of 
the Society and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Library and 
Museum. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society. 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for from all 
Members, and should be sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes, or Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, 
Swindon. 



Wiltshire Botany. 

We have been asked to prepare a supplement to the Eev. T. A. 
Preston's "Flowering Plants of Wilts," which was published by the 
Wiltshire Archseological and Natural History Society in 1888. 
This very excellent work is now largely out-of-date, and a con- 
siderable amount of botanical research has been carried out in the 
county since its publication. We desire to make the supplement 
as complete as possible, and with this object in view, we ask all 
Wiltshire residents and visitors to the county, to communicate to 
us any material of botanical interest which they may have in their 
possession. Since the exact identification of all species and 
varieties recorded is of supreme importance, we shall be glad to 
have records supported by specimens which can be retained at Kew, 
or the Natural History Museum, for future reference. Specimens 
should be sent to us addressed the Church House, Potterne, Devizes. 

For the current year we particularly desire to receive specimens 
from all parts of Wiltshire of critical genera. Amongst others we 
would stress the willows (Salix), mints {Mentha), eyebrights 
{Euphrasia), buttercups {Ranunculus), especially the water- 
buttercups, knapweeds (Centaurea), campions {Silene), thymes 
(Thymus), and dandelions {Taraxacnm) . 

P. and E. M. Marsden-Jones. 



Wiltshire Birds. 

Mr. M. W. Willson, at St. Martin's Eectory, Salisbury, is collect- 
ing notices of Wiltshire Birds, with a view to an annual report to 
be published in the Magazine. He would be greatly obliged if 
observers would send him notes of anything of interest at the above 
address. 



No. CLIV, JUNE, 1931. Vol. XLV. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FOEMED IN THAT COUNTY 
A. D. 1 8 5 3. 



EDITED BY 

CANON E. H. GODDARD, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for al 
statements made therein.] 




DEVIZES : 

Printed foe the Society by C. H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



Price 8s, Members, Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. 6<i., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining 10s. ^d. as before. Life Mem- 
bership £15 15 s, 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mk. David Owen, Bank Chanil)ers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

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WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CLIV. JUNE, 1931. Vol XLV 



Contents* page 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn (IV.) : By 

Cecil P. Hurst, F.L.S 279-290 

Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches . By K. G. V. Dymock 291—299 
The "Sanctuary" on Overton Hill, near Avebury : By 

Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 300-335 

Notes on Farming Families of the 19th Century in Wilt- 
shire : By Edward Coward 336—341 

Extracts from the Accounts of the Overseers of thk 
Parish of Box, Wilts, from November 26th, 1727, to 

April 17th, 1748 : Extracted by A. Shaw Mellor 342—349 

Easton Down, Winterslow, S. Wilts, Flint Mine Excava- 
tion, 1930: By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil 350—365 

A Settlement Site of the Beaker Period on Easton Down, 

Winterslow, S. Wilts : By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil. 366—372 
A Hoard of Bronze Implements from Donhead St. Mary, 
AND A Stone Mould from Bulford, in Farnham 

Museum, Dorset : By A. D. Passmore 373 — 376 

Wilts Obituary 377—382 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles..... 383—399 

Additions to Museum and Library 399—401 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1930 402—406 

ILLUSTBATIONS. 

The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury. Plate I., 

General Plan of the '* Sanctuary " 3l8 

Plate II., Plan of Post Holes 320 

Plate III., Section of holes 322 

Plates IV.— X., Aubrey's Plan, Flints, Pottery, &c 326 

Easton Down, Winterslow, Flint Mine Excavation. Figs. 1—39 350 
A Settlement Site of the Beaker period on Easton Down, 

Winterslow. Figs. 1—35 366 

A Hoard of Bronze Implements from Donhead St, Mary, and a 

Stone Mould from Bulford. Plates I.— Ill 374 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road 



THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MA.NIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS"—Ovid. 



No. CLIV. June, 1951- Vol. XLV. 

NATUKAL HISTOKY NOTES EOUND GEEAT 

BEDWYN (IV.).^ 

By Cecil P. Hurst, F.L.S. 

Flowering Plants. 

The eleventh edition of the London Catalogue has been used in recording 
the plants below, which have been observed growing around Great Bedwyn, 
near Marlborough, in East Wiltshire. We have to thank Miss E. S. Todd, 
of Aldbourne, and Dr. G. Claridge Druce, F. R.S., of Oxford, for valuable and 
interesting discoveries. Miss Todd found the following segregates of Viola 
tricolor Linn : — agrestis (Jord.), agrestis b. segetalis (Jord.), obtusifolia 
(Jord.), ruralis (Jord.), and derelicta (Jord.), and the grass Bromus inter- 
ruptus (Druce), at Aldbourne, the willows, Salix fragilis x triandra (alope- 
curoides Tausch) at Little Bedwyn, S. purpurea forma Lambertiana (Sm.) 
at Ramsbury, S caprea x cinerea {Reichardti A. Kern.), near Ramsbury, on 
the Hungerford road, S, cinerea forma oleifolia (Sm.) at Chilton Foliat, and 
the long-styled form of S. cinerea at Ramsbury. Dr. Druce noted Taraxacum 
naevosum (Dahlstedt), with purple blotches under the leaves, growing by 
the roadside, near Little Bedwyn ; this dandelion was first gathered in the 
Faroes, then on the Dovre Field in Norway, afterwards it was detected by 
Dr. Druce in the Vale of the White Horse, in Berkshire, and since then it 
has been seen in about forty vice-counties from Kent to Shetland. It is 
also perhaps worth noting that a clump of the showy North American 
Golden Rod, Solidago serotina (Aiton) was observed by the wayside to- 
wards Inkpen, though this was just outside the county boundaries ; it grew 
far from houses. The above plants appear to be new to the Marlborough 
list. Fumaria densiflora (D.C.) at Oakhill and Scrophularia alata (Gilib.) 
at Shalbourne were rare species noted, and fresh stations were found for 
Menyanthes trifoliata (Linn.), and the scarce orchid, Epipactis purpurata 
(Sm.) which is sparsely scattered through our woods. Orchis mascula 
(Linn.), and Gymnadenia conopsea (Br.) with pure white flowers, were seen 

1 For previous notes see W.A.M., xli., 40, 137, 264, 354 ; xlii., 1, 151, 543 ; 
xliii., 143, 465 ; xliv., 23, 128, 401. 
VOL. XLV.— NO. CLIV. U 



280 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

near Round Copse, Bedwyn, and on the Drove Road, towards Tidcombe 
respectively. The large Broomrape, Orobanche elaiior (Sutton), growing on 
the Greater Knapweed, Centaurea Scabiosa (Linn.), is generally accounted a 
rare plant, but it is by no means so with us, and grows not uncommonly 
on roadside hedge-banks and in chalk pits. 

Fungi. 
The drought of 1929 affected the fungi and few were to be seen in early 
autumn, but the later rains prolonged the season until November and De- 
cember, and fungi could be collected until late in the year. In January* 
remains of the huge puff-ball {Lycoperdon giganteum)^ which is generally 
about nine inches in diameter, and of which a specimen 5ft. 4in. in circum- 
ference has been recorded, were seen near Shalbourne Newtown, and a fine 
tuft of Collybia velutipes, with viscid orange caps and dark velvety stems, 
was noticed near Bedwyn Common. Coprinus micaceus, the caps spangled 
with glittering particles, appeared in Ivy House garden in May, and in the 
same month C. plicatilis, delicate and ephemeral, was observed in the fields. 
Two plants of the cream-coloured, edible, St. George's Mushroom {Tricholo- 
ma gambosum) were collected on the 13th June near the Jockey, Great 
Bedwyn. In July, in Chisbury Wood, appeared Inocybe rimosa (in this 
species the cap becomes cracked or rimose, whence the specific name), the 
rough-stemmed Boletus scaber and the greyish Amanitopsis vaginata ; the 
last is the Grisette or Coucoumelle of the French, and, although edible, its 
sale is prohibited in the markets of Geneva owing to its resemblance to 
the poisonous Amanita pantherina.. An expedition in July yielded 
Arniillaria mellea, Russula cyanoxantha^ Boletus granulatus, B. chrysen- 
teron and B. reticulatus, all in Birch Copse in Savernake Forest ; and the 
well-known orange Chantarelle {Cantharellus cibarius) was seen in Fox- 
bury Wood, and Bolbitius vitellinus, egg yellow in colour, and very sticky, 
towards Stype, during the same month. The Chantarelle is generally con- 
sidered to be an excellent edible species but a Swiss Flora remarks that this 
" champignon fibreux et coriace " does not agree with everybody. Lactarius 
piperatus, cream-coloured and very peppery, was collected in Chisbury 
Wood, the latex or milk of this species usually becomes greenish on drying. 
An interesting find in September was a little colony of Boletus nigrescens, 
in a field near Chisbury ; this rare fungus has several times been recorded 
for the district ; mature plants showed very well the dark cracked-areolate 
pileus and yellow pores. The stoutish olive-coloured Gomphidius viscidus 
was found in Foxbury Wood, and uncommon species also noted in Septem- 
ber were Russula punctata and Boletus impolitus. Gynophallus caninus, 
a relative of the Stink-horn (Phallus impudicus), which has a red pileus 
covered at first with green mucus, appeared among dead leaves near Stokke 
Common. Mertdius tremenosus, an ally of the well-known dry-rot fungus 
{M. lacrymans), in which the hymenium or spore-bearing tissue is thrown 
into pinkish folds, was seen in various localities on stumps, and seems to 
be extending its range. October species included Clitopilus prunulust 
which has a strong smell of new meal when crushed, the tawny, conical- 
capped Galera tenera^ the date-brown Hypholoma hydrophilum, in which 
the pileus is frosted over with a bloom or pruina, the greyish Entoloma 



By C. P. Hurst. 281 

porfhyrophaeum, with a clavate or club-shaped stem, streaked with violet or 
lilac fibrils, the clustered GoUyhia conflueiu, with the steins united below, 
the honey-coloured Pholiota marginata, with striate margin, densely 
caespitose on a stump near London Ride, the cow-coloured Tricholoma. 
vaccinum, under conifers by the side of Rhododendron Drive, and the 
darker T. imbricatum, in the plantation near Woronzoff Lodge, by the 
London and Bath Road ; the two latter species have their caps torn into 
floccose scales. The large edible Boletus edulis, with chestnut-brown pileus 
and yellow pores, was again plentiful and Lepiota gracilenta, a scaly-capped 
ally of the Parasol Mushroom (L. procera), was not uncommon in planta- 
tions and shrubberies. In November, a group of ffebeloma longicaudum^ 
with smooth, viscid, clay-coloured caps and long white stems, was noted in 
Chisbury Wood. Here also was gathered Tricholoma argyraceunit speckled 
black and white, and fine examples of the Wood Mushroom, {Psaliota 
sylvicola), while in November, closely tufted plants of the brown Tubaria 
furfuracea were noticed on the thatch of a barn near Botley Copse, speci- 
mens of Peniophora gigantea, of a beautiful violet colour, were found on a 
branch in Foxbury Wood, and a very large plant of the curious cauliflower- 
shaped Sparassis crispoi was seen at the foot of a pine near Bedwyn Com- 
mon. On the 29th November large examples of Hypholonia suhlateritium^ 
with brick-red caps and yellow stems, were observed growing on a stump 
at Dod's Down. During December, the following species were noticed 
(sometimes in a more or less frozen condition) in Rhododendron Drive, 
under firs : — the brownish- violaceous Trickolomoij nudum, (forming a large 
ring), the pine-loving Glitocybe pithyophila, C geotropa, massive and 
almond-scented, the blackish, cup-shaped G. cyathiformis, G. nietachroay 
ashen when dry and darker when wet, this change of colour being indicated 
by the specific name, and G.fragrans, redolent of aniseed. In December 
also, the sombre-hued Oyster of the Woods (Pleurotus ostreatus) occurred 
•on beeches in the Grand Avenue in Savernake Forest. Fomes 
pomaceus, forming a hard crust, was noted on plum trees, and the gela- 
tinous Jew's Ear {Hirneola auricula- Judae) on elder, in Bedwyn gardens, 
and the stemless, brown-spored Grepidotus mollis was seen on a tree in 
Foxbury Wood. I have to acknowledge much kind aid in identification 
from iMr. E. W. Swanton, of the Educational Museum at Haslemere, in 
Surrey, and a valuable note from Mr. Carleton Rea with reference to 
Pholiota grandis. The following plants appear to be new to the Marl- 
borough list. 

Pholiota radicosa (Bull). Fr. In Foxbury Wood in November, a few 
specimens clustered together upon a stump ; a rather conspicuous toadstool 
with a clay-coloured cap, spotted rufous, and a stem that is scaly below the 
ring, the floccose, erect scales also become reddish ; the stem is swollen at the 
base and prolonged into a tapering root ; the white flesh has an odour of 
bitter almonds or cherry laurel. An uncommon species on stumps, either 
solitary or gregarious ; the pileus is viscid, a feature not mentioned by Fries 
or \!assee ; there is a splendid description of it by Rea in " British Basidio- 
mycetae." P. grandis (Rea). A large fungus which grew densely caespitose 
at the foot of an oak near the Grand Avenue, Savernake Forest, in December ; 

U 2 



282 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

some of the plants I measured were a foot across ; it persisted for a long time^ 
and I saw it in a rather weather beaten condition, just before the winter 
solstice on the 22nd|December. Mr. Uarleton Rea, to whom I sent specimens, 
kindly wrote : — " Your Pholiota is typical P, grandis (Rea). I described it in 
the Transactions of the British Mycological Society, II., 37, and I based the 
description on specimens that I gathered at the base of an ash, at St. John's,, 
Worcester. I had, however, seen it previously elsewhere, and specify 
Murthley Castle, Killerton, near Exeter, and other stations. Since then, I 
have seen it many times, both at the base of oaks and ashes, ... I 
found the St. John's specimens in great masses on the 30th October, 1901, 
and it continued annually at the same spot until the extension of the city, 
when buildings were erected on what had previously been an open pasture." 
Mr. E. W. Swanton informs me that this plant has not been taken at the 
Forays of the British Mycological Society. 

Cortinarius (Phleg.) variecolor (Pers) Fr. A few specimens of the beau- 
tiful rare form, with the cap wholly violet, were gathered in Chisbury Wood, 
in November ; the cap is generally brown at first, and then becomes tawny 
reddish, whence the specific variecolor, the stem is hard (a rare feature in 
agarics), and is stout, and bulbous at the base ; and the gills, with crenu- 
lated edges, are blue and then cinnamon-coloured. This uncommon fungus, 
with pleasant taste and smell, is edible, and grows in pine woods in the 
autumn. Cort. {Phleg.) calochrous (Pers.) Fr. occurred at the beginning of 
November near London Ride ; the tawny, spotted cap, with yellowish 
margin, is often stained with soil, and the firm and fibrous stem is swollen 
at the base ; the serrated gills, at first bluish-purple, become rust-coloured. 
A species which grows in woods and pastures, and occurs not infrequently. 

Tricholoma terreum var. atrosquamosum (Che v.), A number of plants of 
this striking variety, in which the cap is covered with small, black squam- 
ules, were observed among hazels in Chisbury Wood, in the autumn. 

Hypholoma Candollearmm (Fr.) named after the famous French botanist, 
Alphonse de Candolle, was collected near Bedwyn Common, during Sept- 
ember ; a common species which may be known from its near ally H. appen- 
diculatum by the stem being slightly swollen at the base, by the smooth 
cap, and by the gills being first of all, of a violaceous colour. The disc of 
the pileus is yellowish and the spores are brownish-violet ; it grows in 
woods and on stumps from April to November. 

Flammula ochrochlora (Fr.), with straw-coloured pileus, yellow stem 
and brownish gills, was observed on felled timber near London Ride ; the 
spores are of a pale rust-colour, and the fungus grows tufted on old trunks 
and buried wood in the autumn ; it is a common species. 

Pleurotus petaloides (Bull.) Fr. A rare and interesting little Pleurotus, 
noticed on an earthy stump near London Ride ; petaloides from the Greek 
jpetalon, a leaf, and eidos, like, refers to its fancied resemblance to a leaf ; it 
is found until January. 

Polyporus Schweinitzii (Fr.). A huge date-brown polypore, over a foot 
across, noted by Mr. C. R. Metcalfe, of Reading, on a coniferous stump near 
Bedwyn Common ; this parasite causes heart-rot in conifers, entering the 
roots and growing up the stem ; the pileus is densely tomentose or woolly^ 



By C. P. Hurst. 283 

the flesh is rhubarb-coloured and spongy, the spores are white and the tubes 
and orifices of the pores are greenish-yellow. It is not infrequent on stumps 
and the roots of firs and pines. The enormous specimen that was found 
was exhibited in the Marlborough College Museum. The species was named 
by Fries after the American mycologist, Ludwig David von Schweinitz. 

Hydnum auriscalpium (Linn.) Fr. This curious Utile plant was found 
by Mr. Metcalfe, upon the 26th October, in the plantation by Woronzoff 
Lodge near the Bath Road. It grows on the cooes of conifers, and the 
name auriscalpium^ an ear pick, was given to it by Linnaeus in reference 
to its shape. The stem is generally lateral but it was central in the specimen 
found. H, auriscalpium is a common species, occuring as late as February. 

Rust Fungi. 

The following rust fungi, about thirty in number, found around Great 
Bedwyn, are additional to those given in my paper, " East Wiltshire Bust 
Fungi " ( Wilts Arch, Mag., vol. xli., p. 264). Puccinia Phlei-pratensis, new 
to the British Isles, a very important discovery, is due to Mr. A.. G. Lowndes, 
of Marlborough College, who also found the uncommon Puccinia Cardu- 
vrum and P. Heraclei. Melampsora Amygdalinae and the rust on Garex 
glauca are very rare and little known, while Puccinia Veronicae, P. Zopfiif 
P, obscura, P. sessilis and Melampsorella Symphifti are infrequent species. 
Uro'niyces Dactylidis, Puccinia Buxi and P. C<dtha,e, the last a scarce 
plant, were found at the London University Foray at Wootton Rivers 
in July, 1927. In October, of the many hundreds of plants of the 
Butterbur, Petasites officinalis, growing along the Kennet and Avon Canal 
near Bedwyn, there was scarcely a leaf in which the under surface was not 
encrusted with the densely aggregated, waxy, reddish-orange teleuto-sori 
of Coleosporium Petasitis, which makes its first appearance about June. 
The rust on Betony, Puccinia Betonicae, generally scarce, is rather common 
here, and can be found as early as April. With regard to order and nomen- 
clature, the plants below are arranged in accordance with Mr. W". B. Grove's 
" British Rust Fungi" to which book and to Mr. Grove, this paper is 
much indebted. I have also to acknowledge kind assistance from Mr. 
Carleton Rea. 

Uromyces Fabae{DQ^diVVY). The brown teleutospores thickly infested 
the leaves of Lathyrus pratensis (Linn.) the Meadow Vetchling, by the 
wayside near Horse Copse, Bedwyn, also on the same host near Ramsbury, 
and on the Common Bean and Vicia hirsuta (Gray), on Conyger Hill at 
Great Bedwyn, in July. This is one of the most widely distributed of the 
Uredinales, occuring in every part of the world, the aecidia appearing in 
April and May, and the teleutospores from July onwards. 

U. Kahatianus (Bubdk). The brown teleuto-sori on the leaves of Ger- 
anium pyrenaicum (Burm. fil.) upon the road between the Bedwyns in 
October. In this species the teleutospores are longer and narrower than in 
U. Geranii. Fine specimens of U. Kapobtianus were collected. Mr. Grove 
considers that we may fairly hold that this rust is only a specialised 
form of U. Geranii. 

U. Dactylidis (Otth.). A rust, in which the aecidia occur on the butter- 
cups, Ranunculus acris, R. Bulbosus and R. repens, and the uredo-and 



284 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

teleutospores on the Cocksfoot Grass, Dactylis glomerata (Linn.), whicb 
was gathered at the London University Foray at Wootton Rivers in July» 
1927. 

Puccinia Centaureae {D.C.). The blackish-brown teleuto-sori on the 
leaves of Centaurea nigra (Linn.), the Black Knapweed ; this common species 
has also been recorded on Centaurea Scabiosa (Linn.), the Greater Knap- 
weed. There are two generations of uredospores. 

P. Carduorum (Jacky). Mr. A. G. Lowndes, of Marlborough College, 
found the dark-brown teleutospores on Carduus crispus (Unn.), the Welted 
Thistle, in Galley Lane, in Bedwyn, on the 15th July, 1924; in this un- 
common species, which was kindly identified by Mr. W. B. Grove, the teleu- 
tospores, seen dry, are in many cases distinctly verruculose, that is covered 
with little warts. This plant is also distinguished by the fact that the 
teleuto-sori are never congregated in large clusters, as in P. Girsii-oleracei. 

P. Cirsii-lanceolati (Sch.) 1 About a rust which was found in Chisbury 
Wood in June, 1922, on Cnicuslanceolatus{\\^\\\d.), the Spear Plume Thistle, 
Mr. Grove wrote : — "The Puccinia you send me on Cirsium lanceolatum 
may be Puce. Cirsii-lanceolati (Sch.), but until I can see the aecidial stage, 
I do not feel inclined to say decidedly "yes." American authors place all 
the Puccinias on C. lanceolatum under the name G. lanceolati (or Gnici 
Marb), but then they apparently meet with the aecidium. I should be glad 
if you would look carefully for it and send me more specimens." I was 
unable to find the aecideum. P. Cirsii-lanceolati is distinguished from 
P. Cirsii chiefly by the aecidium, and as this has not been found in Britain, 
Mr. Grove places specimens such as the above, under the latter species. 

P. Leontodontis (Jacky) on Leontodon taraxacoides (Lacaita), Lesser 
Hawkbit. On the leaves, upon Burridge Heath, in August, 1926. Mr. 
Grove states that he has found this rust mostly on yellowing leaves. 

P. Tragopogi (Cord.) on Tragopogon pratense (Linn.), Yellow Goat's-beard. 
The aecidia on heavily parasitised plants by the Kennet and Avon Canal 
between Bedwyn and Crofton in June, 1922 ; the aecidiospores are pale 
orange in colour and the aecidia are produced on every part of the host, in- 
fected plants being noticeable by their paler colour and distorted form. 

P. Hieracii (Mart.) growing upon the hawk w eed, ZTzVracmm horeale (Fr.) 
by the roadside near Horse Copse, Bedwyn, and also on the same host near 
East Grafton, in September. This species occurs abundantly on hawkweeds, 
and Jacky has demonstrated that it cannot be transferred to other genera 
of Compositae. 

P, albescens (Plowr.) The aecidia of P. albescens occurred with the teleu- 
tospores of P. Adoxae, in Foxbury Wood on the Moschatel, Adoxa Moscha- 
tellina (Linn.) ; leaves affected by the aecidia were paler and more dwarfed 
than normal leaves ; a rust not uncommon in the aecidial stage, uredo-and 
teleutospores seem to be rare. 

P. Veronicae (Schrot.) was noticed on the leaves of Veronica montana 
(Linn.), Mountain Speedwell, in Haw Wood, in August, 1926. The brown- 
ish sori of this uncommon species, occur on the under surface of the leaves 
on orbicular, brown spots, and the teleutospores always germinate in situ, 

P. tumida (Grev.) was collected in April on the leaves of Conopodium 



By G, F. Hurst. 285 

Tnajus (Loret), the Common Pignut, in Trinkledown Copse, near Stype. Tlie 
fungus, which is not uncommon, should be looked for early on the radical 
leaves ; parasitised plants may be known by their yellowish appearance. 
The rust occurs on the leaves and petioles, and always causes swelling of 
the affected parts. 

P. Heradei (Grev.) This infrequent species was found by Mr. Lowndes 
on the under surface of the leaves of Heracleum Sphondyliuni (Linn.). Com- 
mon Cow-parsnip, at Aldbourne, on the 12th May, 1923, during a field day 
of the Marlborough College Natural History Society ; the aecidia occur in 
swollen patches, often causing distortion and are sometimes almost spherical 
and superficial, resembling a group of miniature Peziza vesiculosa. 

P. aegra (Grove). The aecidia were observed on the 8th April, 1929, on 
the Viola cornuta naturalised near St. Katharine's Church in Savernake 
Forest ; the uredo-or teleuto-sori were seen in July ; thisuredine infests the 
violets and pansies cultivated in gardens. The aecidia are formed especially 
on the swollen and distorted stems, and can be found until August, while 
those of the closely allied P. Violae do not occur after early June. It is a 
parasite which can do considerable harm and all infected plants should be 
burned. 

P. Buxi (D.C.) growing on Buxus semper vir ens {\ Ann.), the Common Box, 
was found during the London University Foray at Wootton Uivers in July, 
1927. The sori, which are rather common, occur on both sides of the leaves, 
and are hard and compact, and chestnut-brown or purplish-brown in colour. 

P. fusca (Winter). The dark-brown teleutospores on Anemone nemorosa 
(Linn.), Wood Anemone, in Chisbury Wood in April ; the plants attacked 
by this common rust are deformed and never flower ; the leaves are paler 
and narrower, and are much thickened. 

P. Galthae (Link) on G altha palustris (Linn.), Marsh Marigold. A rather 
rare uredine, allied to the next species, seen during the London University 
Foray at Wootton Rivers in July, 1927. 

P. Zopfii {S^mtQY). This scarce rust was found growing finely on the 
under-surface of the leaves of Galtha palustris (Linn.) Marsh Marigold, in 
a depression in a marsh near Stype, Bagshot, on the 20th July, 1922, and 
was seen in the same place in 1929; the teleuto-sori were observed on both 
occasions, Mr. Grove kindly wrote : — '* Your Pucci^iia is certainly P. Zopjii 
(Wint.). It shows on many of the teleutospores towards the apex (when 
viewed dry), the few scattered warts which mark the species, but the 
size and proportions of the spores are also sufficient to distinguish it ; 
those of P. Galthae are much more slender." 

P. Lychnidearumj {Link). A common species noticed* on Lychnis diur^ia 
(Mill), Red Robin, near Oare, Marlborough, in April, and on Arenaria 
trinervia (Linn,), Three-nerved Sandwort, in Foxbury Wood in October; 
the sori on Lychnis diurna are remarkably circinate. This species will 
probably be divided into several biological races. 

P. Polygoni-amphihii (Pers.). The teleutospores were observed on the 
leaves of the terrestrial form of Polygonum amphibium (Linn.), Amphibious 
Persicaria, by the side of the Kennet and Avon Canal, near Pewsey, on the 
23rd July, 1925. The aecidia, in this hetercecious species, grow on Ger- 



286 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

anium pratense, G. sylvaticum and oher species of Geranium but do not 
appear to have been found in Britain ; the uredo- and teleuto-sori are not 
uncommon. 

P. Iridis (Wallr.) was recorded in Hatchet Lane, Bedwyn, on Iris 
foetidissima (Linn.) Gladdon or Fetid Iris, in my paper, " East Wilts Rust 
Fungi " (Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xli., p. 269) ; it may be mentioned that it 
was noted on cultivated Iris germanica, in a garden in Little Bedwyn, on 
the 4th August, 1922. 

P, obscura (Schrot.) on Bellis pere^mis (Linn.), the Daisy. The aecidia 
on a plant near Harding Farm, Bedwyn, on the 18th April, 1926. This 
rust is not common, except locally, and is heteroecious, the uredo- and 
teleutospores being formed on the Wood Rushes, Luzula campestris and 
i. sylvatica. Mr. Grove mentions that teleutospores are rarely produced 
and that he has seen them only on dead leaves. The heteroecism of this 
fungus was first demonstrated by Plowright. 

A rust occurred in fair quantity on Garex glauca (Scop.) near Ramsbury 
in August, 1923 ; Mr. Grove wrote about it : — " Puccinia on Carex glauca 
seems to be rare, it is only mentioned once or twice and it is not known to 
what it belongs. You must look for the aecidium on Taraxacum ; you 
know that Puce, sylvatica, in which the teleutospores occur on Carices, is 
very little known." Mr. H. H. Knight, of Cheltenham, to whom 1 sent 
specimens, wrote : — " I have never seen the rust on Garex glauca before. 
Some time ago I saw a rust on Garex, I believe on Garex Goodenovii, but 
there was no Rihes Grossularia (Gooseberry) near. This was near Chelten- 
ham. Once when in S. Wales I came across aecidia on Rihes Grossularia, 
These rusts on Garices are difficult, and I think many of them can get on 
without the aecidial stage. Take, for example, Puccinia Garicis. Our 
woods near Cheltenham are full of Garex pendula with the rust, and also 
growing with nettles, and yet I have never seen the aecidia on these nettles 
in the spring. But when I find Puccinia Garicis on Garex riparia or 
G, acutiformis, the nettles in the neighbourhood always have the aecidia in 
spring." 

P. graminis (Pers.). This is the famous " rust " (uredo-) or " mildew " 
(teleutospores) of corn ; the uredo-sori were seen on Bromus asper (Murr.), 
the Rough Brome Grass, in Galley Lane, Bedwyn, in June, and on Phalaris 
arundinacea (Linn.), Ribbon Grass, near Marlborough College, in July. 
P. graminis is known as the " Black Rust " from the colour of the teleuto- 
sori ; the chief damage to the crops is caused by the brownish-ochre uredo- 
sori, the " rust," par excellence. In 1889 the damage caused by the rust in 
Australia was estimated at between two and three million pounds, 

P. coronata (Corda). The uredo-and teleutospores on Galamagrostis 
epigeios (Roth.) the Wood Smallreed Grass, in Bedwyn Brails, in August 
and November. The teleutospores were horned or coronate at the apices, 
and were referred to this species by Mr. Grove. P. graminis and P. coronata 
have both been recorded on Galamagrostis epigeios on the Continent. P. 
coronata is one of the two Crown Rusts, which are now held to form but 
one species. 
P. Lolii (Niels.). The orange uredo-sori in abundance on Holcus mollis 



By G, P. Hurst. 287 

(Linn.), the Creeping Soft Grass, in Bedwyn Brails, in August ; this is the 
Crown Rust of Oat, and does considerable damage to the oat crops, it is 
most frequently found on Rye-Grass, and also occurs plentifully on Arrhen- 
atherum avenaceum, the False Oat. When it grows on the latter, the de- 
velopment of the uredospores is so profuse as to attract the attention of 
even non-botanical eyes. I find that the aecidia of this species were recorded 
on Rhamnus Catharticus^ and the uredo-sori on oats, in my previous paper 
"Bast Wiltshire Rust Fungi" mentioned above. 

P. sessilis {Schneid.) on Phalaris arundinacea (Linn), the Ribbon Grass. 
The black teleutospores on Phalaris, close to Stagg's Lock on the Kennet 
and Avon Canal, near Froxfield, in August. Mr. Grove wrote : — " P. sessilis 
does not seem to grow near Birmingham ; the backs of some of the leaves 
yielded plenty of teleutospores exactly like the figures in ' British Bust 
Fungi.'" An uncommon uredine, divided into four biological races, the 
aecidia occuring on various species of monocotyledons. 

P. Magnusiana (Korn.) on Phragmites communis (Linn.), the Common 
Reed, in September, by the Kennet and Avon Canal, near the White Lock 
House, between Bedwyn and Crofton. Mr. Carleton Rea wrote about the 
Bedwyn specimens, " the teleuto-sori are really very immature and not at 
all pulverulent, so that the spores do not separate readily from the spore 
bed. The paraphyses are rather sparse but they are undoubtedly present, 
and they never are in P. Trailii, in which the uredo- and teleutospores 
also occur on the Common Reed." P. Magnusia7ia is infrequent, except 
locally, the aecidia are found on the buttercups, Ranunculus bulbosus and 
repens, from April to June or even July and August. 

P. Phlei-pratensis (Erikss. et Henn.) growing on Phleum pratense (Linn.), 
Cat's-tail Grass. This rust, which is new to the British Islands, was found 
by Mr. A. G. Lowndes on the 3rd June, 1922, upon the edge of a sandpit near 
Bedwyn ; a full account of the discovery is given in the Report of the 
Marlborough College Natural History Society for 1922, pp. 60 — 81, it is as 
follows : — '• During the year a rust hitherto unrecorded in the British Isles 
was found at Great Bedwyn. It is now growing extensively under cultiva- 
tion for scientific observation at Marlborough. The rust in question is 
known as Puccinia Phlei-pratensis on account of its being one of the great 
group of rusts and its growing on the well-known grass Phleum pratense or 
Cat's-tail. The description coincides in every point with that given in 
*' British Rust Fungi" by W. B. Grove, and Mr. Grove has been good 
enough to verify the identification and further observations made on this 
interesting rust. We are fortunate in having an abundant growth both of 
the uredospores and teleutospores. The latter are not often found even 
on the Continent, where the rust is much more common. 

The chief interest in this rust lies in the vexed question as to whether 
it is or is not Puccinia graminis. To all outward appearance it is practi- 
cally identical with P. graminis except that it lacks the power of being able 
to infect Berberis, the Common Barberry. If it is capable of infecting 
Berberis then there is no reason for treating it as a separate species. Ex- 
periments are being carried out on its power of infection, but of course these 
are a matter of time. 



288 Natural Ristorij Notes 7'ound Great Bedwyn. 

One point of strong resemblance to P. graminis has been observed in the 
presence of four equatorial germ pores in the uredospores. The finding of 
this rust was certainly attended by a considerable amount of luck. 

Mr. Hurst and I were in the field doing field botany and I took the 
opportunity of getting familiar with the more important species of grass. 
I picked a specimen of Fhleum pratense and I placed it in my vasculum. 
Next day I was working through these grasses when I noticed a rust on 
the Phleum. The identification of the particular rust was quite simple, but 
as the occurrence was so rare I sent a specimen to Mr. Grove, of Birming- 
ham, who verified the identification. Meanwhile I had attempted to im- 
pregnate three plants of Phleum pratense growing outside the laboratory in 
the hope that they would provide material for future study. Mr, Hurst 
and I then spent the whole of one afternoon searching in the known locality 
for further specimens, but although we found the grass growing abundantly 
we saw no sign of the rust. A week later after diligent searching Mr. Hurst 
found a few plants impregnated with rust. We kept these under observa- 
tion but they were right on the edge of a sand pit that was being worked 
and are now exterminated. Fortunately the experiments of artificial im- 
pregnation had succeeded at Marlborough and there is plenty of material 
for observation. The rust is of sufficient interest for specimens of it to find 
a place in the herbariums of the British Museum and also the botanic 
museums of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. A. G. Lowndes." 
P. Phlei-pratensisi^kno'Vin to occur in Germany, Austria, Denmark, and 
Sweden and Mr. Grove in " British Rust Fungi " mentioned that its occur- 
rence in Britain was extremely likely. He very kindly wrote me on the 
2.3rd December, 1930: — " Puccinia Phlei-pratensis has been found at 
Aberystwith. I do not think that anyone has succeeded in infecting Ber- 
heris with it yet, but most authors seem to reckon it as merely a variety of 
P. graminis.^' 

Coleosporium Tussilaginis (Tul.). The rich, orange-red, waxy teleuto- 
sori, in September, on the under-surface of Coltsfoot leaves at Mirl Down^ 
and in other places near Bedwyn ; a very common species, the aecidia being 
formed on the needles of the Scots Fir (Pinus sylvestris). The species of 
this genus are very much alike and are chiefly distinguished by their hosts. 
The aecidia are produced on the needles of two-leaved pines, and in the 
case of C. Tussilaginis, they occur on both leaves of the fascicle. 

Melampsora Amygdalinae (Kleb.) on Salix triandra (Linn), the Almond 
or French Willow. The uredo- and teleutospores on Almond Willows, by 
the Kennet and Avon Canal, near the Lock House between Bedwyn and 
Crofton, in September ; this rust also occurred plentifully on Salix triandra 
in the Epilobium hirsutum swamp at Shalbourne, from which the Shal- 
bourne stream arises. Mr. Grove wrote : — " Thank you very much for the 
Melampsora. I have known for some time that M. Amygdalinae has been 
found in Britain, but have never seen it living before. Yours are magnifi- 
cent specimens ; I hope you will be able to find the teleutospores later. 
This Melampsora is more distinct than many of Klebahn's species, because 
it is autoecious, not heteroecious. What arrangements have you made about 
publishing your find ? It is worthy of careful description, especially later 



By G. P. Hurst. 289 

when you have found the teleutospores. So far as I have examined your 
specimens, I find only uredospores." Mr. Carleton Kea, to whom I sent 
specimens, wrote : — " I have found teleutospores in this consignment . . . 
I think the profuse infection," the rust occurred copiously on the trees, " is 
a macroscopic feature that differentiates M. Aniygdalinae from the other 
heteroecious species." 

Melampsorella Symphyti (Bub4k) on Symphytum officinale (Linn), 
Common Comfrey, close to Stagg's Lock on the Kennet and Avon Canal, 
Froxfield, in May. It was also found by Mr. C. R. Metcalfe in a marsh 
near Manningford Abbas, in May, 1923. A rather uncommon species; 
neither the aecidia, which occur on the leaves of Abies pectinata, the Silver 
Fir, nor the teleutospores have been found in Britain. 

Puccinastrum Gircaeae (iSpeg.). This rust was noticed on Gircaea lutet- 
iana (Linn.), Enchanter's Nightshade, in Foxbury Wood, on the 20th 
August, 1923; the yellowish uredo-sori were collected, they are produced 
beneath the leaves, on paler patches bounded by veins. It is not uncommon 
in the uredo stage and has sometimes been confused with Puccinia Circeaet 
which may occur on the same leaf. 

The following species was accidentally omhted:— Puccinia Girsii (Lasch) 
was found on Gmcus palustris {W\\\d.), the Marsh Thistle, in Bedwyn Brails, 
on the 27th July, 1922 ; Mr. Grove considers this plant is probably not un- 
common, although there is no mention of it in Plowright's '* Uredineae," nor 
in Plowright's list in the Trayisactions of the British Mycological Society. 

Mosses. 

The gemmiferous Tetraphis pellucida (Hedw.) still grows in small quantity 
and poor condition, on a stump in Botley C'opse ; rare in this chalky country, 
it is abundant in peaty districts. In September, 1930, it was found in some 
quantity and fruiting copiously in Cobham Frith Wood, near Bedwyn. It 
is apparently new to North Wiltshire (vice-county 7) in the latter locality. 

Gatharinea tenella ( l\oehl). A very rare species which continues to occur 
upon a ride in Chisbury Wood where it was noted on the 11th October, 
1929 ; the only other English vice-county from which it is known is West 
Kent (v.c. 16). It was first found in 1918 or 1919 and was recorded in 
^^ East Wiltshire MosseSt Hepatics, and Lichens'^ {Wilts Arch, Mag,, vol. 
xli., p. 42). 

Pleuridium axillare (Lindb.). On wet clay near Haw Wood. 

Barhula cylindrica (Schp,). Hedgebank near Crofton. 

Bartramia pomiformis (Hedw.) was observed on the 6th March in very 
small quantity, in Tottenham Park, but no capsules were seen. 

Philonotis calcarea (Schp.). A vivid green moss growing by the side of 
the canal at Burnt Lock, Bedwyn. 

The pretty little rosette-shaped Bryum roseum (Schreb.) was gathered on 
ant-hills on Botley Down on the4th January, 1930; the fruitis extremely rare. 

Fontinalis antipyretica (Linn.). In the Kennet and Avon Canal at Fore 
Bridge, Little Bedwyn. 

Thuidium Philiherti (Limpr.). Plentiful on a grassy slope near Shal- 
bourne Newtown ; this moss has been much confused with T. recognitum 
(Lindb.). 



290 Natvbral History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

Amhlystegium filicinum (De Not.) produced its rare fruit in May, by the 
side of the canal at Burnt Lock. 

Hypnum stellatum vAr. protensum (Roehl), a paludal species, was seen 
also in May, growing in a bog near the village. 

Hepatics. 

The Crystalwort, Riccia glauca (Linn.) occurred on damp clay in Haw 
Wood in October. 

The rare Fossombronia Husnoti var. anglica (Nicholson) still grows in 
Chisbury Wood. Specimens were found on the 16th April, 1930, and were 
very kindly identified by Mr. W. E. Nicholson, of Lewes. It is only known 
elsewhere from Carmarthen and South Devon, and was recorded in the 
Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xli., p. 40, and in the Marlborough College Nat. 
.Hist. Soc. Report for 1919. 

Cephaloziella integerrima (Lindb.) Warnst. Mr. W. E. Nicholson, of 
Lewes, Sussex, wrote me on the 14th October, 1929 : — " I wonder whether 
you have ever again found the hepatic Cephaloziella integerrima which you 
once sent me mixed with a Fossombronia. I am particularly interested in 
this plant, as it seems to have died out in the only accessible locality in 
which I knew it in Sussex, and with the exception of your plant, it has not 
been found elsewhere in the British Isles." The specimens sent grew on 
sandy clay upon a ride in Chisbury Wood, near Bedwyn ; a few perianths 
were present and Mr. Nicholson remarked that " the condition of your 
plants suggests it does well with you." See *' Fast Wiltshire MosseSj 
Hepatics, and Lichens" {Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xli., p. 48). 

Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Web.) Hampe. This rare and very pretty 
hepatic appears to have become extinct in Foxbury Wood, the bark upon 
which it grew having decayed. 

Lichens. 

Fine specimens of Phaeographis inusta (Muell.-Arg.) and P. cie7io?riiica 
(Muell.-Arg.) were noted on beeches in Rivar Plantation in May ; they are 
rather rare lichens, distinctly southern in their distribution. 

Galls. 

The galls on the Greater Scabious {Scabiosa arvensis) caused by the mite 
Eriophyes centaureae (Nalepa) are common in the district and were observed 
near Kamsbury on the 8th April, an early record, while in September, 1929, 
the fronds of the Lady Fern {Athyrium Filix-foemira) , near the Column in 
Savernake Forest, were seen to be deformed by the larvae of the fly, 
Anthomyia signata (Brischke). 

MOLLUSCA. 

In April, 1929, living Unio pictorum was observed in the Kennet and 
Avon Canal between the Bedwyns. In May, Helix hortensis vdiV.fagorumt 
with a violet lip and of the colour of withered beech leaves, and Clausilia 
laminata were seen in Uivar Plantation, and an excellent example of Helix 
nemoralis var. minor, not more than 16 mills, in diameter, was taken on the 
downs near Tidcombe and in the same month, in the hedge bank by the 
Canal at Little Bedwyn, a specimen of Helicigona arbustorum var. conica 
was noticed. The grey form, var. plumbea of the large black slug, Arion 
ater, occurred in Chisbury Wood in September. 



291 



SCEATCH DIALS ON WILTSHIKE CHUKCHES. 
By R. G. V. Dymock. 

The term " scratch-dial '' has been applied to a primitive form of sun- 
dial cut directly on one or more of the stones of many of our old Churches. 
" Service-dial^" is perhaps a better name for them, as some consist merely 
of holes and not lines, and their primary object appears to have been to 
show the times for mass or vespers. Mr. A. R. Green, the author of a 
treatise on the subject, calls them Mass-Clocks, but as nobody speaks of an 
ordinary sundial as a "clock," and as some of these dials were certainly in- 
tended to show the time for vespers, I do not think the term appropriate. 

The subject has attracted a certain amount of attention of late years, and 
many theories have been put forward and abandoned. Dom Ethelbert 
Home's little book, " Scratch Dials," deals with these at some length. The 
following circumstances perplexed the earlier enquirers :— (1) the dials did 
not record time by any known system ; (2) they had lines on which na 
shadow could be cast ; (3) they were sometimes found on unsuitable 
places, such as north walls, inside porches, or inside the churches 
(Tidworth and Inglesham). Some dials have only two lines — the noon- 
line, which is nearly always present, and the mass-line. Some have lines 
cut above the style-holes, which are either later and unauthorised additions 
(as at Calstone), or show that the dial has been inverted in rebuilding or 
repairs {e.g.f Old Dilton and Wanborough). Where found inside a porch, 
the dial is usually older than the porch, and other dials are frequently 
found outside, having, apparently, been cut to replace it{e.g.^ Etchilhampton, 
and when 1 found on north, east or west walls (as at Pitton and Stockton) 
they may have been used, perhaps in post-Reformation times, as repair 
stones. If a Church were supplied with a clock it would no longer need a 
dial, and the stone or stones on which the latter had been cut might be 
shifted if required, and after the Reformation, when mass and vespers had 
ceased, dials would no longer be needed to show the times for these services. 
It is true that there are post- Reformation dials, but these are sundials in a 
more or less primitive form, and not scratch-dials {e.g. Bishops Cannings). 

The profusion of dials on some Church walls (Stockton is, in this respect,^ 
the most notable Church in Wilts) has not yet been completely accounted 
for. Some may have been due to the growth of trees or buildings shutting 
out the sunlight, some to creepers covering up the dials altogether. Others 
are mere copies, modern or otherwise, made by some idler with a knife or 
chisel, and others again for various reasons, which might be suggested by 
an examination of the Church or a knowledge of its history {cf. Sutton 
Benger). 

There is no very clear indication of the dates of these dials. They are 
quite distinct from the dials of the so-called Saxon period, of which over 
twenty are still known to exist, including two in Gloucestershire and three 
in Hants, but none in Wilts. Scratch-dials are found in Normandy, and 
were probably introduced by the Normans. They must date from some 



292 Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches. 

time between the Norman Conquest and the death of Mary Tudor in 1558 ; 
but there is, as a rule, little to indicate to what period of the intervening 
centuries any particular dial belongs, and that little is usually found, not in 
the dial itself, but in its surroundings. There is nothing in these dials 
themselves to distinguish those of one century from those of another. 

It is not yet settled whether the styles or gnomons (nearly all of which 
have perished) stood at right angles to the walls or not. Heddington has 
an iron gnomon at right angles to the wall. The dial in this case is little 
more than a circle, and the lines may have been painted and not incised. 
There are a few marks which might have been numerals, but are so in- 
distinct that it is impossible to say with any certainty. The dial may be 
post- Reformation, but I am not absolutely sure of this. 

Records of surviving dials have been made for Somerset, and, I believe, 
for Gloucestershire also, while one for Herefordshire is also receiving atten- 
tion (if not already done). I thought it might also be desirable in the case of 
Wilts, a county which has quite a large number of them. How many of 
those I have noted are unauthorised copies I cannot be quite sure ; but I 
would suggest that the question might be considered from time to time as 
the Society visits the old churches. 

It is possible that dials may have been missed, and are not recorded in 
this list. In some cases they may be covered with ivy or otherwise con- 
cealed. If any such additional dials are discovered, they should be reported 
to the hon. secretary of the Wilts Arch. Society, Canon E. H. Goddard, 
F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

No dials have been observed on the following Churches : — Aidbourne, 
Alderton, Alton Barnes, Alton Priors, Amesbury, Ashley, Avebury, Barford 
St. Martin, Great Bedwyn, Little Bedwyn, Beechingstoke, Bemerton Old 
Church, Berwick Bassett, Berwick St. John, Bishopstrow, Blacklands, 
Blunsdon Broad, Blunsdon St. Andrew, Bowerchalke, Box, Bradford-on- 
Avon, N. Bradley, Bratton, Brinkworth, Britford, Brixton Deverel, Broad- 
chalke. Broad Hinton, Brokenborough, Bromham, Burbage, Buttermere, 
Calne, Castle Combe, Great Chalfield, Charlton (Nr. Malmesbury), Charlton 
(Pewsey Vale), Cherhill, Great Cheverell, Chilmark, Chippenham, Chirton, 
Chitterne St. Mary, Codford St. Mary, Codford St. Peter, Colerne, 
CoUingbourne Ducis, Compton Bassett, Compton Chamberlaine, Corston. 
Coulston, Cricklade St. Sampson, Cricklade St. Mary, Crudwell, Devizes 
St. .John, Donhead St. Andrew, Ebbesbourne Wake, Fisherton Delamere, 
Fittleton, Foxley, Fyfield, Garsdon, Grimstead, Ham, Hilperton, Hinton 
Parva, Holt, Idmiston, Imber, Kingston Deverill, Kington St. Michael, 
West Kington, Knook, East Knoyle, Lacock, Little Langford, Latton, 
Market Lavington, West Lavington, Lea, Limpley Stoke, Longbridge 
IJeverill, Ludgershall, Lyneham, Maddington, Malmesbury Abbey, Marl- 
borough St. Peter, South Marston, Melksham, Monkton Deverill, Monkton 
Farleigh, Netheravon, Netherhampton, Long Newnton, North Newnton, 
Norton, Norton Bavant, Nunton, Orcheston St. George, Patney, Preshute, 
Rodbourne Cheney, Rollestone, Rowde, Seend, Semington, Shrewton, 
Great Somerford, Sopworth, Standlynch, Stanton Fitzwarren, Staverton, 
Steeple Ashton, Steeple Langford, Stourton, Stratford-sub-Castle, Sutton 



By R G. V. Dymock. 293 

Mandeville, Swindon Old Church, Tilshead, Trowbridge, Upton Lovel, 
Upton Scudamore, Warminster, Westwood, Whiteparish, Wilton Old 
Church, Winterbourne Gunner, Winterbourne Monkton, Winterslow, North 
Wraxall, South Wraxall. 

List of Dials. 

[Unless the context otherwise requires, figures in brackets represent the 
height in feet of the stylehole above the ground immediately beneath it.] 

All Cannings. Six, viz., two on W. side of porch and four on S. wall 
east of porch. 

Alvediston. One very doubtful dial on W. side of porch. 

Anstey. One doubtful dial high up on S. wall near S. W, corner. 

Ashton Keynes. Two, one by built-up Priest's Door (5), and one facing 
east (4) near S.E. corner of nave. 

Baverstock. One high up on S.W. corner of porch (others below it 
appear to be copies, probably modern), and one inverted and facing W. at 
same corner. 

Baydon. Two, one on its side, very rudely cut, on corner-stone S. W. of 
porch, and one, inverted, on S.E. corner of nave. 

Berwick St. James One, dubious, faint, and of an early type if genuine, 
on W. side of built-up door, and one, inverted, on S.W. quoin of transept. 

Berwick St. Leonard. One, facing S.E. on eastern side of porch. This 
dial, apparently, had only the mass-line at first, but others, not so deeply 
cut, have been added, probably in post- Reformation times. 

Biddestone. Two, one inside porch, and another, low down, facing E., 
on N. side of Church. Also some dubious dials. 

Bishop's Cannings. Three : one in porch, and two, close together, on 
S. wall east of porch. One of these may be a copy of the other. There is 
also a post- Reformation dial on S.E. quoin of chancel. 

Bishopstone (near Salisbury). One (4) on side of Priest's door. 

Bishopstone (near Swindon). One, very deeply cut, with two surround- 
ing circles, on buttress to E, of S. door. Also a post-Reformation dial, 
with numerals, above it. 

Boscombe. One (5) on W. side of S. door. 

Boyton. One (3) by window near W. end of Church ; also a faint dial 
facing S.E. on buttress at S.E. corner (5). 

Bremhill. It is scarcely possible to say how many there are on this 
Church. There is certainly one under a window to E. of porch, and there 
are two others (one perhaps a copy) on the porch itself ; but there seems to 
have been a great deal of copying, probably a good many years ago, and the 
stone is worn in places, suggesting dials in bad condition, where it is quite 
possible that none ever existed. I cannot say with certainty that there 
were ever more than three, all told, though at first sight the number might 
appear to be considerably greater. 

Broughton Gifford. One (7) E. side of porch. 

Bulford. One small dial (7) by window near porch, and one on sill of 
next window. Part only of the latter is visible, Jthe wall below being 
covered with plaster. 



294 Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches. 

Burcombe. One on S.E. quoin. Another (very dubious) on western 
side of porch. 

Calstone. One, much " mutilated," on 3rd buttress from E. on S. side. 
Castle Eaton. One, facing E., on buttress E. of porch (6). 

Charlton (near Malmesbury). One inside porch, eastern side. 

Chilton Poliat. Only a very dubious dial on S.W. corner of Tower 
buttress (6). 
Chisledon. One (7) on east buttress of tower. 

Christian Malford. Two, on south wall, east of S. door, one above the 
other. There are also marks on a buttress facing S.W. which may be the 
remains of a third dial. 

Clyffe Pypard. Two, one on each side of south porch. 

Collingbourne Kingston. One (5) on S.E. quoin of nave. 

Coombe Bissett. Two on one stone, S. wall. One is probably a copy of 
the other. 

Corsham. Two close together, by a window W. of porch. They are not 
much alike so both may be genuine. Also several more of less dubious 
dials, including one high up on N. side of chancel, and one, facing N.E., at 
S.E. corner of nave. 

Dauntsey. Two, one on E. side of porch, and one on buttress just E, of 
tower. 

West Dean. One inside porch, three (of which at least one is undoubtedly 
a copy) on 8.E quoin, facing S., and one on same quoin, but facing E. (5). 

Devizes, St. Mary. One rather high up, on diagonal buttress on W. side 
of porch. 

Dilton (old Church). Two, viz., one (apparently inverted) on buttress 
W. of priest's door, and one on W. side of porch. The latter may perhaps 
be regarded as doubtful. 

Dinton. One (7) on buttress near W. end of Church. 

Ditteridgfe. None visible, but the Church, on the S. side, is almost en- 
tirely covered with ivy. 

Donhead St. Mary. One (6) on W. side of porch. 

Downton. One (7) between the two porches, with a rectangular style 
hole. A doubtful dial beneath it. 

Draycot Cerne. Remains of inverted dial (6) on buttress immediately E. 
of tower. Also a hole-dial (stylehole invisible, but may have been in space 
between two stones) on same buttress a little to W. of above, and rather 
lower down. Also a dial (3) on buttress to W. of priest's door. 

Durnford. One (5) on second buttress E. of S. porch. 

Durrington. One by priest's door (5^). 

Bdington. One on S. wall of transept (15). 

Bnford. One, inverted, on E. wall of nave (10). 

Btchilhampton. Three, viz., one inside porch (5) and two close together 
by window E. of porch. 

Pifield Bavant. Dubious dials only. 

Figfhieldean. One hole-dial low down on W, side of porch. 

Fontliill Bishop. One, very low down, by S.W. quoin. 



By R. G. V. Dymock. 295 

rovant. Four dials, close together, one being incomplete (4 or 5). It is 
probable tbat only one is original, the others being copies of uncertain date, 
but not recent. 

Froxfield. Three, one on E. side of window E. of porch (6), one on S.E. 
corner-stone of nave, and one on S.E. corner of chancel (5). Some lines cut 
below this do not appear to form part of a genuine dial, but to have been 
made by some idler with a knife. 

Hankerton. One on a buttress to E. of porch. 

Hanning-ton. Two, one on E. side of porch (6) and one on a buttress to 
W. of porch (12). 

West Harnham. One on E. side of S. door (7). 

Haddington. A post-Reformation dial on S,M quoin of nave. It has an 
iron gnomon, apparently original, at right angles to the wall. 

Heytesbury. One, inverted, near S.W. corner of Church. 

Higfhworth. One, W. side of porch (6ft.). 

Hilmarton. One. On buttress adjoining organ chamber. 

HuUaving-ton. The S. side of this Church appears to have been rebuilt, 
but there is a scratch-dial, which has been preserved, put high up, and 
furnished with a gnomon, apparently with a view to its doing duty as a 
sundial. 

Ingflesham. One on a figure of the Virgin and Child formerly outside, 
but now inside. 

Keevil. Four. Two near S.E. corner of Church and two on tower but- 
tresses. Also some doubtful dials. 

Lang-ley Burrell. Four. One on S.W. quoin (12), and three on but- 
tresses W. of tomb. The lowest of these three may be an incomplete copy 
of one of the others. It has only the stylehole and mass line. The one 
next above it and a little to the E. is probably the oldest ; and the highest 
(7ft. above grass) was presumably cut because of some growing tree or other 
object which interfered with the sunlight lower down. See also under 
Upavon. 

Lidding-ton. One on tower buttress (5). 

Lucking'ton. Three. One in porch behind notice-board, and one on each 
of the two buttresses immediately to E. of porch. These two dials (height 
about 4ft. in each case) are both faint and have to be carefully searched for ; 
but they are undeniably genuine. 

Lydiard Millicent. Four. One, which has numerals and looks post- 
Reformation (5^) on S.E. corner of nave ; one (9) on eastern side of window 
E. of porch ; one (5j) on E. side of porch ; and one (5) to W. of porch. The 
last-mentioned dial also has numerals, but it has the appearance of an 
ordinary scratch-dial, to which the numerals were subsequently added ; and 
it seems probable that the first-mentioned dial was cut in Elizabethan or 
later times, because it was found that the earlier one did not register the 
time with suflScient accuracy. 

Lydiard Tregoze. This Church is difficult of access, the churchyard 
being locked, and the key obtained with difficulty. There is a possible dial 
at S.E. corner, and another of an ordinary type behind some railings further 
W. ; but I could not get near enough to the latter to be able to say whether 
it is a genuine dial or not. 
VOL. XLV, — NO. CLIV. X 



296 Scratch Dials on Wiltshire Churches. 

Maiden Bradley. One on buttress near W. side of porch (6). 

Manning-ford Bruce, One on a pilaster E. of nave, and another possible 
dial above it (12). 

Marden. Two close together (one probably a copy— cf. Coombe Bissett 
and Stockton), W. wall. 

Marlboroug-h (St. Mary). Two : one on buttress immediately E. of porch, 
and one on 4th buttress further E. 

Mere. Three (4), (4), and (8), near S.E. corner. 

Mildenhall. One (no note of location). Two others, partly hidden by 
ivy on S.W. quoin. 

Milston. One by S.E. corner (13). 

Milton Lilbourne. Six, viz., (a) small dial (3) on buttress W. of Priest's 
door ; (6) faint hole-dial above (4); (c) hole-dial on E. side of porch (2|) ; 
{d) dial above same (4) ; (e) another above that (5|), faint and rather dubious ; 
(/) hole-dial on W. side of porch (6). 

Minety. One. No accurate note of location, 

Nettleton. One. No note of location. 

South Newton. Two of an early type (2) and (4), near S.W. corner. 
One may perhaps be a copy of the other. 

Oaksey. One (9), inverted. 

Odstock. Three, one on E. side of S. door, and two on W. side of same 
(4) and (2). The lower one may be a copy. 

Og-bourne St. Andrew. Two, one rudely cut, inside porch, and one on 
E. wall (14). 

Ogbourne St. G-eorge. One on E. side of porch (8), and one, inverted, 
on S.E. quoin (5). 

Orcheston St. Mary. One (3) under a window E. of porch. 

Pewsey. One at S.E. corner (3) 

Pitton. One, inverted, on N. side, near N.E. corner (.3). 

Potterne. One faint, but undoubtedly genuine, dial on S.W. corner of 
transept (4). 

Poulshot. None. Old sundial without gnomon. 

Purton. Remains of post- Reformation dial, with numerals, on corner- 
stone E. of porch (10), and faint scratch dial below it (5i). Also a much 
clearer dial on corner-stone further E. 

Ramsbury. One, inverted and facing W. (10), on buttress W. of porch. 

Rodbourne. One very doubtful dial on W side of porch. 

Rushall. One dubious dial high up in S.E. corner. 

Salisbury, St. Martin. Two. One, with numerals (6) on S.E. quoin of 
nave, and one (4) without numerals, on S E. quoin of chancel. (These dials 
being very rare in Cathedral cities, I should not have looked for them in 
Salisbury if I had not been told that they were to be found on St. Martin's, 
and I have not examined the other Churches in the city.) 

Slialbourne. Two small dials on S.E. quoin. 

Sherrington. Hole-dial, facing E., on first buttress E. of porch. 

Sherston Magna. One on west side of porch. 

Somerford, Little. One. No note of location. 



By B, G. V. Dymock 297 

Stanton St. Bernard. A dial of doubtful typs on one of the tower but- 
tresses. 

Stanton St. Quintin. One (2) on E. side of porch. 

Stapleford. One on W. side of porch, and several others, of which, how- 
ever, only one is probably genuine, on wall to E. (6). 

Stockton. There is quite an unusual number of dials on this Church. 
No doubt there has been a certain amount of copying, but it is not easy to 
say exactly how many are copy dials. 

Complete List of Dials from W. to E. 

West wall of transept : two close together (3), one probably a copy of the 
other. 

Diagonal buttress : one (5), and a faint dial below. Also, facing S.E., 
another dial (5). 

Buttress just W. of S. door : Three (two inverted) low down. 

W. side of S, door : A rectangular hole, with a piece of wood im- 
bedded in it, a small hole vertically below it, and another small hole a 
little to the E., and rather higher up. This may possibly be the remains of 
a hole-dial, for vespers. 

E. side of S. door : one (5|). 

First buttress E. of S. door : (a) two dials close together (5) and two 
others, inverted, below. Probably in each case one of the pair is a copy. 
<Cf. also Wanborough). (6) A rather dubious dial on E. side of buttress. 

S. wall, further E. : one dial (3). 

S.E. diagonal buttress : one rather worn, and a possible hole dial below. 

E. wall of transept : one under window (5). 

One under chancel window, adjoining transept (6). 

I feel inclined to recommend that, if possible, the dials on this Church 
might be very carefully examined by someone more competent than I am 
to report on them. 

Stratford Tony. One with a gnomon of uncertain date, but decidedly 
not original. Has been attributed to Aubrey. 

Stratton St. Marg-aret. Five : viz., two on each side of porch, and one 
(4) on wall E. of porch. 

Sutton Benger. Two : one over the other, immediately E. of porch, and 
three, one of which is doubtful, on wall further E. The latter dials were 
evidently made specially for the afternoon hours, as the porch would s'hut 
off the sunlight in the afternoon ; and moreover the afternoon lines are 
more deeply cut. 

Sutton Veny (ruins of old Church). Two, one perhaps a copy, on S.W. 
quoin ; one by Priest's door, and another a little to W. of the same. 

TefTont Evias. One on W. wall (10). 

TeflFbnt Magna. Two on W. side of porch (2) and (6), and one of an early 
type, dubious, on E. side of the same (4). 

Tidcombe. Two : one on S.E. quoin (8) and one on E. side of Priest's 
door (5). 

Tidworth, North. Two on N. interior wall of Church, one above the 
other. One is perhaps a copy. The lower dial has a piece cut off it. This 

X 2 



298 Scratch Dials on Wiltshire C/mrches. 

is the only Church in the county, except Inglesham, in the interior of which 
I have found dials. 

Tisbury. Four : two close together, but both apparently genuine (3), one 
on one of the S. buttresses (3), and one on S.W. quoin (4). 

Tockenham. One on Porch. Very well-preserved dial. One on S.E^ 
quoin facing E. inverted (6). 

ToUard Royal. Doubtful dials only. 

Tytherton. One very faint and doubtful dial only. 

Upavon. One near S.W. quoin, and another similar dial (6) above it. 
The lower one looks the older of the two, and it is hardly likely that anyone 
would want to make a copy 6ft. above ground for amusement. I therefore 
think that both dials are genuine, and that the upper dial was made because 
the shadow of some tree or building obstructed the sunlight on the lower. 
There are also some numerals on a stone just above the upper dial, which 
suggest a post- Reformation dial, of which, however, I saw no other trace. 

Urchfont. Eight or more, all to E. of porch. Three on corner stone, 
close to porch, (5), (6), and (13), all apparently genuine. Another (V), close 
to window, a little further E. Three others on buttress, (5), (7), dubious, 
and (9). One on centre buttress of chancel (4), and another on another 
buttress to E. of same. 

Wanborough.. Two, the lower one inverted on a buttress E. of S. porch. 
Presumably the lower was the older : it was removed during some rebuilding 
or repairs, replaced upside down, and the upper dial cut to make good. 

Westbury. Two hole-dials, facing respectively S W. and S.E. on a 
diagonal buttress E. of S. door. One of these is apparently a copy, as the 
stylehole is so shallow that it is difficult to see how it could have held a 
gnomon. 

Whaddon. An inverted post-Reformation dial on W. side of porch (7). 

Wilcot. One on tower buttress. 

Wilsford (near Woodborougfh). Two (5), one on each side of priest's 
door. 

Winkfield. A wheel-dial on W. face of tower, N. of door. Also a dial 
on W. wall of N. transept. Both dials are faint. 

Winterbourne Bassett. Three, low down, by priest's door. 

Winterbourne Datiiitsey. This Church appears to have been rebuilt, 
but some of the old stones were re-used, and there is a doubtful hole-dial 

(5) on buttress to E. of porch. 

Wmterbourne Btoke. Three, one over the other, on W, side of built-up 
Norman IS. doorway (one, or perhaps two, being copies), one on E. side of 
the same doorway, one on S.W. quoin of transept, and one by transept win- 
dow. Others extremely dubious. 

Wootton Bassett. There is a faint and rather puzzling dial on the 
eastern face of a buttress E. of S. door. There are some numerals, which 
might point to its being post- Reformation ; but its general aspect is rather 
that of a service-dial, to which the numerals have been added. It seems to 
be on its side. 

Wootton Rivers. Six, viz., {a) one, rather faint, on W. side of porch (6) ; 

(6) one on E. side of ditto (4) ; (c) one by window E. of porch (4^) ; (d) one 



By E. G. F. Dymock. 299 

on E. side of adjoining window ; {e) one, with numerals, possibly post- 
Reformation, by window E of priest's door; and (/) one on S.E. quoin 

Wroughton. One (6) on E. side of porch. 

Wylye. One, inverted, immediately E. of tower. 

Yatesbury. Four, viz., {a) one on wall K. of porch (6) ; (6) two on W. 
side of porch ; and (c) one on wall E. of porch (4). 

Yatton Keynell. Two, one near S.E. corner. I think the other is near 
it, but have no note of its location. Also a dubious dial. 



Note. — A. wheel-dial is one in which there are a number of lines, like the 
spokes of a wheel, continued above the level of the style-hole, with or with- 
out containing circle {e.g. Calstone). 

A hole-dial is one in which no lines have been cut, but there are a num- 
ber of holes, lying in the arc of a circle, of which the style-hole forms the 
centre {eg. Westbury). 



300 



THE "SANCTUAKY" ON OVERTON HILL, 
NEAK AVEBUKY. 

By M. K. CUNNINGTON. 

Being an accouub of excavations carried out by Mr. and Mrs. 
B. H, Ouunington in 1930. 

The earliest known description of the circles of standing stones at Ave- 
bury and on Overton Hill is that of Aubrey in the I7th century. His 
account of the rings on Overton Hill is very brief, but he left a plan giving 
further details (Plate IV.). He says " above which place [i.e. West Kennet) 
on the brow of the hill, is another monument, encompassed with a circular 
trench, and a double circle of stones, four or five foot high, tho' most of 
them are now fallen down." ' 

Aubrey first saw Avebury in 1648^ but his account does not seem to have 
been written till between the years 1659 — 1670.^ 

Under date June 15th, 1668, Pepys in his Diary, after describing his visit 
to Avebury, writes " So took coach again, seeing one place with great high 
stones pitched round, which, I believe, was once some particular building, 
in some measure like that of Stonehenge. But, about a mile off, it was 
prodigious to see how full the Downes are of great stones ; and all along 
the vallies stones of considerable bigness." Pepys was going from Ave- 
bury to Marlborough, so the circles on Overton Hill seem to be the only 
site to which this description of a place, reminding him of Stonehenge, could 
apply. If this is so, this mention of the circles is second only to that of 
Aubrey. 

The next description that we have of Avebury and its environs is that of 
Dr. Stukeley, written some fifty or sixty years later. Dr. Stukeley visited 
Avebury in several successive years before and after 1720, but his book 
Ahury was not published till 1743, 

He made a detailed study of Avebury and its surroundings, and his ob- 
servations, though not always very accurate, are invaluable. Stukeley was 
influenced by the idea of serpent worship, and thought that Avebury was 
laid out to represent a great serpent. 



^ Gibson's Camden (1695), 111 — 112 ; quoted by Stukeley in Abury, 32 ; 
see also Jackson's Aubrey, 322; W.A.M., iv, 311. Aubreys Monumenta 
Britannica, the MS. of which is now in the Bodleian Library, has never 
been published in full, but extracts relating to Wiltshire, with reproductions 
of the two plans referred to, will be found in Jackson's Aubrey, published 
by the society in 1862, and in Long's Abury, W.A.M., iv., 310 (1858) ; vii,, 
224. 

* W.A.M., iv., 311, ^Jackson's Aubrey, iii. 



The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 301 

The circles at Avebury itself represented the coiled body ; a double row 
of standing stones that Stukeley thought ran westwards (the problematical 
Beckhainpton avenue) represented the tail, and the Kennet avenue the fore- 
part of the body, while the circles on Overton Hill, at which the Kennet 
avenue ended, were regarded as the head. 

Stukeley describes with feelings of lively regret how what still remained 
of these circles on Overton Hill were destroyed in the winter of 1724, in 
order to clear the ground for ploughing and " to gain a little dirty profit." 
" They {i.e. the country people) still call it the Sanctuary." ^ 

The accounts given by Aubrey and Stukeley of the Sanctuary differ very 
considerably. Aubrey's sketch shows the rings as circles, while Stukeley 
describes them as two concentric ovals and plans them as such ; he also 
states that the stones of the inner ring " were somewhat bigger than of the 
outer ring.2 " 

Stukeley did not doubt that the Kennet avenue connected the Sanctuary 
with Avebury, but he says that Aubrey " did not see that 'tis but one 
avenue from Abury to Overton-hill, having no apprehension of the double 
curves it makes "^ This suggestion that Aubrey did not realise this con- 
nection is scarcely born out by Aubrey's own words " West Kynet stands 
in the angle where the walke {i.e. avenue) from Aubury hither, and that from 
the top of the hill did joine . . . and 'tis likely that here might in the 
old time have been the celle or Convent for the priests belonging to these 
temples."^ And again in describing the Kennet avenue Aubrey says — 
'' From the south entrance runnes a solemne Walke, sc. of stones pitch'd on 
end about seven foot high, wch goes as far as Kynet (wch is (at least) a 
measured mile from Aubury) and from Kynet it turnes a right angle east- 
ward crossing the river, and ascends up the hill to another monument of 
the same kind (but less) . . . very probable this walke was made for 
processions." ^ 

When in the Spring of 1930, the possibility of excavating the Sanctuary 
was being considered, the first difficulty was to locate the site. It was 
known only that it had stood somewhere in the field once known as jMill 
Field, west of the Ridge way and south of the main road (see note 2, p. 317). 

By the courtesy of the Archseology Officer of the Ordnance Survey, a 
number of photographs of the field taken from the air were examined, but 
none gave any indication of the site of the Sanctuary, though the ditch of 



1 Abury ^ 31. This does not seem a name at all likely to have been given 
by the local country folk. Aubrey made a marginal note in his M.S. to ask 
the name of the rings, but unfortunately, if ever asked, the answer has not 
come down to us. 

^ Abury, 32. ^ Abury, 32. ■* Jackson's Aubrey, 323. 

^ W.A.M., iv., 315—6 ; Aubrey made a slip in saying the avenue crossed 
the river Kennet, and in his sketch where the river is shown, his drawing 
of the avenue does net cross it. 



302 The '• Sanctuary " on Overtoil Hilt, near Avehury. 

the much-ploughed barrow in the same field, and of a barrow, quite in- 
visible on the ground, in the corner just north of the road, west of the 
liidgeway, were clearly defined. Attempts were made to locate the site 
in relation to barrows shown by Aubrey and iStukeley, but it was found 
impossible to identify these with the barrows still standing (see note 3, 
page 318). 

It was also attempted to find it by means of Stukeley's sketch made in 1723, 
which he says he took particular pains to make as accurate as possible, 
but it gave little help ; to have actually seen all that is shown in the draw- 
ing from one spot Stukeley must have been raised considerably above 
ground level — possibly on the box seat of a coach 1 (Plate V.) 

Eventually it was found that a remark of Stukeley's that it was possible 
to see the serpent's head from its tail, limited the area that need be searched. 
Describing what he regarded as the end of the Beckhampton avenue, 
Stukeley says — " in the low valley it terminates near a fine group of barrows 
under Cherhill-hill, . . . This point facing that group of barrows and 
looking up the hill is a most solemn and awful place ; . . . And in this 
very point only you can see the temple on Overton-hill, on the south side 
of Silbury-hill.* The group of barrows is that close to what is now known 
as Fox Covert, some three-quarters of a mile west of Beckhampton cross 
roads. On going to this spot it was found that a small triangular patch of 
Mill Field, 2^ miles away, could be seen, and by counting the telegraph poles 
visible along the roadside, it became easy to define the possible area on 
which the Sanctuary must have stood. 

Mr. W.J. Osmond, the owner and occupier of the land, having given per- 
mission, although the field was already planted with sugar beet, excavations 
were begun on May 20th, 1930, and continued for five weeks, four men being 
employed all the time, and for three weeks five men 

A trial trench, 6ft. wide, was dug from the lower limit of the area towards 
the Ridgeway, roughly parallel with the main road, and on the third day 
when hopes were running low, two stone holes that proved to belong to the 
outer ring were found, and the position of the circles thus established, work 
went on uninteruptedly until all the holes of the two stone circles, and 
those of the hitherto unsuspected post hole rings, were uncovered. 



The Situation. 

The circles stand on a small level plateau at the south-western end of 
the spur or ridge of down that runs northwards to Hackpen Hill. The 
liidgeway follows along this crest and passes within a few yards of the 
rings on their eastern side. 

The site is like that of Woodhenge in that a river, the Kennet, flows at 
the bottom of the ridge less than a quarter of a mile away. 

^ Aburp, 36. 



By M\ E. Cnnnington. 303 

The situation is a beautiful one with extensive views. Through the 
valley eastwards the Kennet meanders towards Marlborough, with Savernake 
Forest to the right, and a glimpse of bare downs in the distance. South- 
ward range the highest chalk hills in Wiltshire, with Wansdyke visible 
along the crest on its way from Savernake to Tan Hill. Westward are the 
scarp of Roundway Down, and Oldbury or Cherhill Hill, crowned with a 
fine earthwork. Further to the north Windmill Hill with its barrows can 
be seen, and the tower of Avebury Church (when the trees are leafless), but 
not Avebury itself. 

If it were not for some trees and buildings the whole course of the 
Kennet avenue would be visible, except for a short length of about 1 50 yards 
as it approaches the entrance to Avebury, a fold in the down shutting it oflf, 
and all of Avebury except for a glimpse of the crest of the bank on the 
eastern side. 

There are some dozen round barrows in sight on the hill itself, and across 
the river to the south, just above the tiny village of East Kennet, is si 
broadside view of the East Kennet long barrow planted with trees. 

Further to the west lies the well-known West Kennet long barrow, called 
by Stukeley " South " barrow. " It stands," he says, " east and west point- 
ing to the dragon's head on Overton-hill " ^ Actually, however, its long axis 
is directed considerably to the south of the Sanctuary. 

The upper part of Silbury Hill can be seen. Stukeley said " Silbury-hill 
answers the avenue directly, as it enters this temple, being full west hence." ' 
It will be seen (Plate I.) that the southern line of stones of the avenue is 
very nearly directed to Silbury, but that the avenue is not " full west." It 
must be remembered, however, that the recovered part of the avenue was 
not planned by Stukeley, and was, therefore, presumably destroyed before 
his time ; the avenue stone nearest to the rings shown on Stukeley's plan 
judging by the spacing of the recovered stone holes, must have been the 
fifth outwards from the rings. Plate IV. 



The hill itself is generally known as Overton Hill (as it was in Stukeley's 
time), but the site is actually in the parish of Avebury, the Ridgeway being 
the boundary between that and the parish of West Overton. The hill is 
also known as Kennet Hill and Five Barrow Hill, and in a 10th century 
Saxon Charter was named Seven Barrow Hill. (Cod. Dip. No. 571 ; 
W.A.M., vi., 327). 



' Abury, 46. 
^ Ahury, 33. Again on page 51 Stukeley says "The neck of the snake 
going down from Overton-hill regards Silbury precisely, and their intent 
was that it should be full west, but tis ten degrees north of west." 



304 The ''Sanctuary" on Overton Hill^ near Avehury. 

Summary of Rings. 





Number 


Diameter 


Aver, distance 


Aver, dept 




of 


in 


between holes 


of holes 




holes. 


feet. 


in feet. 


ft. ins. 


A or outer stone ring 


42 


130 


9i 


— 


B „ Fence-ring 


34 


65 


— 


1 10 


C „ Stone-and-post ring 


32 


45 


9i 


4 4' 


D „ Bank Holiday ring 


12 


34i 


9 


5 1 


E „ 10-foot-ring 


8 


21 


n 


5 1 


F „ 7-t'oot-ring 


8 


15 


6^ 


2 6 


G „ 6-foot-ring 


6 


13 


6J 


5 



The Two Stone Circles. 
It will be seen from the plan that the stone holes of the outer and inner 
rings form circles, not ovals as stated by Stukeley. 

Outer circle, diameter 130 feet 

Inner „ „ 45 „ 

Holes in outer circle 42 

., inner „ 16 



Stukeley's figures are approximately (they are given in " Druid's " cubits). 
Outer ring, diameters 155 feet X 138 feet 
Inner „ „ 52 „ X 45 ,, 



Stones in outer ring 40 

„ inner ,, 18 



Aubrey's figures are : — 

Outer circle 45 paces=40 yards=120 feet 
Inner ,, 16 „ =15 „ = 45 „ 

Stones in outer circle 22 
.. inner „ 15 



The difference in the number of the stones between Aubrey and Stukeley 
may perhaps be accounted for on the supposition that Aubrey counted the 
stones he saw, while Stukeley estimated the numbers there should have 
been when the rings were complete. 

It will be seen that Stukeley's figures for the short diameters of his ovals 
agree fairly closely with those of the actual circles. How Stukeley made 
the long diameter of the outer ring 25ft. too long (east and west) with two 
less than the correct number of stones is difficult to understand. 



^ Posts only. 



Bij M. E. Cunniiigton. 805 

It has been said that there are 42 stone holes in the outer circle, but it will 
be seen that a small hole shown on the northern side is numbered 7a, and if 
this is included the holes would number 43. In the stone holes Nos. 7—8 
—9, post holes were found penetrating below the level of the bottom of the 
stone hole, and are therefore in all probability earlier than the erection of 
the stones. 'J'he hole 7a, 18 inches deep, oval in shape, measuring only 
20 X 16 inches at top, is of the same character as the post holes and not at 
all like a stone hole and is therefore not included among them. These few 
post holes may have had some function in common, but what that was, or 
their relation to the rings, it is not possible to say. 



Beyond the outer circle on the eastern side, it will be seen that there are 
two stone holes, Xl and X2 ; the significance of these holes is not known, 
and it is just possible that they are the sites of naturally deposited sarsens 
that have been removed and broken up in prehistoric, or less probably in 
comparatively modern times. Originally no doubt many such sarsens were 
lying in the near neighbourhood of the rings ; there are several such stones 
still apparently in situ only a short distance away on the same ridge north 
of the main road. At the same time it may be noted for what it is worth 
that a line drawn from the centre of the circles through the burial at Cl2, 
strikes the hole X2, so that it is possible that a stone standing in this hole 
served as a pointer to the burial place. 

As a rule the stone holes lie with their long axis on the circumference of 
the circles, but in the outer ring there are some apparent exceptions (Nos. 
13, 14, 15) which may be due to awkwardly-shaped stones, or to the enlarge- 
ment of the holes in order to facilitate their over-throw (see note 1, page 
3 1 7). In nos. 1 and 41 , however, the radial position was probably intentional 
as these two stones were in a line with the avenue and may be regarded as 
having formed the entrance to it. 

It will be seen that there is a stone hole between No. 1 and 41, blocking 
so to speak, the entrance to the avenue. Both Stukeley's plan and sketch 
show that there was no wider gap between the stones at the " entrance " 
than elsewhere ; Aubrey's sketch-plan also, as far as it may be relied upon, 
shows the same uniformity of spacing. Plates IV. and V. 



The Avenue. 

It will be seen that in addition to the two radially placed holes of the 
outer circle, three pairs of avenue stone holes were found, and beyond them 
a fourth pair is shown in dotted lines. The loose rubbly nature of the sub- 
soil made it difficult in some cases to define the shallow stone holes (see 



306 The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 

note 4, page 319) and although the fourth pair of holes were sought for 
in the usual manner, by removing all the top soil in a wide trench, it was 
not found possible to locate the holes with certainty, so they have been 
dotted in on plan and are not marked on the ground. 

The three pairs of avenue stone holes are on lines radial from the 
centre. It will be seen that to the north of the avenue are two stone holes 
(N 1 and N 2), that with No. 3 of the outer circle also form a line that is 
radial to the centre. Aubrey's plan shows the stones N I and N 2, and a 
third stone beyond. This latter was searched for but could not be located 
on account of the very loose and rubbly nature of the ground. Aubrey 
shows these three stones as forming the northern side of the avenue and 
this accounts for the curious bend shown in his plan. He shows these and 
the three stones on the south side of the avenue all as fallen, and some of 
the other avenue stones here must have been missing, so to include the 
stones N 1 and N 2 (and one beyond) as forming part of the avenue it was 
necessary to assume some twist or bend in the avenue such as he actually 
shows. 

In Stukeley's plan (Plate IV.) the first pair of avenue stones is shown 
some 80 feet out from the rings, so it seems that the first four pairs of 
stones had disappeared before his time, but in the sketch made in 1723 
btukeley shows a single stone lying nearer in, to the north of the avenue* 
and this must be the stone N 1 or N 2. Not seeing its relationship to the 
rings, perhaps for this reason, Stukeley omitted it from his plan, but as it 
was in sight, for the sake of accuracy, included it in his sketch (Plate V.). 

The holes N 1 and N 2 (and a third seen by Aubrey), apparently show 
that originally the avenue on Overton Hill, for part of its course at least, 
consisted of a triple row of stones. 

It will be seen that hole 2 on the northern side of the avenue is a 
peculiar shape, this may be due to faulty digging when the hole was made 
originally. 



The Six Rings of Post Holes. 
(Details of the holes are given on page 322). 

Excavation revealed the wholly unexpected fact that, in addition to the 
two circles of stone holes, there are six rings of holes, concentric with the 
stone circles, that once held uprights not of stone but of timber (see note 
5, page 319). 



B.— The Fence-ring. 

The outer of the timber circles lies between the outer and inner stone 
rings, and is exactly half the diameter of the outer one, i e., 65ft. The holes 
of this ring are small and shallow and it is suggested that they may have 
served as supports to a wattle fence ; the fact that two holes in the ring 
(Nos. 33 — 4) were much deeper and larger than any of the others, and may 
well have held gate posts, goes some way to support this suggestion. 



By M. E, Ciinnington. 307 

C— The Stone-and-Post-eing. 

The second ring of post holes is on the same circumference as the inner 
stone circle, stone holes and post holes, alternating without a break all 
round the circle, 16 of each. These large holes must have held substantial 
timbers, one well-preserved core (hole 21) measuring 14 inches in diameter. 

D. — Bank Holiday-ring. 

The first hole of this ring was found on Whit-Monday, June 9th, 1930. 
With the exception of the round hole No. 5, all the holes of this ring were 
oval in shape and very large ; nine out of the eleven oval holes were stepped, 
i.e , the outer half was deeper than the inner. There was clear evidence 
that these large oval holes had held two distinct uprights, in some cases the 
two cores being seen with a packing of hard chalk between them. 

Where the cores in the outer part of the holes were well enough defined 
to see, the timbers seem to have been about 12 to 14 inches in diameter, 
and rather less on the inner side. The cores were usually better defined in 
the outer than in the inner part of the hole, probably due to greater depth. 
In hole 10, two cores were particularly well defined, 1ft. in diameter and 
2ft. apart from centre to centre, with a packing of hard chalk between. In 
this hole there were two roundish shallow depressions about an inch deep 
in the floor, apparently marking where the timbers had stood. 

What purpose the twin posts in these holes served can only be a matter 
of conjecture ; it has been suggested that they might have supported a log 
walling, the horizontal posts being held together by the twin uprights ; they 
could have served some function in connection with a roof (if the rings were 
roofed over, see page 309) ; or they may merely have resulted from a re- 
placement of decayed timbers with new ones. 

Another puzzling feature is that one hole (No. 5) should have been 
circular with a single post while all the others in the ring were oval with 
twin posts. A line drawn from the centre of the rings through this hole 
cuts the burial at stone hole 12, of the Stone-and-post-ring, but the line 
also cuts hole 2 of the 6-foot ring. If there was any significance in this it 
seems rather to link up the stone with the wooden structure and to suggest 
that they were contemporary, but it could be explained equally well on the 
supposition of this having been a point of special significance in the earlier 
timber structure, the nearest stone to it was therefore chosen as the site of 
burial. It will be seen that this single hole and the burial are on the eastern 
side of the rings. 

The single hole 5 was dug at a slant and the core seemed to be inclined 
(see section 5, Plate III.) ; the outer cores in holes 8 and 9 also appeared to 
be inclined outwards, the latter at an angle of about one-sixth ; the cores 
in holes 7 and 19 of the Stone-and-post ring were also inclined. 

E. — The 10-foot-ring. 

The holes of the 10-foot-ring (roughly its radius from the centre) as may 
be seen on the plan are aleo rather oval in shape. These holes, however, 
had held only single posts, or if two as the oval shape suggests, the two 



808 l^he " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 

posts must have stood close together so that they appeared as only one core. 
Traces of the core were found in all the holes of this ring. Holes 3 and 4 
were stepped, i.e., the floors were of unequal depth like those of the Bank 
Holiday-ring, but no trace of a second core was found in either. The steps 
were 27 and 24 inches deep respectively. A shallow circular depression 
was noticed on the floor of hole 3, similar to those in hole 10 of the Bank 
Holiday-ring. The oval shape of the holes in this ring may be due to a 
desired slight re-adjustment in the position of the posts, or as suggested in 
connection with the oval holes of the Bank Holiday ring, the decay and 
restoration of some of the posts. 



F. — The 7-foot-eing. 

The eight small holes of this ring seem to have been placed with regard 
to the position of the eight holes of the 10-foot- ring. This also places them 
symmetrically with the six holes of the inmost ring (6-foot-ring), for it will be 
seen that there are two holes between 1 — 2 and 3 — 4, and one between each 
of the other holes of the inmost ring. As was only to be expected from 
the small size of the holes in this ring no trace of the core was found in 
either of them, and they were filled with a distinctive brown mould without 
relics of any kind. 



G.— The 6-foot-ring. 

The inmost ring with a radius of some 6 feet, consisted of six deep round 
holes ; the cores formed by the timber uprights were noticed in holes 3, 4, 5, 
and 6 ; these timbers seem to have had a diameter of about 12 inches. 



Holes H. 1—5. 

Between the Fence-ring and the Stone-and-post-ring, on the south-western 
side, there is a solitary stone hole, and on either side of it two small post 
holes of the same character as those of the Fence-ring. Presuming that the 
stone and timber rings are not contemporary, it seems that these five holes 
are more likely to belong to the timber than to the stone structure. 

The fact that the post holes are identical in character with those of the 
Fence-ring seems to connect them with that ring and therefore with the 
timber structure as a whole. 

It may be remembered that at Woodhenge on the south-western side, 
between two uprights of the B ring, a hole was found which there was 
reason to believe had held a stone. It is suggested that this solitary stone 
on the south-western side of the Sanctuary is analogous to the solitary stone 
at Woodhenge,' whatever the meaning or significance of that stone may 
have been. 



Woodhenge^ p. 14. 



By M. E. Gunnington. 309 

The Central Post Hole. 

The central post must have been quite a slender one, the hole being only 
42 inches deep, the diameter at top 20, and at bottom 10 inches. As the 
post cannot have been more than 10 inches across at the base, and must 
naturally have tapered if of any considerable height, it seems quite inade- 
quate to have been the central roof-tree if the rings were roofed over as has 
been suggested. It may be remembered that a single upright stone once 
stood in the centre of the southern circle at Avebury. On the other hand 
it seems not altogether improbable that this small hole is a relic of the 
stake from v^^hich the rings were all laid out. 



The Possibility of Roofing. 

It has been suggested that the inner rings of posts may have supported a 
thatched roof. The idea suggested itself mainly on account of the strength 
implied by the size and depth of the post holes, the twin posts in the Bank- 
Holiday ring, and the fact of a central post (see above). There is no doubt 
that the posts of the four inner rings (excluding the 7-foot-ring) could have 
been used to support a roof, and drawings of several possible constructions 
have been made. One of the chief difficulties seems to be to give a reason- 
able explanation of the 10-foot-ring as well as the 6-foot ring; one recon- 
struction accounts for the twin posts in the Bank Holiday ring as serving 
the double purpose of supporting the ends of rafters and preventing their 
slipping, the ends of the uprights being assumed to be naturally forked 
trees ; another plan utilises the twin posts as supports for a log walling. 

It seems, however, that if a roof had been intended the ground plan 
would have been simpler, as any roof using all these uprights is necessarily 
a complicated structure. On the whole therefore it is felt that the argu- 
ments against there having been a roof are stronger than those in favour of 
one. 



Were the Stone and Timber Rings contemporary ? 

If the stone and timber rings were not standing at the same time it is at 
least certain that the stone must be the later ; we know that timber did 
not supplant stone because the stone circles survived into the 18th century 
when they were seen and described by Stukeley. Had they been erected 
at the same time, however, all the timbers would naturally have disappeared 
leaving only the stones to mark the site. Nothing found in the excavation 
threw light on this question, the sherds of pottery found being similar in 
both stone and post holes, so there remains nothing but the plan to help us. 

It will be seen that if stones and posts were standing at the same time 
there was no way through the Stone-and-post ring ; there would no doubt 
have been gaps between some of these uprights but nowhere more than some 
3ft. wide ; it is, however, not the want of width that strikes one so much as 
the awkwardness and lack of symmetry in an entrance having a post on one 
side and a stone on the other. 



310 I'he " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 

It will be seen further that some of the post and stone holes overlap each 
other, and this seems unlikely to have been the case if the stones and posts 
were put up at the same time. Cross sections were made through several 
of these overlapping holes in the hope of getting some information in this 
way, but the stone holes were too shallow to afford any reliable evidence. 
An entrance is definitely indicated in the Fence- ring and so it seems all the 
more unlikely that there should have been none in the next ring. 

It is thought probable, therefore, that the stone and timber rings were 
not contemporary but that the stone circles succeeded to those of timber. 
If not contemporary, however, there can have been no long lapse of time 
between them, and the stone circles must have been planned while the de- 
tails of the timber rings were still known, as proved by their common cen- 
tre, and the fact that stone and post holes in the Stone-and-post ring are on 
the same circumference, and alternate with^one another. 



It has been suggested that Woodhenge was the forerunner of Stonehenge, 
and that the primitive timber structure was replaced by a more developed 
one in stone on a new site.' At the Sanctuary there is evidence that also 
points to the replacement of timber by stone. At Stonehenge the diameter 
of the outer or Aubrey circle is just double that of the long diameter of the 
A, or outer ring at Woodhenge. It is interesting therefore to find that the 
diameter of the outer stone circle at the Sanctuary is just double that of 
the outer timber or Fence-ring. 

Plan of 'J'imber Rings complete in itself. 

As bearing on the question as to whether the stones and posts were con- 
temporary it will be seen that the timbers form a plan complete in itself, 
and more intelligible without the stones than with them, a reasonable 
boundary being provided by the Fence-ring. 

In the absence of the stones the centre is approachable from any point 
inside the Fence-ring but there is a noticeably clear way through the rings 
from N.E. toS.W. 

This passes through the two pairs of post holes, on opposite sides of the 
Stone-and-post-ring, that are placed further apart than any other posts in 
this ring. The distance between these pairs, centre to centre, is 1 1 ft. and 
lOfft.; the normal distance apart of the posts in this ring is 8j to 9jft.; in 
only one other instance (holes 1 — 3) is the distance as much as lOft. 

The holes of the next two rings (Bank Holiday and 10-foot), though not 
further apart than the average, are conveniently placed. The passage con- 
tinues through the 7-foot ring at the only points where these holes are so 
arranged that there is one on either side of the passage ; finally the two 
opposite pairs of the 6-foot ring through which it passes are noticeably 
further apart than either of the other holes of this ring, i.e.^ 8ft., the greatest 
distance between any other two holes in this ring being G^ft. 

' Woodhenge t p. 21. 



By M. E. Ciinnington. 311 

The holes of the timber rings were evidently laid out in pairs from the 
centre, so that a line drawn through one hole to the centre, if prolonged, 
will cut through a hole in the same ring on the opposite side of that ring — 
this can be tested by laying a rule on the plan ; it is most striking in the 
posts of the Stone-and-post-ring. This method of laying out would 
necessarily result in even numbers such as all the rings show, but the 
method does not apply to the Fence-ring or to the outer stone ring, and the 
stones of the inner stone ring were evidently placed to alternate with the 
posts of this ring. 

Some of the holes of the inner rings look awkwardly placed on plan, but 
uprights in them could in most cases have been adjusted, if desired, to form 
circles as true as those of the outer rings. 

If the theory of a roofed construction is discarded then the timbers must 
be pictured as free standing rings like^those of Woodhenge. The two sites 
indeed appear comparable on general grounds, and in detail show interesting 
points in common. On each site there are six rings of holes with a single 
stone hole in the south-west side. 



Orientation. 

There is no evidence of orientation at the Sanctuary any more than there 
is at Avebury itself ; in this respect these two monuments dififer from 
Woodhenge and Stonehenge which both show orientation, (On Lockyer's 
claim for evidence of orientation at Avebury see W.A.M., xxxv., 515, June, 
1908). 



A Ditch searched for. 

Aubrey speaks of a ditch and says—" I doe well remember there is a 
circular trench about this Monument or Temple, by the same token that 
Sir Robert Moray told me that one might be convinced and satisfied by it 
that the earth did growe." ^ But Stukeley writes — ",he {i.e. Aubrey) erred 
in saying there was a circular ditch on Overton-hill." ^ As Long points out^ 
there is no indication of a ditch or trench on Aubrey's plan. Hoare also 
says that there was no appearance " of any ditch surrounding this circle 
of stones on Overton-hill." * Incidentally this shows that the exact site 
where the circles had stood must still have been known in Hoare's time. 

A glance at the plan of the area excavated will show that if there had in 
fact been a ditch surrounding the circles, within any reasonable distance, 



* Jackson's ^w6re?/, 322 ; W.A.M., iv,, 317. ^ Ahury.Z'i. 

^ W.A.M., iv., 328, note 2. " An. Wilts, ii., 62, note. 
VOL XLV. — NO, CLIV. Y 



312 " The " Sanctuary'' on Overton Hill, near Avehiiry. 

it would certainly have been found. The two long trenches on the east and 
north-east sides were made in searching for it, but as it was not found it 
may be considered as proved that in this particular Aubrey was mistaken 
and that Stukeley was right. Aubrey seems to have written his notes some 
considerable time after visiting the site, and it seems possible that he may 
have been confusing in his mind a ditch of one of the neighbouring barrows. 
His account of a ditch seems so circumstantial that it was not only hoped, 
but confidently expected, that a ditch would be found ; indeed at one time 
it was actually thought that it had been found on the avenue side, but the 
would-be ditch proved after careful testing to be only a natural shallow 
channel in the chalk. 



Date and Theory of Origin. 

The evidence as far as it is at present known suggests that people living 
in the early Bronze Age (Beaker period) constructed on Overton Hill a 
series of concentric timber circles for ceremonial purposes. It is not 
necessary to picture these timbers as merely bare standing posts, they could 
have been coloured and adorned in a variety of ways. 

These people some time later, but in the same " period," raised the circles 
of standing stones at Avebury. The site on Overton Hill was regarded as 
one of considerable importance, so when the circles at Avebury were made 
it was thought desirable to connect the new site with the old by means of 
an " avenue " of standing stones, and the Kennet avenue was made and 
carried on to Overton Hill for this reason. 

By this time the timbers may have been in a bad state of preservation, 
and as more in keeping with the stone avenue two circles of stones were 
erected in their stead, the same centre being retained, and the diameter of 
the outer stone circle being made just double that of the outer timber ring 
(Fence-ring). The new construction, consisting of only two stone circles, 
was simpler in design than the original timber rings for the reason that the 
ceremonial centre had now been transferred to the new site at Avebury. 

The discovery of rings of timber uprights, that the evidence suggests were 
replaced by standing stones, on a site so closely connected with Avebury, is 
of no little interest in connection with the suggestion made with regard to 
Woodhenge, that it was the forerunner of Stonehenge. ( Woodhenge, 18). 

The fact that the timber was used in the midst of this sarsen-strewn 
country, where a practically unlimited number of naturally shaped and 
suitable stones were to be had in the immediate neighbourhood, is in itself 
remarkable, and shows that timber was not only used as a substitute when 
stone was not available, but in this case at least, was actually chosen in 
preference to stone. 

Judging by the character of the pottery found the date of the original 
construction, and of reconstruction (if such took place) would fall within 
that part of the early Bronze Age known as the Beaker period, round about 
1,500 B.C. (See also under Pottery). 



By M. E. Ciin,ningt07i. 313 

The Burial. 

One burial was found. This consisted of a much crouched skeleton of a 
youth some 14 or 15 years of age, lying in a shallow grave on the inner side 
of the stone hole 12, in the Stone-and-post-ring, i.e., on the eastern side of 
the rings immediately behind the one single-post hole in the Bank Holiday 
ring (Plate X). 

The skeleton lay on its right side, head to the south, feet to the north 
i.e., facing east. The grave was Ijft. deep, 3ft. long, by 2ft. wide. The 
grave and the stone hole cut into one another, and the body must have 
almost, if not quite, touched the inner face of the stone at the time of 
burial, if the stone was already standing. See PL III., 1. 

The arms were crossed above the elbow in front of the face, the two hands 
seeming to enfold the face, finger bones being found over and under the 
facial bones ; the head was bent forward over the chest, and the legs were 
crossed below the knees. 

In front of the legs just below the knees lay the crushed fragments of a 
beaker. Intimately associated with the skeleton, apparently having been 
laid on the body when it was buried, were some bones of animals,' some 
being slightly charred. A few small flecks of charred (or decayed 1) wood 
were noticed among the bones of the skeleton. 

The bones of the skeleton were nearly all broken, most of the limb bones 
being in several pieces. The skull and the beaker were crushed fiat and a 
few fragments of both were missing ; it seems that this was probably due 
to a certain amount of disturbance caused when the stone fell, or was thrown 
down and removed. Some of the crushing may be due to heavy modern 
agricultural machines. 

It is hardly possible that the burial was made before the stone hole was 
dug ; the probability seems to be that it was made at the time the stone 
was erected, for the risk of bringing down the stone would have been 
considerable had the grave been dug later. As all the ground within and 
including the Fence-ring was dug over, had there been other burials they 
must have been found, so this with Woodhenge makes the second elaborate 
series of wooden circles that were not erected primarily as burial places. 
This solitary somewhat insignificant burial may have been of a dedicatory 
nature as the only one in the rings at Woodhenge is thought to have been. 

The evidence from the burial affords a striking parallel to that of the 
pottery as regards an overlap in cultures. While some of the pottery is of 
the West Kennet Long Barrow type the rest is equally characteristic of the 
succeeding " Beaker " period. The youth buried beside the stone was of 
Long Barrow people ancestry, but the vessel by his side is one typical of the 
" Beaker " people, who invaded Britain at the end of the Long Barrow 



See Dr. Jackson's report. 

Y 2 



314 ^Ihe " ISanduary " on Overton Hill, near Avehuri/. 

period, imposing their culture — and presumably conquering — the Long^ 
Barrow people who were previously predominant in southern Britain. 
Better evidence of overlap could scarcely be expected. 

The only other human remains found were three pieces of a lower jaw 
scattered in stone hole 16 of the Stone-and-post-ring ; the pieces were sub- 
sequently fitted together but do not make a complete jaw. 



Saesen Stones in Post Holes. 

A puzzling feature in the post holes was the presence, in practically all 
of fragments of sarsen stone, many of them showing scorching and fracture 
by fire. These pieces were found right to the bottom of the holes, in some, 
especially the smaller ones, perhaps only one or two small chips ; they were 
unusually plentiful in the two " gate" post holes of the Fence-ring (Nos. 
33 — 34), numbering in each about 60 pieces, large and small, the largest 
being about the size of a man's double fists. 

The presence of these sarsens in the post holes seems at first rather to 
suggest that the posts succeeded the stones, or were at least contemporary 
with them. But it is at least certain that the stones survived the posts, 
and as there is no reason to think that the stones were shaped or other than 
naturally formed blocks of sarsen, it does not seem really to affect the 
question of priority. 

A probable solution is that originally the site, and all the hill, was 
strewn with naturally deposited sarsens and that the site was cleared of 
them by breaking up by means of fire (see note I , page 3 1 7). In this way the 
ground would be littered with their debris and some of it would find its way 
into the post holes with other rubbish lying on the surface, such as bones of 
animals, broken pots, flints, etc. It is understood that numbers of similarly 
split sarsens are found in the excavations on Windmill Hill so that the 
method of breaking up sarsens with the aid of fire seems to extend to very 
early times. 

It is not improbable that some of the larger pieces of sarsen were used as 
packing to keep the posts firm. The fact that they were so unusually 
numerous in the '* gate" post holes of the Fence-ring, seems to support the 
suggestion that the posts in these two holes supported some form of gate, and 
were therefore packed securely in order to support a strain. 

An altogether exceptionally large piece of sarsen was found in post-hole 
21 of the btone-and-post ring ; it measures l7iii. X 12in. and 16in. deep, its 
base being 20in. below surface level (see PI. III. 7). When this stone was 
lifted out of the hole it was found to be resting directly on the core which 
was particularly well defined in this hole. It is therefore certain that this 
large sarsen got into this hole after the post was decayed, and in some other 
way than that of the sarsens spoken of above. Much of its surface shows 
natural crust and it seems to have been broken off a larger boulder. It 
may be supposed that either at the time of the erection of the stones, or 
after their destruction had begun, this large fragment was dropped into the 



By M. E, Ciinniiigton. 315 

hollow marking the site of the hole, or purposely buried to be out of the 
way. 



The Pottery. 

The quantity of pottery found is small, but fortunately more than from 
the holes at Woodhenge. At Woodhenge most of the pottery and other ob- 
jects came from the ditch or from under the bank, but at the Sanctuary 
there is no bank or ditch. 

About 200 sherds in all were found, some showing distinctive ornament 
but many are plain and of indefinite character. 

With the exception of three small pieces from the surface of Early Iron 
Age or llomano- British date, the pottery all belongs to one group, com- 
posed of two distinct but overlapping types. The earlier of these is known 
as the West Kennet, or Peterborough long-barrow type, the later as 
** Beaker " pottery. 

Pottery of the West Kennet type seems to be characteristic of the long- 
barrow people who inhabited southern Britain before the arrival of the 
" Beaker" people who buried their dead in round barrows. 

The Beaker people either themselves introduced the use of bronze into 
this country, or arrived about the time that it was first used. The Beaker 
period is therefore identical with that of the early Bronze Age in Britain, 
and the discovery of pottery of this type on any site shows that it must 
have been occupied in the Bronze Age. 

The Beaker people presumably came as conquerers, but even so there is 
no reason to believe that they exterminated the older inhabitants, or that 
the earlier culture was entirely superseded. The association of the West 
Kennet and beaker types of pottery, not only in burials but also on living 
sites, is indeed good evidence to the contrary, and shows that elements of 
the older culture survived along with the new. The evidence of the burial 
found in the Sanctuary aflfords an example of this overlap. The youth 
buried, as his skeletal remains show, was a descendant of the narrow-headed 
long-barrow people, while at his side was placed a vessel of beaker type, that 
could not have found its way there but for the invasion of the " Beaker " 
people. 

While there seems to have been among the West Kennet pottery a con- 
siderable variety of vessels, the most characteristic and best known form is 
that of a highly-ornamented round-bottom bowl with spreading lip and 
contracted below the rim. These are well represented by bowls in the 
British Museum, found in the Thames at Mortlake and Mongewell.^ 
The ware is coarse and imperfectly fired, even when the surface is burnt 
red, usually showing a black core ; the paste is often mixed with broken 
shells or particles of flint or other stone, and sand. The ornamentation 
shows great variety, some of it being produced by impressions on the 



Archxologia, Ixii., 340. 



316 The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Amhury. 

soft clay of twisted cord or sinews, finger tips or finger nails, and very 
frequently of the articulating ends of bones of small birds and mammals/ 
Some of the fragments from the Sanctuary seem to have belonged to 
bowls of this type and are illustrated on Plates VII., VIIL 

The fragments of beaker (except No 2) are not illustrated, as the type is 
so well known, the ornament consisting exclusively of rows of horizontal 
parallel lines executed in the characteristic notched manner 



Thanks are due to Mr. C. W. Pugh, M.B.E., Mr. E. L. Pegge, and to 
Lieut.-Col. R. H. Cunnington, K.E., for help rendered during the excava- 
tions. To Col. Cunnington we are indebted for the plan and measurements 
of the rings, etc., and to Mr. Pugh for the drawings reproduced in Plate VI. 

Mr. W. J. Osmond, of West Kennet, the former owner and occupier of 
the land, kindly gave us permission to excavate in the first instance, and 
subsequently allowed us to purchase this corner of his field in order that 
the site might be preserved. 

We wish also to express our indebtedness to Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., 
F.R.S., for reporting on the human remains. 

To Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S., Assistant Keeper of the Manchester 
Museum, for reporting on the animal remains. 

To Dr. H. H. Thomas, of H.M. Geological Survey, tor the identification 
of several specimens of minerals. 

To Dr. T. W. Woodhead. Ph.D , M.Sc, F.L.S., for the identification 
of the charcoals. 

To Mr. A. S. Kennard, A.L.S., for his report on the snail shells. 



We have purchased the site and it is intended to mark the holes in the 
different circles in some suitable way so that visitors may be able to realise 
on the spot the size and general lay-out of the monument that once stood 
there. 

It is hoped eventually to hand the site over to the care of some public 
body for the benefit of the public. 

The pottery, etc., found on the site will be placed in the Society's 
Museum at Devizes. The skeleton from the burial has been given to the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincolns Inn Fields, London. 



* New light on an old Problem, Antiquity ^ September 1929, 283—291). 



By M. E. Cunnington. 317 

Note 1. — On the Method of Destruction of the Sarsens. 

During the excavation of the stone holes, especially those of the outer 
ring, the holes were found to have been enlarged, usually on the outer side ; 
the floors of these holes were covered with a burnt layer and quantities of 
charred material consisting largely of charred straw ; while in the soil filling 
the hole and round about it, numerous scorched pieces and fired flakes of 
sarsen were found, thus confirming the following method of destruction 
described by Stukeley : — " The method is, to dig a pit by the side of the 
stone, till it falls down, then to burn many loads of straw under it. They 
draw lines of water along it when heated, and then with smart strokes of a 
great sledge hammer, its prodigious bulk is divided into many lesser parts. 
But this atto de fe commonly costs thirty shillings in fire and labour, some- 
times twice as much. They own too 'tis excessive hard work, for 
these stones are often 18 foot long, 13 broad, and 6 thick [these figures refer 
to stones at Avebury itself], that their weight crushes the stones in pieces, 
which they lay under them to make them lie hollow for burning, and for 
this purpose they raise them with timbers 20 foot long and more, by the 
help of 20 men, but often the timbers were rent in pieces." Abury, 15 — 16. 

Holes nos. 1, 2, and 41, of the outer circle, are probably those that held 
the stones shown by Stukeley as still standing in July, 1723 (Fl. V.). 
The enlargement of these holes in order to throw the stones, and the 
evidence of their destruction by fire was very marked. 

Note 2. — Mill Field and the Windmill. 

The field was formerly known as Mill Field {Smith, p. 169, H. vi, q. ; 
W.A.M., vi., 327. Hoare Ancient Wilts, II., 62, note), and for this reason 
the possibility of the post holes being the foundations of a windmill had to 
be considered. The earliest form of windmill in this country was a post- 
mill, in which the whole structure hung and revolved on a central post, and 
was pushed round to face the wind by means of a long tail-post which stuck 
out behind, the stout central post being strengthened by means of four 
stout timber struts. It was not until the middle of the 16th century that 
the tower mill was introduced in which the body of the mill was fixed and 
the cap only turned by hand to the wind. (It was not until 1750 that the 
fan wheel was invented by which the mill is self-adjusting). This later 
form of mill rests on a tower, sometimes of wood with brick or stone found- 
ations, or of these materials throughout. 

Even if the post holes at the Sanctuary were suitable for a post-mill, 
which they are not, it would have been impossible to adjust it by means 
of a tail-post with any of the stones of the inner circle standing as we know 
they were at least as late as Aubrey's time ; of the later tower type of mill 
there is no trace ; not a single sherd of pottery or other object of medieval 
date was found. 

Indeed the actual site of the mill seems to have been found by Thurnam 
in the much ploughed mound south of the Sanctuary. (Goddard's List, 
Avebury 23; Smith, p. 169, H. vi., 1). His excavation in 1854 "disclosed 
deep trenches in the chalk and bits of old-fashioned pottery, several large 
nails, and a ring or loop of iron. If not the remains of the barrow described 



318 The " SanrMiary^^ on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 

by Stukeley, it may have been the site of a windmill removed before the 
time of Aubrey, whence the name of the field.' " 

The foundations of post-mills seem often to have been in the form of deep 
trenches dug in the form of a cross, and the sites abound with pottery, 
nails, etc., of the period, (See Williams-Freeman, Field Archseology, p. 115 ; 
on the development of windmills, Bennett and Elton's History of Corn 
Milling, vol. ii.; Report of Soc. Pro. An. Buildings, 1930, p. 36). 

Note 3.— The Identification of Barrows mentioned by Aubrey 

AND StUKELEY.I 

It was attempted to locate the site by means of the barrows depicted by 
Aubrey and Stukeley, but this proved useless because it was not possible to 
decide whether their descriptions referred to mounds still visible or not. 

Aubrey's two plans both show two round barrows close to the eastern 
side of the outer ring. One of Stukeley's sketches (Tab. xxix.) also shows 
two barrows more or less in the same position, and in his description he 
particularly associates two barrows with the Sanctuary, as Aubrey does in 
his plan. " One near the temple on Overton-hill was quite level'd for 
ploughing Anno 1720; a man's bones were found within a bed of great 
stones, forming a kind of arch." Beads of amber were found, and " several 
enamel'd British beads of glass. I got some of them white in colour, some 
were green. . . . I bought a couple of British Beads, one large of alight 
blue and rib'd, the other less, of a dark blue, taken up in one of the two bar- 
rows on Hakpen-hill, east of Kennet avenue. These two barrows are ditch'd 
about and near one another " (page 44). Again on page 33 " Here is a great 
number of barrows in sight from this place, two close hy " (italics added). 

It seemed that one or both these barrows might be identified with one 
or both of the two mounds that can still be seen south of the road ; one is 
on down land in good condition, the other west of the Ridge way in Mill Field, 
on arable land and much scattered by the plough. 

In the photographs taken from the air this latter mound is seen to have 
a well defined ditch round it ; this is the mound opened by Thurnam in 
1854, and thought by him to be perhaps the one that Stukeley says was 
"'quite levelled for ploughing, anno 1720." But in a sketch dated 1724 
(Tab. xix.) this barrow is still shown as a large mound by Stukeley, and 
even now more than 200 years later it is not nearly " level'd''; moreover 
Thurnam's excavation seems to have shown the mound to be the site of a 
Windmill" (though perhaps originally a barrow), and its contents were in- 
compatible with the " arch of stones," etc., as described by Stukeley. 

Now that the site of the Sanctuary is known it seems certain that the 
two barrows particularly referred to by Aubrey and Stukeley as close to 
the eastern side of the Sanctuary no longer exist. 

' W.A.M., vi., 328. Thurnam in speaking of prehistoric pottery usually 
describes it as " Ancient British " or " coarse native." The term " old 
fashioned " implies something different and in all probability medieval 
pottery. 

2 See Note 2 above. 



4 





I 



PLATE I 
General Plan of the Sanctuary 

Red — stone holes 

Green Outline — Bank Holiday ring and 6-foot ring 

Black Outline — lo-foot ring 

Black — Other post holes 

The area excavated is shaded Green 






O' ' 




%. u - , ^ 

■'V / 



9/i- 

I 

t 



/;r 



% 30 




-fe.i 



^F'i>. 




3!>« 



By M. E. Cunnington. 319 

Stukeley shows three barrows in a row along the sauth side of the road 
(Tab. xix.), that have all been dug away. North of the road the diggings 
have encroached on, and left exposed, a fine section of the ditch of one of 
the barrows there. 

Note 4. — The Geological Conditions. 

The rubbly condition found to a depth of one to two feet seems to be 
characteristic of the Holaster planus zone in this region, at the bottom of 
the Upper Chalk and just above the Chalk Rock. The green-coated and 
iron-stained chalk nodules that appear to be characteristic of the Chalk 
Rock were very noticeable at the bottom of the deeper holes. The site is 
about 560 feet O.D. ; "the nearest Bench Mark being 562, 4. (We are in- 
debted to Mr. H. C. Brentnall for information derived from the Geological 
Memoir). A considerable area east of the Ridge way (north and south of 
the road), has been dug over for the sake of the chalk rubble found here 
and formerly much used for road making, yard paving, etc. 

Note 5. — The Distinction between Sarsen-Stone and Wooden 

Post Holes. 

Holes that have held stone uprights are generally angular, or sub- 
angular, and shallow in proportion to their width and breadth, while wooden 
post holes are circular or oval and deep in proportion to their other dimen- 
sions. Not only the different character and shape of the holes themselves, 
but experience gained at Woodhenge enabled us to at once appreciate the 
nature of the fiUing-in of the post holes. The method of distinguishing the 
core, or position formerly occupied by the wooden posts, is fully described 
in Woodhenge (page 22), but it may be as well here briefly to summarise 
the method. 

In digging out the holes with care by means of a small garden fork, it 
may be seen that the central part of the filling diflfers in colour and 
hardness from that of the rest of the filling. If this central softer and 
darker material is carefully removed, leaving the rest of the filling undis- 
turbed, a pipe-like circular cavity is left. This sharply demarcated difference 
in material could not have resulted from an intentional filling up of the 
hole, or by a process of slow natural silting, and it is evident that the central 
part represents as in a mould the post that originally stood in the hole. 
As the post decayed the space occupied by it was gradually refilled by fine 
rubble mixed with organic matter— decayed vegetation — silting in from the 
top, and this remains distinct from the packing of hard chalk originally 
rammed round the butts. Occasionally, especially near the bottom and in 
the deeper holes, actual fragments of decayed wood may be found, or some- 
times only a grey powdery substance. Often it is only quite in the lower 
part of a hole that any sign of a core can be detected at all, and in others 
they altogether elude detection. 

In a hole that once held a stone the conditions are naturally entirely 
different, for the stone must have been removed with a certain amount of 
violence and resulting disturbance in the hole, and cannot have decayed or 
faded away in situ, as a wooden post does, without any disturbance or out- 
side interference. 



320 The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hilly near Avehury. 

Plate I. 

General plan of the Sanctuary showing the circles of stone and post holes, 
the avenue, etc. 

The area excavated is shaded green. 

Only every fifth hole of the outer stone ring is numbered. 

The stone holes of the inner stone ring (Stone-and-post ring) are even 
numbers and the posts of this ring are the odd numbers (see Plate II.). 

Red — Stone holes. 

Black — Post holes of Fence-ring, Stone-and-post ring, 7-foot ring, centre 
hole and holes on either side of the single stone on the south-western 
quarter. 

Black outline— 10-foot ring. 

Green outline — Bank Holiday ring and 6-foot ring. 



Plate II. 

Plan of post holes with single stone hole in south-western quarter. 
The holes are shown on this plan as measured at the bottom. 
Solid black — Fence- ring and 7-foot*rrn'g '(inner) ; post holes in line with 
south-western stone hole. 

Black outline — Stone-and-post ring (posts only). 

Green outline — Bank Holiday ring and 6-foot ring (inner). 

Red outline — 10-foot ring, stone hole in south-western quarter. 



Plate III. 

1.— Section and plan of stone hole 12 (a) with the grave (b). 

2, 3 — Sections of holes 1 and 6 of the Bank Holiday ring showing un- 
equal depth or step between inner and outer part of the holes. In hole 1 
the step was 20 inches deep and there was a slight depression in the floor of 
the deeper half. 

4. — Section of hole 10 of the Bank Holiday ring showing slight step at 
the bottom and two cores representing the timber uprights as seen in the 
lower part of the hole with a packing of hard chalk between, the cores were 
about ift. in diameter and 2ft. apart centre to centre. 

5.— Section of hole 5 in the Bank Holiday ring. Except No. 5 all the 
holes in this ring were oval and showed two cores marking the position of 
the former uprights. No. 5 was circular with a single well defined core. 
Both core and hole sloped outwards as shown. 

6. — Section of hole 6 of the 6-foot ring. These narrow holes were awkward 
to clear out and must have been diflScult to dig in the first place The en- 
largement near the bottom in many of these narrow holes was made probably 



O' 



o^ 



O' 



O 



O. 



O) 



O' 



Q) 



Q, 






O 



oT) 



•'I 



Q, 



Q'' ''6 (^ ■ Qd 



6? o, ' 
o« O ^' 

O" ' Q, 



O" 



O' 



Q. 



.? • 



PLATE II 
Plan of Post Holes 

iJ/ac^— Fence-ring and 7-foot ring 
Black Outline— Pot Holes of Stone and-post ring 
Green Outline— Bank Holiday ring and 6-foot ring 
Red Outline — lo-foot ring and single stone hole 
in south-western quarter 



as 3i ii 



is i2 i(. 




/ 



By M, E. Cunnington. 321 

to provide space for the digger's knees to enable him to reach the bottom of 
the hole which otherwise was almost an impossibility. 

7. — Longitudinal section through holes 17 to 30 of the Stone-and-post 
ring showing the alternate stone and post holes, the stone holes being the 
even and the post holes the odd numbers. In post hole 21 the position of 
a large piece of sarsen found near the top is indicated with a well defined 
core below it. 



Plate IV. 

1. — Plan of the Sanctuary after Aubrey (reduced). It shows two barrows 
close to its eastern side, also the bend in the avenue at its junction with the 
rings, which Aubrey gave it apparently in order to include the three stones 
numbered Nl and N2 on plan (Plate I.), and one stone beyond, the hole for 
which could not be definitely verified by excavation (see page 306). 

2. —Plan of the Sanctuary after Stukeley (reduced). It shows the two 
stone rings as ovals, with the first pair of avenue stones as some 80ft. from 
the outer ring. 



Plate V. 

Stukeley's sketch of the Sanctuary entitled " Prospect of the Temple on 
Overton Hill, 8 July, 1723. The Hakpen, or head of the Snake in ruins," 

Stukeley says " It had suffer'd a good deal when I took that prospect 
of it, with great fidelity, anno 1723, which I give the reader in plate xxi. 
Then, about sixteen years ago, farmer Green aforemention'd took most of 
the stones away to his buildings at Bekampton ; and in the year 1724 
farmer Griffin ploughed half of it up. But the vacancy of every stone was 
most obvious, the hollows still left fresh, and that part of the two circles 
which I have drawn in the plate was exactly as I have represented it. In 
the winter of that year the rest were all carry'd ofi", and the ground ploughed 
over." {Abury, 31). 

The inner ring is represented by holes only, all the stones evidently hav- 
ing been removed. The stone lying outside the rings, to the right, must be 
the one that stood in the hole Nl or N2 on plan (Plate I. and page 306). 



Plate VI. — Flints. 

A considerable number of small flakes and chips of flint were found in 
the surface rubble round about the holes 15, 16, and 19 of the Stone-and- 
post ring. These seemed to be debris of flint knapping. Some half-dozen 
or so scrapers were found on the surface, and one small barbed and tanged 
arrowhead, weathered white. 



322 The " Sancticary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury. 

1 —Arrowhead of grey flint, with rudimentary tang and poor workman- 
sliip. Found 4ift. deep in hole 5 of the Bank Holiday ring. 

2— Arrowhead ? of grey flint, irregular in shape and of poor workmanship. 
Found 2jft. deep in the packing of hole 6 of the Bank Holiday ring. 

3— Arrowhead of flint with hollow base, weathered white, worked on 
both sides of one edge only. Found in hole 1 of the outer stone circle. 

4.— Small spear or lance-head of flint, weathered white on one side, grey 
on the other. Found in surface rubble. 



Plate VII.— Pottery. 

1. — Rim fragment of rather fine red ware ornamented on the inside with 
incised lines forming triangles. The ornament and ware recalls that of 
beakers but no parallel has been found to this inside decoration and it sug- 
gests that the fragment is that of an open shallow bowl or platter. Found 
2jft. deep in hole 3 of the 6-ft. ring. 

2.— Rim fragments of a beaker with horizontal rows of characteristic 
notched lines. This fragment is interesting as showing a raised beading | 
of an inch below the rim, a feature that occurs on handled beakers and 
those with inbent rims, as a class a late type.' Found in hole 29 of the 
outer stone circle. 

3 — 10. — Sherds typical of West Kennet Long Barrow pottery, paste 
black to brown, coarse and mixed freely with pounded flint and shell. 3 
and 6 were found at the bottom of hole 8 of the Bank Holiday ring ; 4, 
4 feet deep in hole 2 of the 10-foot ring ; 5 and 7, 2jft. deep in hole 3 of 
the 6-foot ring ; 8, at the bottom of hole 3 of the Bank Holiday ring ; 9, 
4ft. deep in post hole 23 of the Stone-and-post ring ; 10, 3ft. deep in hole 
9 of the Bank Holiday ring. 

No. 3 may be compared with Nos, 28 and 31 from West Kennet Long 
Barrow ^ ; No. 4 with 53 ; No, 7 with 58 ; No. 9 with 23 ; No. 10 with 60. 



Plate VIIL— Pottery. 

11.— Rim fragment of bowl?, slight ridge below rim on inside, fairly well 
baked buflf ware. Found 2jft. deep in post hole 13 of the Stone-and-post 
ring. 



' Dr. Fox has dealt fully with these in Archseologia Cambrensis, June 
1925. 

" Pottery from the Long Barrow at West Kennet. M. E. Cunnington, 
1927. 




PLATE III. 
Sections of holes, page 




<L'<k' 



By M, E. Ciinnington. 323 

12. — Rim fragment of bowl 1 with ridge below rim on the inside similiar 
to No. 11 above. Paste black mixed with flint. Found at the bottom of 
hole 10 of the Bank Holiday ring. 

13. — Kim fragment of bowl ? very poor soft brown ware, exterior tooled. 
Found near the bottom of hole 3 of the Bank Holiday ring. 

14, 15, 17, 18. — Four sherds of fairly hard well baked i)ottery, surface a 
dull red, paste black, These look as if they were all sherds of the same pot 
but were found in three different holes. No. 14, 1ft. deep in hole 15 of the 
Bank Holiday ring ; No. 15, 3ft. deep in hole 13 of the same ring ; Nos. 17 
and 18, 2ft. deep in hole 4 of the 10ft. ring. 

16. — Rim fragment of brown ware with flint particles, ornamented as 
shown on the flat of the rim with diagonal lines of small punch marks. 
Found in hole 26 of the outer stone circle. 



Plate IX. 

Photograph and drawing of the beaker found m front, and just below the 
knees, of the skeleton in the burial close to the inner side of the stone hole 
12, in the inner stone circle. Height 4^in., rim diam. 4in., base 22in. Paste 
black and sparingly mixed with particles of flint, surface dull brown, rim 
out-bent. Ornamented with horizontal rows of small punch marks arranged 
in three groups with plain zones between, six rows in the two upper groups 
and flve in the lower. 

The vessel approximates to tjpe B, i e. ovoid cup with recurved rim. Of 
the beakers illustrated by Abercromby No. 42 bis, from Stoford, Somerset, 
is nearest to it with regard to the punch mark decoration.^ 

It may be remembered that a skeleton burial with a beaker was found 
close to the foot of the stone " Adam," at Beckhampton, when it fell in 
1911.^ 



Plate X. 

The crouched skeleton found close to the inner side of stone hole 12 of 
the Stone-and-post ring. The stone hole is seen lengthwise to the left, i.e. 
in front of the skeleton, the left knee is on the edge of the hole. The upper 
part of post hole 13 may be seen beyond the stone hole. 



' Bronze Age Pottery, vol. 1 , 
^ W.A.M., vol. xxxviii., 1. 



324 The " Sanctuary " on Ove7'ton Hill, near Avehiry. 

Table of Pottery found. 

Outer Stone Circle. 
The stone holes having been necessarily disturbed when the stones were 
removed the depths are not given. 



No. of 


No. of 


Type. I 


Remarks. 


Hole, 


Sherds. 






12 


1 


Ind. 


Plain red surface, black core. 


14 


I 


Ind. 


Plain smooth, brown. 


16 


2 


Ind 


Core black, plain red surface. 


19 


2 


VV.K. 




20 


2 


Ind. 


Fine thin, sandy black ware. 


as 


I 


W.K. 




25 


1 


w.K. 




26 


1 


W.K. 


PI. VIIL. 16. 


27' 


I 


W.K. 




29 


I 


Bea. 


PI. VII., 2. 


31 


_ 


W.K. 


Several sherds black thin ware. 


43 


2 


W.K. 




43 


3 


Bea. 





Stone- AND-posT-RiNG. 
The even numbers represent stone holes (depth not given) and the odd 
numbers post holes. 



No. of 


No. of 


Depth, 


Type. 


Remarks. 


Hole. 


Sherds. 


Inches. 






5 


1 


12 


W.K. 




9 


1 


34 


W.K. 




10 


1 


12 


W.K. 




U 


3 


17 


Ind. 




11 


' — 


30 


Bea. 


Nearly a whole base and some dozen 
other small fragments. 


11 





18 


Bea. 


Part of base of same pot. 


U 


2 


24 


Ind. 


Flat base of buff ware. 


12 


5 


— 


Ind 




13 


1 


18 


Bea. 




13 


2 


18 


W.K. 




13 


2 


20 


Ind. 




13 


2 


36 


Ind. 




13 




30 


Ind. 


Rim of bowl of buff ware. PL VIIL, 11. 


13 




48 


Bea. 




13 




48 


W.K. 




14 




— 


Bea. 


Piece of base. 


15 




12 


WK. 




17 




18 


W.K. 




17 




50 


Ind. 


Rim sherd of thin buff ware resembling 
No. 13. PI. VIIL 


18 




— 


W.K. 




18 




— 


Ind. 




Id 




20 


Ind. 




19 


5 


50 


W.K. 


In bottom of hole. 


23 


2 


58 


W.K. 


In bottom of hole. PI. VII., 9. 


28 


1 


— 


W.K. 





^ W.K. indicates West Kennet ; Bea., Beaker : Ind., Indeterminate. 



By M. E, Cunnington, 325 

Bank Holiday-ring. 

No. of No. of Depth. Type. Remarks. 

Hole. Sherds. Inches. 

1 1 30 W.K. 

1 2 42 W.K. 

2 1 18 W.K. ? 

3 3 24 W.K. 

3 3 58 W.K. From bottom of hole some 50 sherds 

with rim of bowl ? PI. VIIL, 13 ; PI. 
VII., 8. 

4 3 30 W.K. 

5 2 — Ind. 

7 — 18 Bea. Several pieces with characteristic notched 

lines, pieces of base. 

7 2 18 W.K. One piece of rounded base, one with fin- 

ger nail impressions.' 

7 1 24 Ind. 

7 — 60 — Several pieces of bowl 1 of thin black 

ware, rim similar to 13. PI. VIII . 
Found in packing at bottom of hole. 

8 1 24 W.K. 
8 2 36 W.K. 

8 4 48 W.K. PI. VII., 3. 

9 1 36 W.K. PI. VII., 10. 

10 7 60 Ind. Rim and other small fragments of bowl? 

The rim from packing at the bottom 
of the hole, other sherds scattered a 
foot or so higher up. PI. VIII., 12. 

12 3 24 Bea. 

13 1 36 W.K. PI. VIII., 15. 
15 1 12 W.K. PI. VIIL, 14. 



Ten-foot Ring. 

1 1 36 Bea. 

2 I 44 W.K. PI VII., 4. 

2 — 33 Ind. Piece of flat base and sherds of coarse 

ware. 

4 -- 24 W.K. Several sherds. PI. VIII., 17—18. 

4 2 24 Bea. 

4 1 12 W.K. 

5 1 24 Ind. 
7 1 57 Ind. 
7 1 57 W.K. 



3 


1 


12 


W.K. 


3 


4 


30 


W.K. 


3 


1 


53 


W.K. 



Six-FOOT Ring. 

With finger nail impressions.* 
PL VII., I. 5-7. 
Bottom of hole. 



Compare with Woodhenge^ PL 35, figs. 67, 68. 



326 'The " Sanctuary '^ on Overton Hill, near Avehury. 

Details of Holes. 

A EiNG (outer stone circle). 



No. 


Depth, 
Inches. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Shape. 


1 


27 


54 


36 


Rectangular. 


2 


22 


24 


18 


Irregular. 


3 


28 


60 


36 


Irregular. 


4 


25 


36 


24 


Oval. 


5 


25 


30 


30 


Boughly circular. 


6 


17 


30 


30 


Roughly circular. 


7 


14 


48 


24 


Rectangular. 


8 


16 


48 


30 


Rectangular. 


9 


18 


66 


36 


Irregular. 


10 


22 


48 


24 


Rectangular. 


11 


18 


33 


24 


Irregular. 


12 


21 


24 


24 


Roughly circular. 


13 


16 


36 


18 


Oval. 


14 


33 


42 


18 


Rectangular. 


15 


17 


42 


24 


Oval. 


16 


14 


48 


21 


Rectangular. 


17 


11 


36 


24 


Oval. 


18 


21 


36 


27 


Oval 


19 


27 


— 


— 


Cut in section, and ao left. 


20 


16 


33 


33 


Circular. 


21 


22 


54 


42 


Oval. 


22 


20 


42 


24 


Oval. 


23 


15 


48 


36 


Ova). 


24 


24 


45 


21 


Rectangular. 


25 


18 


42 


30 


Rectangular. 


26 


22 


48 


48 


Rectangular. 


27 


24 


42 


36 


Oval. 


28 


27 


48 


48 


Circular. 


29 


18 


60 


36 


Oval. 


30 


25 


30 


30 


Circular. 


31 


21 


42 


36 


Rectangular. 


32 


21 


36 


24 


Oval. 


33 


23 


48 


30 


Rectangular. 


34 


18 


48 


36 


Rectangular. 


35 


22 


36 


27 


Straight sided. 


36 


23 


33 


18 


Oval. 


37 


16 


30 


24 


Oval. 


38 


27 


30 


24 


Rectangular. 


39 


22 


60 


30 


Rectangular. 


40 


23 


36 


36 


Circular. 


41 


33 


69 


36 


Rectangular. 


42 


16 


48 


36 


Rectangular, cut into by 
rabbit burrow. 



Objects found in the stone holes are considered of little or no value for 
dating purposes as the holes were necessarily disturbed when the stones fell 
or were thrown down. Pieces of broken sarsen were found in all the stone 
holes both in the circle and elsewhere ; fragments of bones of animals were 
not uncommon, but sherds of pottery were rare. 



0* 



/ 







c^ 



f^^ A 



%. 




n 



^ 



a .0. .o.r9 



two 3 



ixrM>i^d 



3 






-1 



^9 A-.-'^ '^'•^ 3- ^4^^ 



o 






^ ^ ^ fl 



Q 



O 



Q 







^ 


^ 


h 


/3 


& 


^ 


i 


/? 


^ 


/? 


/? 


^ 


? 


/a 



1. 



o ^ ^ 

























5 
>3 







o 






D 


Q 




D D 




<? 


Q 








^ 







<^ O 




^ 


<5 








# 


<s 








e 


^ 








<? 




% 


^i'.i) s:fl* 


^ 








-D 






4 






Plate IV.— The Sanctuary. 
1.— Aubrey's plan. 2. — Stukeley's plan. 



Ul 



CD 

Is 









Ut\i^'!% 





Plate VI. 
Flints from the Sanctuary, pages 321—2. 




Inside 










8 



F o 







10 

3" 



^fj^/h 



c//Oio 



Plate VII. 
Pottery from the Sanctuary, page 315. 




m 



Ins 










r 



16 




17 

y" ^/2 o 




18 



_Mt^/'^ccyu:/ OJo 



Plate VIII. 
Pottery from the Sanctuary, page 315. 







s 

cr f 

P t?3 



D 
o 







H°W^>^ 




,* 
^**i 



n 






•^ 








^^"^; _^ '* ^.: 



Plate X. 

Crouched skeleton at side of stone hole at the Sanctuary, page 313. 



Bij M. E, Cunnington, 327 

B King (Fence-ring). 

The average depth of 32 holes of this ring was 22| inches ; the shallowest 
being 16in., the deepest 29in. 

The average diameter at bottom 12in., the widest being 18in, the nar- 
rowest 9in. 

The entrance posts (nos. 33 and 34) were respectively 43 and 38 inches 
deep, with a diameter at bottom of 24 inches. There were traces of the 
core in these two holes, but in none of the others of this ring ; an unusual 
amount of broken and fire-flaked sarsen was found in hole 33. Fragments 
of bone were found in 29, sarsen in 21, and sherds of pot in 3, out of the 
34 holes in this ring. 



C Ring (Stone-and-post ring). 
(The odd numbers are post holes, the even numbers stone holes). 





Depth: 


Diam. top. 


Diam. bottom 


1 


54 


42 




24 


2 


17 


48 


X 24 




3 


46 


32 




24 


4 


26 


54 


X 33 




5 


37 


30 




24 


6 


24 


48 


X 34 




7 


50 


36 




18 


8 


35 


48 


X 34 




9 


56 


36 




30 


10 


17 


60 


X 26 




11 


54 


36 




27 


12 


26 


48 


X 36 




13 


51 


39 




27 


14 


18 


42 


X 24 




15 


55 


30 




27 


16 


24 


68 


X 30 




17 


51 


36 




30 


18 


18 


60 


X 24 




19 


51 


33 




18 


20 


30 


36 


X 24 




21 


48 


39 




24 


22 


17 


48 


X 24 




23 


53 


36 




18 


24 


29 


72 


X 20 




25 


59 


36 




24 


26 


17 


36 


X 24 




27 


60 


36 




24 


28 


21 


42 


X 24 




29 


54 


33 




24 


30 


15 


36 


X 30 




31 


57 


30 




24 


32 


16 


42 


X 24 





Traces of the core were distinctly seen in holes 7, 21, 27, and 31. Pieces 
of broken and fire-split sarsen and fragments of bones of animals were found 
to the bottom in all the sixteen post holes ; sherds of pottery were rare. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIV. Z 



328 The " SancUiary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury, 

D Ring (Bank Holiday ring). 





Depth 


Depth 


Width 






outer half. 


inner half. 


at bottom. 


Cores found. 


1 


62 


42 


50 X 28 


In outer half only. 


2 


63 


57 


52 X 26 


Inner and outer half. 


3 


59 


31 


42 X 24 


Inner and outer half. 


4 


50 


36 


40 X 21 


Inner and outer half. 


5 


61 


— 


24 X 24 


Circular hole with single core. 


6 


62 


48 


48 X 24 


Inner and outer half. 


7 


66 


.— 


54 X 30 


Inner and outer half. 


8 


60 


42 


51 X 24 


In outer half only. 


9 


65 


— 


36 X 24 


Inner and outer half. 


10 


62 


60 


46 X 22 


Inner and outer half. 


11 


62 


52 


40 X 22 


Inner and outer half. 


12 


67 


56 


40 X 26 


In outer half only. 



A few fragments of bones of animals, some of them charred, chips of sar- 
sen, many showing signs of fire, with rare sherds of pottery, were found 
throughout these holes. 



E Ring (10-foot ring). 





Depth. 


Width at bottom. 


1 


62 


21 X 18 


2 


61 


33 X 18 


3 


62 


36 X 28 


4 


64 


33 X 30 


5 


56 


48 X 24 


6 


61 


21 X 24 


7 


61 


33 X 18 


8 


60 


20 X 18 



F Ring (7-foot ring). 

The eight holes of the F ring averaged 30 inches in depth, the deepest 
being 43 and the shallowest 24 inches, 

The diameters at top were from 12 to 18 inches, and at the bottom of the 
holes all about 6 inches. 

There were no finds in either of the holes of this ring. 



G Ring (6- foot ring). 





Depth. 


Diam. at bottom. 


1 


62 


24 


2 


60 


24 


3 


55 


24 


4 


59 


24 


5 


60 


21 X 18 


6 


63 


24 X 16 



Cores were noticed in holes 3, 4, 5, and 6. Finds as in D. ring. 



By M, E. Cunnington. 329 

Central Hole 
Depth 42, diameter at top about 20, at bottom 10 inches. 

Avenue Stone Holes. 
North side. 

Depth. Size. Remarks. 

1 18 to 2.3 60 X 36 Irregular in shape ; broken sarsen found. 

2 24 78 X 30 Shape irregular ; broken sarsen and frag- 

ments of bone found. 

3 23 36 X 30 Oval. Fragments of bone and sarsen 

found. 

South side. 

75 X 27 Shape irregular ; many fragments of sat 

sen found. 
30 X 30 Roughly circular ; many pieces of sarsen 

found. 
30 X 24 Roughly circular ; nothing found. 

Line north of avenue. 

30 X 36 Oval ; fragments of bone and many pieces 

of sarsen found. 
30 X 20 Oval ; pieces of bone and sarsen found. 

Outliers on eastern side. 

48 X 24 Fragments of bone and sarsen found. 
30 X 24 Fragments of bone found. 



Holes H 1 — 5 (Segment with stone hole). 

Diam- 
at bottom. Remarks. 

9 h'ost hole containing pieces of bone and 

sarsen. 
6 Post hole with bone and sarsen. 

Stone hole with bone and sarsen. 
9 Post hole with bone and sarsen. 
12 Post hole with bone and sarsen. 



Post Holes on Northern Side of Outer Stone Circle. 

Diameter. Depth- 

Post hole 7a 20 x 1 4 18 

Post hole under stone hole 7 16 X 16 11 Below stone hole. 

Ditto ditto 8 12 X 12 9 Ditto. 

Ditto ditto 9 9x9 14 Ditto . 

z 2 



1 


13 to 22 


2 


18 


3 


18 


N 1 


20 


N 2 


17 


X3 

X4 


15 
16 







Diam. 




H. 


Depth. 


at top. 




HI 


15 


9 




H2 


14 


12 




H 3 


17 


72 X 


24 


H4 


16 


12 




H5 


14 


15 





330 The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury. 

Report on Human Remains from the Sanctuary, 
By Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.S. 

All parts of a human skeleton are present, the bones being those of a lad 
about 14 years of age and about live feet in height. My estimate of the age 
is founded on : — (1) the epiphyses have not yet joined the ends of the long 
bones ; (2) the parts of the pelvis are unjoined ; the skull bones are thin 
(5mm. in vault) and sutures are quite open ; (3) the third molar (wisdom) 
teeth are still unerupted ; all the others are in place, but only the first 
molar shows signs of wear. The teeth are free from disease. The stature 
is estimated from the length of the femur and tibia. The femur measured 
without epiphyses (maximum length) is 355mm. ; with epiphyses 415 mm. ; 
the tibia without epiphyses 3l7mm. ; with epiphyses 355mm. The tibia is 
86/0 of length of femur — relatively a long tibia. The infra-trochanteric 
part of the femur shows a moderate degree of flattening — the side to side 
diameter being 29mm. and front to back thickness 25mm. The upper part 
of the shaft of the tibia at nutrient foramen has antero-posterior diameter 
of 29mm. with transverse of 21*5 mm. 

As concerns the skull — the lad shows features which lead us to regard 
him as being of the same type as the people who buried their dead in long 
barrows. The skull is slightly deformed by earth pressure ; its maximum 
length now measures 195mm. ; its maximum width 136mm. — the width 
being just under 10% of the length. The narrowness and length are no 
doubt due to some slight extent to posthumous distortion but when allow- 
ances are made on this score the skull is still long and narrow. The fore- 
head is wide, 103mm. (min. width) ; maximum frontal width 119mm. The 
median frontal suture (metopic) is still open and this may account for the 
width of forehead. The skull is not high ; at its highest point with the 
skull oriented in the Frankfort plane the vault rises 107mm. above that 
plane. The skull viewed from above shows a long oval form. All the 
features of skull and skeleton lead me to regard the lad as a member of the 
long barrow people. 

As to characters of the face little can be said for although the jaws are 
preserved they cannot be articulated to the skull because the basal parts of 
the skull are missing. 



Report on the Animal Iiemains from the Sanctuary. 
By J. Wilfrid Jackson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

The collection of animal bones found at the above site are somewhat 
imperfect and not very numerous. They are, however, of some interest 
in connection with those found at " Woodhenge " and reported upon 
recently. In the main they represent animals used as foodi 

The domestic animals represented are horse, ox, pig, and dog, while others 
are cat, field vole, and toad. 



By M. E. Cunnington. 331 

Horse. — An unbroken cannon bone or metacarpal from E 2 belongs to 
this animal. It measures 210mm. in length and has a mid-shaft diameter 
of 30mm., and indicates a small, slender-limbed animal, about 12^ hands 
in height, of the " plateau" or Equus agilis type, as at All Cannings Cross 
and similar stations, 

Ox. — The bones of oxen are fairly numerous but much broken in the 
usual way for marrow. Two carpal-bones from D 3 and C 29 are of the 
small type and suggest the Celtic ox {Bos longifrons), but all the others are 
larger and more robust and agree closely with the remains of the large ox 
found abundantly at Woodhenge. Unfortunately, no horn cores are present, 
but the various bones appear to indicate a bigger ox than the typical Bos 
longifrons of Early Iron Age sites. 

Pig. — Various split bones and three teeth belong to this animal. They 
all agree with similar remains from Woodhenge. A tibia from D 12 in a 
perfect condition measures 209mm. in length and is somewhat longer than 
the one from Woodhenge measuring 180mm. 

Dog. — There is an imperfect humerus of this animal from C 23. It is 
much weathered and root-marked, and represents a small animal. 

Cat — This animal is represented by a fragmentary scapula from C 27. 

Field Vole.. — A skull fragment and lower jaws from C 28 belong to this 
animal. 

2had. — ^The remains of at least eight individuals are represented by 
numerous bones. 



The following were found immediately on the top of a human skeleton 
burial, C 12 :— 

Ox. — A lower tooth, toe-bone, split tibia, etc., belonging to a small animal. 
Pig. — Teeth and a few bones. 
Fragment of antler of red deer. 



It is interesting to note the absence of sheep from the above collection of 
remains. 



The absence of sheep bones as noted by Dr. Jackson is particularly in- 
teresting in view of the extreme scarcity of the remains of this animal at 
Woodhenge also. Whether it is due to the rarity of this animal in Britain 
in the early and middle Bronze Age, or a prejudice against it on ceremonial 
sites such as these, must for the present remain uncertain. 

In addition to the bones sent to Dr. Jackson a few fragments of antlers 
of red deer were found, one at the bottom of hole 2 of the 6-ft. ring, one in 
hole 4, and another at the bottom of hole 2 of the 10-foot ring. 

Toad bones. — In some of the post holes quite a number of these bones 
were found in a very fragmentary state, only a selection of these being sent 
to Dr. Jackson. Their presence in the holes may be due to the animals 
creeping into the decaying trunks for shelter. In the grave beneath a 
neighbouring barrow a number of what were reported as frogs' bones were 



332 The " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury. 

found some years ago." Mr. Mortimer records that in a Bronze Age barrow 
in Yorkshire he found a number of bones of toads and frogs in the lower 
part of the mound near the interments.^ 

NiEDERMENDIG LaVA. 

Some twenty fragments of this stone were found scattered throughout 
the lower half of post hole 27 of the Stone-and-post ring. They are small, 
mostly rounded pieces, and show no sign of use. 

Dr. H. H. Thomas, H.M. Geological Survey, who identified the rock, 
describes it as " particularly interesting and its occurrence difficult to ex- 
plain. It is lava (nephrite) from Niedermendig on the eastern slope of the 
Eifel, Its source is without question. This rock was imported by the 
Romans into England in considerable quantity for millstones, for which its 
hardness, cavernous nature, and rough surface make it eminently suitable, 
I know, however, of no occurrence of this rock in Britain which could be 
attributed to pre- Roman occupation." 

The presence of this rock from the Rhine area, in the bottom of a deep 
post hole at the Sanctuary, is a remarkable discovery. There is no reason 
to assume that this particular hole was disturbed in Roman or medieval 
times, when this rock is known to have been in use in the country, indeed 
traces of a core representing the decayed timber were found and this proves 
that the hole had not been disturbed. 

It is tempting to connect the discovery with the Beaker people who are 
generally thought to have reached this country by way of the Rhine valley. 
It might have been brought over by them as a mealing stone, and subse- 
quently being broken, the fragments could have found their way into the 
filling-in of the post hole, along with other debris from the surface. The 
use of this rock was known to the Beaker people in the Rhine area, where 
it was also used by their predecessors, late Neolithic people of the " Michel- 
berger " culture,^ 

Haematite. One piece was found at the bottom of post hole II of the 
Bank Holiday ring, and another about 3ft. deep in hole 7 of the 10-foot ring. 



It is hoped to publish a report on the charcoals later on in this volume. 

Report on the Non-Marine Mollusca. 
By a. S. Kennard, A.L.S., and the late B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. 

Thirty-five samples of earth from as many post-holes were submitted to 
us for examination and from these we obtained thirty-two species of non- 
marine mollusca. The samples varied somewhat in character, some con- 
taining far more humus than the remainder. Chips of sarsen, small flint 

' W.A.M., XX., 343. 2 Forty Years Researches, 351—2. 

^ Mannus vi., 1914, 283 — 294, fig. 10: P. Horier, Die Basaltlava Industrie 
hei Mayen {Rheinland) in vorromischer und romischer Zeit. I am indebted 
for this reference to Herr Georg Kraft, of the Museum fur Urgeschichte, 
Freiburg. 



By M. E. Cunnington. 333 

flakes, and burnt flints were also present. The preservation of the shells also 
varied, but these difi"erences would have arisen from the differences in the 
matrix. A large number of bones of small vertebrates were also present, a 
feature that did not occur at either Stonehenge or Woodhenge. We have 
tabulated the number of samples in whick each species occurred, thus in- 
dicating the relative frequency. 

List of Speciest 
Pomatias eUgans (Mlill.) 
Carychium minimum (Miill,) 
Limnsea pereger (Miill.) 
Planorbis spirorbis (Linn.) 
Pupilla muscorum (Linn.) 
Vertigo pygmsea (Drap.) 
Acanthinula aculeata (Miiil.) 
Vallonia excentrica (Sterki) 

„ costata (Miill.) 
C ochlicopa luhrica {lAun .) 
Ena ohscura {MiiW.) 
Punctum pygmseum (Drap.) 
Goniodiscus7'Otundatus{}A\\\\,) 
Avion sp. 

Petasina fulva (Mlill.) 
Helicella cellaria (Miill.) 
„ nitidula (Drap.) 
„ pura (Aid.) 
„ radiatula {k\d,) 
Vitrea crystallina (Miill.) 
Vitrina pellucida (Drap.) 
Limax maximus (Linn.) 

„ arborum (Boucb-Chant) 
Xerophila itala (Linn.) 
Trockulus hispidus (Linn.) 
Arianta arbustorum (Linn.) 
CepdRa nemoralis (Linn.) 

„ hor tensis {yiiiW.) 
Clausilia rugosa (Drap ) 
Marpessa laminata (Mont.) 
Gecilioides acicula (Miill.) 
Succinea pfeifferi (Rossm.) 
W=Occurred at WoodhGnge. The numbers are the total number of 
samples in which the species occurred. 

As at Woodhenge Pomatias elegans was only represented by fragments 
and cannot be considered a contemporary species. The status of the sub- 
terranean species Cecilioides acicula is difficult to estimate, some of the 
examples were very fresh and may well be quite recent, but there is no 
inherent improbability in the view that some specimens are contemporary. 
Another doubtful species is Marpessa laminata^ represented by one apical 



3 


W 


29 


W 


1 




1 




15 


W 


9 


w' 


9 


w 


22 


w 


26 


w 


30 


w 


1 


w 


15 


w 


34 


w 


35 


w 


3 




34 


w 


17 


w 


17 


w 


22 


w 


30 


w 


9 


w 


1 




2 


w 


13 


w 


32 


w 


14 




4 


w 


11 


w 


7 


w 


22 


w 


2 




number 



334 The ''Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, near Avebury, 

fragment, and may well be classed with Pomatias elegans. The remainder 
are without doubt contemporary. The facies of this faunule shows clearly 
that conditions were much damper than they are to-day. The commonest 
Isirge Belecoid wsis Arianta arbustorum, a well-known damp-loving form, 
and this has now quite disappeared from the downs whilst the abundance 
of Hellicella radiatula, and the large forms of Gochlicopa lubf^ica and 
TrochuliAS hispidus, emphasizes the " damp " character of the faunule. 
Of particular importance was the occurrence of two freshwater species, 
Limnsea pereger and Planorbis spirorbis, about twenty examples occuring 
in one sample from Circle G. From the form of these two species one can 
safely postulate that a small pool liable to dessication was in existence 
there, and this is confirmed by the presence of the semi-aquatic species 
Succinea pfeiferi in two samples from Circle C. The examples of Arianta 
arbustorum were the same size as recent English examples, in this respect 
differing from those found at Windmill Hill, which were extremely large. 
All the examples of Cepa&a nemoralis were bandless. The band formulae 
of CepstQj hortensis were : — 

1 2 3 4 5—10 examples 0000 0—3 examples 

(1 2 3) (4 5)— 1 example 
(12 3 4 5)— 1 „ 

10 3 4 5—1 
This is the fourth series that we have examined from this neighbourhood 
and a comparison between the four faunules is interesting. Windmill Hill 
and Avebury are very close together, both indicating well-marked damper 
conditions. Woodhenge is apparently less damp, whilst at Stonehenge the 
conditions approximate to those of the present day. 



Note. — Mr. Kennard's report, showing that damper conditions prevailed 
at the time the post holes at the Sanctuary were tilled up, is of considerable 
interest with regard to the date. 

The Sanctuary appears to be roughly contemporary with the later phase 
at Windmill Hill (beaker and West Kennet pottery), and it is suggested also 
with the circles at Avebury. The evidence of the snail shells from these 
three sites indicates a climate considerably damper than at present. 

Woodhenge, which from the character of the pottery, etc., I believe to be 
rather later than these, had, according to the evidence of the snail shells, a 
less damp climate. Stonehenge, which in my view is later than Woodhenge, 
the snail shell evidence shows to have had a climate comparatively dry, 
differing little from that of to-day. • 

This increasing dryness does not fit in well with the dating of successive 
climatic changes in north-western Europe as set out by Mr. C. E. P. Brooks.* 
namely a dry warm period from about 3000 B.C. to 850 B.C., and a wet 
cool period from about 850 B.C. to 300 B.C. The divergence, however, may 
be due to local variation, for as Mr. Brooks points out a dry season in one 
country is often a wet one elsewhere. 

^ Woodhenge, page 21. 
' Antiquity, 412, Dec. 1927. 



By M. E. Gunnington. 335 

The samples sent to Mr. Kennard were all taken from near the bottom of 
the deeper post holes, none being taken from the shallow post holes of the 
Fence ring or of the 7-foot ring, or from the stone holes. 

Arianta arhustorum. With regard to this species Mr. C D. Heginbothom 
reports that it occurs at Red Hone Hill, on Salisbury Plain, at the top of 
Blacklands, near Calstone, and in some other localities on the Downs. 

All the species in the list have been reported as living species in the 
neighbourhood by the Marlborough College Natural History Society, 
though Cecilioides acicula and Vertigo pygmaea are rare. — M.E.U. 



Canon E. H. Goddard suggests that the presence of the damp-loving 
mollusca may not necessarily denote a greater rainfall, but may be due 
to different conditions in prehistoric times. Large areas of the chalk 
downs are now covered with short turf and few or no bushes, and have 
therefore a dry surface ; these conditions are largely due to sheep grazing, 
and when sheep are no longer present, and the downs are not grazed, as in 
some areas in the occupation of the War Department, grass and weeds grow 
tall and coarse, and thorn and other bushes spring up and keep the surface 
cool and moist, so that species of 'snails that like shade and moisture, might 
be found in areas where the present day dry turfy conditions are uncon- 
genial to them. 



[The Society is indebted to Mrs. Cunnington for half the cost of the 
illustrations of this paper. — E. H. Goddard.] 



336 



NOTES ON FARMING FAMILIES OF THE 19th CENTURY 

IN WILTSHIRE. 

By Edward Coward. 

Agriculture was prosperous in the middle of the 19th century. Farmers 
were making money, and when these conditions prevail there can be no 
more delightful occupation. Farmers could afford then to hunt and shoot, 
their sons were brought up with a taste for sport, and were only too willing 
to settle on the land. It followed that men put most of their sons into the 
business, new farms were taken for the rising generation, and in this way 
big farming families were formed. 

Of all the families farming in the county, the Browns were by far the 
most numerous and influential. They were a vigorous, sturdy race, and 
were mostly men of substance and of some social standing. There was a 
time when one could walk from Horton, near Devizes, to Wantage, in 
Berkshire, and scarce set foot on land which was not occupied by a Brown ; 
whilst history — soon to become tradition — records that an endeavour was 
made about 1860 to form a cricket team of Tom Browns, but they could 
only find ten Toms, so Tom Hughes, the author of " Tom Brown's School 
Days," was enlisted to make up the eleven. 

George Brown, of Avebury, was the acknowledged head of the clan. He 
was also regarded as the representative champion of the industry over a 
wide area, and has been described as a fine, stout, rugged, typical farmer of 
the best yeoman type. At a dinner in Devizes in 1853 he was the recipient 
of a numerously subscribed testimonial, accompanied by a service of plate, 
" in recognition of his able, consistent, and straight-forward conduct, as 
chairman of the North Wilts Agricultural Protection Society, and as a token 
of their personal esteem and respect for his character as a man of business, 
a friend, and a neighbour." 

He was also one of the pioneers in a movement to promote the 
cultivation of flax. Meetings at which he took the chair were held in 
1847 and 1848, and resulted in a sufiicient acreage being assured to justify 
the erection of a factory to deal with the fibre. A Mr. Henly, of Calne, 
occupied Townsend Farm, Horton, in those days. He was an enthusiast, 
and not only went in largely for growing the crop himself but provided the 
factory as well. The venture was not successful however, and when the 
factory at Calne was burnt down in 1861 it was already on its last legs. 
Flax is an exhausting crop and Horton farm did not recover its fertility 
for many years. 

George Brown's three sons, Tom, Stephen, and John, settled respectively 
at Lower Upham, near Aldbourne, Fawley, and Lockinge, in Berks. John 
Brown, brother of George, lived at Winterbourne Monkton, where his son 
Henry succeeded him, while another son, William, became head of the well- 
known agricultural engineering firm of Brown & May, at Devizes. There was 
a Brown at Broad Hinton whom I cannot trace. Next to him came John 
Brown, of (Jfcott, the handsome father of a good-looking family. T. Pearce 
Brown lived at Burderop, and W. Huddle Brown at Chiseldon, whilst Aid- 



Notes on Farming Families of the 19 tk Century in Wiltshire, 337 

bourne was the ancestral home of W. Brown, head of another branch of the 
family. To this branch belonged a Brown at Baydon, T. Strange Brown, 
of Kennett, J. W. Brown, of Box, and W. H. Brown, who migrated to 
Cholderton. Horton, near Devizes, was the property and home of yet 
another branch of the family, who had lived there for many generations. 
Thomas Brown had succeeded his father and was followed by his son in 
one farm, while his brother William occupied the other. Thomas was a 
man of high tone and character and fine appearance. He was chairman of 
the dinner mentioned above, at which his kinsman George was honoured, 
and was himself the recipient of a very similar presentation some years 
later in recognition of his public services. 

The Waldrons farmed extensively at one time in the Ramsbury district. 
Eventually they all emigrated to Patagonia where they are reputed to have 
made big fortunes. 

The Tanners may next be mentioned. Four brothers farmed their own 
estates ; John, who died young, and Charles, had the two Yatesbury farms, 
William was at Rockley, and Robert at Ogbourne. Charles and Robert 
were well-known figures in the hunting field, the one with a nutty-brown 
and the other a tawny beard. Close at hand was John Tanner, of Poulton, a 
man of refined taste and bearing. 

Coming to mid-Wilts, the Stratton family, who had lived and farmed for 
generations in the Pewsey Vale, sprang into prominence about 1840, when 
Richard and James, the sons of James, of Woodborough, took farms at 
Rushall and iManningford. James Stratton, of Manningford, was a very 
superior and a very successful man. He had six sons, four of whom made 
their mark in the agricultural world. Richard, the eldest, went into North 
Wilts, Alfred succeeded his uncle at Rushall, Joe followed his father at 
Manningford, and Fred farmed at Gore. Richard eventually settled at 
Broad Hiaton, and there founded the herd of shorthorns which made his 
name famous all over the world. A few years previously, with rare judge- 
ment, he had purchased at a very low price in open market a heifer from 
which be had bred a wonderful cow, which he named "Moss Rose." This 
cow was the mother of the celebrated Stratton herd. Richard Stratton 
possessed business ability of a rare order and was very prosperous. H is four 
sons, William of Kingston Deverill, James of Winchester, Richard of New- 
port, and Joe of Alton, all became prominent agriculturists. William was a 
man of forceful character and marked ability. He was the first chairman of 
the Cattle Diseases Committee of the Central Chamber of Agriculture, and 
held the position for 22 years. In his history of the Chamber Mr. Mathews 
says that it was " chiefly due to xVIr. Stratton's steady and untiring persis- 
tence" that the Diseases of Animals Act, 1896, became law. In 1879 he 
was made a member of the Pvoyal Commission which was appointed to in- 
quire into agricultural distress. At a somewhat later date than I had 
intended to deal with, Frank Stratton, son of James III. of Melksham, be- 
came associated with S. W. Farmer and W. Gauntlett, and under the name 
of " Frank Stratton & Co." controlled the biggest acreage of any farming 
firm in England. The Strattons were all noted for their high character 
and general culture, as well as for their enterprise and resource. 



338 Notes on Farming Families of the l^tli Century in Wiltshire. 

The Ferris family, who had lived at Keevil and Bulkington for centuries, 
produced two men who became conspicuous — William, who went to Milton, 
near Pewsey, and made a great name for himself as an agricultural valuer, 
and Thomas, of Manningford, who was a noted sheep breeder, and was said 
to be the first man in the county to farm over 2000 acres. 

Other well-known families in the Fewsey Vale were the Hitchcocks — 
Simon of All Cannings, Henry of Stanton St. Bernard, and William of 
Everleigh ; the Simpkins of Stowell, Alton, and Stanton ; the Huddles, 
who spread from Bishops Cannings into the south of the county ; the 
Eedmans, who were very widely distributed and had many branches ; and 
the Rowdens and the Jenners, of the Avon Valley. A little further south 
the Deans were as old as Imber itself ; the Chismans lived at Codford and 
Upavon ; theMelsomes emanated from Norton Bavant, five brothers spread- 
ing out and farming some 6000 acres between them. The Mills family at 
Shrewton, Orcheston, and i^]lston, owned and farmed a huge tract of Salis- 
bury Plain. In the south the Swaynes and the Waters were more numerous 
and perhaps more influential than others ; Edward Waters, of Stratford- 
sub-Castle, was a man of mark in his day. 

So far I have been dealing with families, but the characteristics and 
idiosyncrasies of a few individuals may be of interest. Stephen Butler, of 
Stitchcomb, vied with William Sainsbury, of West Lavington, for the poss- 
ession of the best stable of cart horses in the county. There were many other 
good stables but these were pre-eminent. And what a pride farmers and their 
carters took in their market teams in those days ! What a sight it was to 
meet them on the road ! The wheels of the best waggon washed and bright 
with paint ; the horses brushed and combed with extra care, their manes 
and tails plaited with coloured ribbons ; the best harness oiled and the brass 
furniture polished ; the carter with his clean frock and trousers strapped 
up under the knee carrying the market whip, with the boy usually astride 
the near leader. They could be heard a mile away. As they came nearer 
the bells tinkled, the breastplates swayed and sparkled, and the housings 
nodded with every step the horses took. The horses themselves — four of 
the very best — steaming with their four-ton load behind them, seemed to 
know that they were on their best behaviour and carried themselves ac- 
cordingly. The whole thing was a show in itself. One would step aside 
and watch it pass with sheer delight. It is seldom seen nowadays, and 
when it is seen it is only a shadow of the real thing. Although fewer in 
number the horses themselves are probably as good as ever they were, but 
there is no place for them on the roads to-day, and the countryside has 
lost one of its greatest attractions. 

But to return to William Sainsbury, who had other claims for notice be- 
sides his horses, for he was an exceptionally good farmer, and was the last 
man in the county to keep a breeding flock of Southdowns, which was not 
dispersed until after his death in 1884. Others I would briefly mention are 
Robert Lyne, of Barton ; John Wentworth, of Beckhampton, best known 
perhaps as father of Norman Wentworth, the coursing judge ; Tom Kemm, 
of Avebury, with his refined face and manners to match ; my own father, 
Richard Coward, of Round way, a keen naturalist and antiquary ; Mark 



By Edward Coward. 339 

Sloper, of Bishops Cannings, than whom none rode straighter ; Joe Parry, 
of Allington ; and W. P. Hay ward, of Wilsford. The Hay ward family 
had farmed at Beechingstoke and Marden for generations. " Will " 
Hayward, as he was always called, had a reputation with hounds which 
extended beyond his own county, he had a tongue too nearly as caustic 
and witty as that of his relative, Abraham Hayward, the famous London 
raconteur. Leonard Maton, of Haddington ; George Blake, of Chitterne 
and Amesbury ; Andrew Baden, of Enford ; G. F. Gay, of Porton ; T. K. 
Harding, of Kodmead ; Henry Andrews, of Little Langford ; and last, 
but by no means least, Joseph Carpenter, of Burcombe, were all men in a 
biggish way who were looked up to by their fellows. 

Wiltshire has been fortunate in its shorthorn breeders. The Bapton herd, 
started by Joseph Deans Willis about 1854, was considerably improved by 
judicious purchases made by his son, J. Deane Willis, who succeeded him- 
For many years this herd was second to none in the kingdom. At one time 
it was almost invincible, and many were the prizes and trophies which 
it secured. In the extreme S.W. corner of the county another breed 
flourished. John White, of Zeals, had a large and extraordinarily good 
herd of Herefords. Although out of their district they competed success- 
fully on many occasions with the very best herds in the country. This 
herd has been continued by his sons, A. R. White, of Charnage, and W. J. 
White, of Zeals, in undiminished numbers and quality to the present day. 

The rise of the Hampshire Down breed of sheep roughly corresponded 
with the early Victorian era. Descended mainly from the Southdown, 
crossed with the old Wiltshire, and re-crossed with the Southdown again 
with-— some say — a touch of Cotswold blood, it took a long time to evolve 
a true type, but in 1857 the Royal Agricultural Society recognised it as a 
distinct breed, and in 1890 a flock book was started. James Rawlence, of 
Bulbridge, did more than any other man to evolve the type and bring it 
to perfection. One or two men in Hampshire were working on the same 
lines, but to James Rawlence most credit is due. His flock too was recog- 
nised in the early days as the standard of excellence. After him the most 
successful breeders were W. Canning, of Elston ; Edwin Dibben, of Bishop- 
stone ; Alfred Morrison, of Fonthill ; Kobert Coles, of Boreham ; and 
Frank Moore, of Littlecote. James Flower, of Chilmark, succeeded to a 
very good flock when his father died in 1878. After a few years he out- 
stripped all competitors, and gained a supremacy which he retained for 
many years. He sold his flock in 1913, started another, and is still with us 
with a flock as good as ever. When the " Flock Book " was started in 1890 
James Edward Rawlence, of Waters & Rawlence, auctioneers, son of James 
Rawlence, of Bulbridge, was the first secretary and editor. It was worth 
going a long way to see and hear " Ted " Rawlence in the rostrum selling 
the produce of a crack flock. None knew the points of a ram iamb better 
than he and none could describe them half so well. He was an artist at 
the job. He had a fine presence, too, and a pleasing voice, and with clever 
patter and amusing chaflf he knew how to keep his audience in good humour 
and in the mood to buy. 

Farmers cannot get on without dealers. Two brothers, Alfred Rawlins, 



340 Notes on Farming Families of the 1 ^th Century in Wiltshire. 

of Alton, and Walter Rawlins, of Pewsey, stood out as cattle and sheep 
dealers of the best type ; they both farmed extensively and were in a very 
large way of business. William Bunce, the horse dealer, of Pewsey, was a 
very remarkable man. Of pure gypsy blood and upbringing, he had had 
no education and could neither read nor write. It was with difficulty that 
he was able to sign the cheque, which was generally written for him by the 
person in whose favour it was drawn. All gypsies dabble in horse dealing, 
but usually in the lowest grade. Bunce dealt in the very best. He was 
once heard to say "I never tells an unnecessary lie," and doubtless he knew 
how and where to place the " wrong uns " so as not to incur loss, but the 
best men came to him year after year, and placed complete confidence in 
his judgement and integrity. His strings of cart colts at Weyhill and other 
fairs were always one of the sights of the fair. He was a man of marked 
appearance and ready wit. 

Towards the end of the period of which I am writing a great change in 
conditions set in. Instead of being prosperous, agriculture was in distress. 
A succession of adverse seasons began in 1875, and culminated in 1879 — 
that disastrous year when sheep were baned and crops failed. This 
coincided with a general fall in prices. It would be hardly overstating the 
case to say that a generation of farmers were ruined, and from this date 
names which had been familiar for generations began to drop out. Farms 
got into bad condition, they became difficult to let, and rents began to 
tumble. It was at this stage that " F. Stratton & Co." came in. They 
took arable farms that no one else would look at, and in every case started 
a large dairy of cows. Their holdings included farms at Manningford, 
Little Bedwyn, Collingbourne, Ham, Grafton, Enford, liushall, Charlton, 
Horton, Patney, and Norton Bavant, besides Henley-on-Thames — some 
25,000 acres on which they milked upwards of 2000 cows. Farmer was the 
financier, Stratton the organiser. Their success was an object lesson in 
farming of great educational value, and was the outstanding feature in 
the county in the years which followed: Mr. S. W. Farmer died in 1927 
leaving jG400,000. Other farms were taken by men from Devon and Corn- 
wall, who were attracted by the low rents, and were not hampered by social 
recollections of better times. Their standard of living was lower and in 
the main they were successful. Most of the men whom I have named 
farmed over lOOO acres, and most of their names are missing to-day. There 
are, however, still a few, but only a few. Browns, who worthily maintain the 
family traditions ; there are several Strattons who possess the same 
characteristics for which their forefathers were noted ; and in the south the 
Waters family is still going strong. 

It may be of interest to note a few organisations which existed in the 
county. " The Wiltshire Society for the encouragement of agriculture and 
rewarding faithful and industrious servants," was formed in 1813. It had 
a chequered career and was generally in financial difficulties. Mr. Estcourt 
paid its debts on one, if not on two occasions, and set the society on its legs 
again ; this enabled it to carry on until about 1859, when it ceased to exist. 
I have before me, as I write, the first report of the society ; it offered re- 
wards for long service, and prizes for hoeing, mowing, sheep shearing, and 



By Edward Coward. 341 

ploughing. In other years there were in addition prizes for hoeing by- 
women, and for shepherds rearing lambs, and there was an annual show 
with classes for horses, sheep, and cattle. The present " Wiltshire Agri- 
cultural Society " was formed in 1885; it does not reward faithful and 
industrious servants, but offers instead prizes for tradesmen's turnouts, 
jumping horses, driving ponies, etc. One wonders sometimes whether the 
older society was not on the better lines, and whether we are not a bit off 
the track to-day. The " South Wilts Chamber of Agriculture " grew out 
of the " East Knoyle Farmers' Club," which enlarged its sphere in 1871. 
The chamber was a real live force in the south of the county, it eventually 
became affiliated to the Central Chamber, and sent delegates to that body. 
It regularly discussed all agricultural topics of the day,and sent recommenda- 
tions to the Central Chamber which, in the capable hands of William 
Stratton and Joseph Carpenter, who were the delegates for many years, 
carried due weight. It functioned until the National Farmers' Union came 
to manhood when there seemed no room for the two societies, and the older 
one dropped out. I regret that I have been unable to learn much about the 
" North Wilts Agricultural Protection Society." It was in existence from 
1844 to 1852, how much longer I do not know. I imagine that its object 
was to prevent the repeal of the Corn Laws, but I have no certain informa- 
tion. 

It is worth recording perhaps that fifty years ago nearly every farm of 
any size in the county had its team or teams of oxen. They did much of 
the ploughing, cost little to keep, and they did not depreciate in value, for, 
after being worked a few years they generally realised as graziers more than 
they originally cost. But they were slow and necessitated the use of boy 
labour. At that time the age of leaving school was ten, and labour was 
plentiful, but as the age was gradually raised the supply became increas- 
ingly diflScult. Another factor was the advent of the double-engine system 
of cultivation. By hiring this occasionally farmers were able to pull up 
their arrears of work and to reduce their permanent staff accordingly. So 
the oxen had to go. They lingered on in a few districts up to the begin- 
ning of the war, but I do not know of a single team remaining now. Oxen 
were used in the olden days for purposes other than ploughing. When the 
coaching road from London to Bath ran through old Shepherds Shore, over 
the downs, and down Beacon Hill to Sandy Lane, oxen were used on the 
return journey to help pull the coach up the hill. They were kept in 
meadows near the bottom of the hill and were hitched on to the coach at 
the end of a small lane ; this is still called " Hitchin Lane." But all this is 
another story. 



342 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE ACCOUNTS OF THE OVERSEERS 
OF THE PARISH OF BOX, WILTS, FROM NOVEMBER 

26th, 1727, TO APRIL 17fch, 1748. 

Extracted by A. Shaw Mellor. 

The Accounts from which these extracts are taken are contained in a 
volume bound in calf, measuring ISiin. X 8in., which is preserved in the 
vestry of the Parish Church. It is inscribed on the cover " Poor. Dec. 1729 
— April 1747," but, as a matter of fact, the record of the transactions con- 
tained in the volume begins in 1728 and continues until 1748. The book 
contains an inventory of the contents of the workhouse, memoranda of the 
appointment of overseers signed by the vicar, churchwardens,and inhabitants 
of the parish, various receipts and notes, and the overseers' accounts for the 
whole period. 

Only a few extracts from the Accounts are given, but they are selected as 
typical of the rest or as being especially interesting. Many of the terms 
used are obsolete and call for some explanation. I append a few defini- 
tions, and tender my acknowledgments to Capt. B. H. Cunnington for the 
information with which he has kindly supplied me. 

Marshalsea Money. Money paid by the parish towards the relief of 
prisoners, debtors or otherwise, detained in the local " Marshalseas " or 
" Houses of Correction." Marshalsea is used as a synomyn for prison, 
after the well-known Marshalsea Prison in London, immortalised in " Little 
Dorrit." The term was used apparently in some districts for a county rate. 

Indicting the Highway, llepairs to and upkeep of the local highways 
were duties imposed upon the parish. If these duties were neglected, and 
the highways allowed to get into a state of bad repair, it was open to any 
person, or body of persons, to lay an information and " indict the high- 
way " before the authorities. This necessitated the attendance of representa- 
tives of the parish to get the indictment " taken of," presumably by taking 
the repairs in hand. 

Outcomers. Used for " strangers." 

Intruders. Used for " strangers " or " foreigners," 

Press. It is not generally realised that the " press " was a means of ob- 
taining men for the army by compulsory enlistment, as well as for the navy. 

Swingg. Capt. Cunnington informs me that the word " Swing " or 
" Swingle " was used for an implement for beating flax. 

Tabling. Providing table or board. 

Dowlas. A coarse kind of linen. 

Fry. In local dialect used for a brushwood drain. 

Flakes. Hurdles. 

These Accounts throw some light on the conditions of village life at the 
time ; beer figures as a most important item on many occasions. Sometimes 
there is a touch of unconscious humour, as when Mr. Saml. Pinchen rode 
and went journeys in an extraordinary manner ; and one would like to 
know what Doctor Fowler did to Hannah Arlett's child. 



Robert Raynolds 



22nd Aprill, 1*728 



Paid Ann Butter for curing the Child's head 

Paid for a Pair of Bodies for Stogden's Child 

Paid for a Gown and Apron for Ann Bond 

Paid for making the Gown 

Paid for a Pair of Shoes for Ann Bond 

Paid for 2 pairs of Shoes for Stogden's Children 

Paid at Chipinham for waiting of the out commers 

Paid Jacob Bayly the Agreed Sum for taking Richard 

Stogden Apprentice 
Paid for 30 Ells of Flaxen Cloth for making 12 garments 
Pd. Ann Castle for dressing Wm. Pillinger's leg 
Pd. for Bread Beer & a Shroud at Mary Smith's funeral 
Pd. for Bleeding Mary Smith 
Paid for a paire of Breetches for John Head 
Paid for 1 paire of Stockings for Head's Maid 
Paid for two Mapps 
Paid Edward Mullins for 60 faggotts 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIV, 



10 


2 


1 


6 


6 





2 





14 


9 



Extracts from the Accotmts of the Overseers of Box. 34S 

Paid for a Pair of Indenters 5 

Paid the Justices' Clerk for signing the Ind : 2 

Received of Still Monday the Summ of Twelve pounds 
being the Agreed Summ for Breeding up and Putting 
Apprentice of a Bastard Child born of the body of 
Susanah Lewis, whereof the Said Still Monday is the 
Reputed Father. 

Paid for 12 Ells of Flaxen Cloth and Threed 

Paid for making 6 Shurts 

Paid for a Coffin for Joseph Nowell 

Paid for Digging the Grave and Ringing the Bell 

Paid Samuel Bridges for making Cloath 

MEMORANDUM. Whereas William Northey Esqr 
and John Ford Overseers and John Neat and John 
Nicholls Church-wardens for and in consideration of 
theire Serving theire Offices two years Successively, 
Wee whose hands are hereunder written do consent 
and agree that they shall be excused from serving the 
said Offices for the Sevrall Estates as they do now 
hold for ten years after it comes to their turnes re- 
pectively as Witness our Hands : — 

Amb. Goddard Geo : Miller. Vicar 

James Lee 

James Bayly John Neat. Churchwardens 

Jacob Bayly John Nicholls. 

Tho : Nutt 

Lionell Lee Wm. Northey. Overseers 

Wm. Baker John Ford. 



1 





2 


6 


3 


Hi 


I 


2 


1 


8 


3 


10 


3 





4 





3 


9 


5 





4 







6 


4 







6 


1 


4 


7 





A 





344 Extracts from the Accounts of the Overseers of Box, 

Paid for a Swingg : to Wm. Rogers 16 

Paid for Sheaving the Old Men 5 

I^aid for a paire of Gloves for John Head 1 

l^aid John Hedges for two dayes worke Gardning 2 

Paid Mr. Wm. Wesbury for the Coroner's Fees and 
Bayly's Fees concerning a Woman died in Ditcheridge 
Feild 1 7 

Paid for the Justices Signeing the Book and for a War- 
rant for the New Overseers & Expences &c. 

Paid John Wells for Sheaving the Poor People 

Pd. Wm. Sellwood's wife for the Foolish Child 

Pd. for Beer for the Buriall of Mary Smith and Eliza- 
beth liOwe 

Pd. for 2 Sackes of Coales 

Paid a Travelling Woman being sick in the Smalepox 
& for a Woman to Assist her 

Paid for two Neckcloaths 

Paid Sarah Laishly for Spindles 

Paid for a Hatt for James Stogden 

Paid for a Mapp, two Spindles, and Yarn 

Paid for keeping Mary Parson's Child (as David West 
Ought to have paid) 

Paid Mary Giflfard and Mary Ford for Encouragement 
in Buisness 

Paid for a Sick Man lying at the Chapell of plaistow 

Paid the Masons Bill for Repairing the Causeway in 
Aishly Lane . 

Paid for Bleeding and a purge for An : Coombs 

Paid Mr. Harris of Bradford his bill for setting a Broken 
Arm for Nanny Bond and for Cureing Mary Ban- 
craft's hand the sume of 

For One Hundred of Cheess 

Paid William Jeffery for Tableing & Cure of Giles 
Nowell Disordered in his Senses 

Paid the People for to Carry the Corps to Church 

Paid for 4 Bushells of Wheat 

Paid for Speckticles for Wm. Pillinger <fe to Tho : Arlett 

Paid Benj : Perry's Bill Carrying Robert Day to the 
Goale 

Paid for a peece of Dowlas 

Paid Wm. Rogers for a Side of Bacon 

Lent Young William Shill to try the Benift of the Bath 

Paid the Bill of Disburstments for carrying Ste : New- 
man to Bridewell 19 

Paid to Mr. Longden for the cure of Richd, Powell's 
Broken Thy and other Cure 3 3 

Paid for some blue cloth to make Badges for the Poor 

People 2 2 



6 


6 


3 





3 





3 





3 





2 


6 


1 


6 




9 


1 


3 


1 





1 





2 





2 


6 


7 


9 


2 





4 


6 


17 


6 


1 





11 


2 


18 





1 


6 


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10 


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6 


7 


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15 





2 





5 





1 


4 


3 


11 


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By A. Shaiv Mellor. 345 

Paid Samuel Hodge for cureing Ann Bond's Head of 

the Scruff 
Paid Ann Castle for cureing the Itch 
Paid for a Coffin for Isaac Pierce 
Paid for beer at his funeral 

Paid Mr. James Bayly for Beer for a Woman that Lay- 
in in the Workhouse 
Paid David West for setting up 2 Looms 
Paid Robt. Marlar for Wine for Henry Salter and for 

Beer at his funeral 7 10 

Paid Edwd. West for opening a fry ^ and cleansing the 

necessary houses 2 6 

Paid the Law charges which the Parish was at by Cul- 

lerne Peoples Indicting the Highways 3 7 8 

Paid James Lee for a Journey to Salisbury and Ex- 

pences to take of an Indictment which was laid on the 

Highways 
Paid James Baker for setting a hoop on a tubb 
Paid for Herbs and Apothecary's things to make a Diet 

drink for Sellwood's child 
Paid Mary Cottle for Bleeding Wm. Webb 
Paid for Harness for two narrow Looms for Wm, Webb 
Paid for an Order to remove the Intruders ^ 
Pd. for a Summons and Expences with the Intruders 
Paid Expences going to the Justices with Wm. Smith to 

make him swear to his Parish 
Paid Jane Street for fflakes ^ to cover Tho. Lent's House 
Paid the Goal and Marahalsea^ Money to ye Constable 
Gave a Woman and Family with a Pass 
Paid Mr. Bayly's Bill for beer and bleeding sick people 
Lent Henry Nowell he having no work 
Paid the Tythingman for carrying Mary Martin to 

Bridwell 14 

Paid Expences when Mary Gizzard's son was thought 

to be breeding the small pox 1 6 

Allow'd Mr. Saml. Pinchen for Rideing and going 

Journeys in an extraordinary manner when he was 

Overseer 5 o 

Lent John Smith call'd Old John 2 

Paid Doctor Fowler for doing something to Hannah 

Arlett's child 5 q 

Expences when after Men that was to be had before the 

Justices in order to be press'd to go Soldiers 1 10 

Pd. Edwd. West for opening the Fry that goes from the 

necessary houses belonging to the Workhouse 1 6 



11 







8 


2 


6 


1 





15 





2 


6 


3 





2 


6 


12 





6 





3 





5 


1 


2 






• Fry=a drain. 2 Intruders=non parishioners. 

3 Flakes= Hurdles. "* Marshalsea Money = the County Rate. 

2 A 2 



346 Extracts from the Accounts of the Overseers of Box, 

Pd, Expences when the Tythingman went after the 

Soldiers 2 6 

Fd. Expences with a soldier 2 

Pd. Goal and Bridge Money 3 9 4 

Pd. for Bran to put into 2 Coffins 6 

Pd. for Bread for Bichd. Thomas when he dug tile 3 4 



An Inventory of the Household Goods and Poor People's Appareli^ 

IN Box Workhouse delivered to the Churchwardens and 

Overseers, December 22nd, 1729. 

Imps. In the Brew-House. 

One Furnace, one Boyler, with Lids, 2 Coolers, one Meshing Tub, 
one Tap and Cans, one Meshing Stick, one Huckmuck, one Tub to 
Pun into, one little Tub, one V\ ashing Tub, & Soap Box, one Barm 
Tub, one Oval Tub, one Straining Sieve, one Spout, one pair of 
Steps, 2 Pails, one Ladepail, one Tunpail, one Pudding Bowl, one 
Handlebowle, one Waterbowle, 3 Pudding Cloths, 2 Pots, one 
Kettle. 

One Sieve for Garden Stuff, one Shaving Bason, 9 Wooden 
Platters, 24 Trenchars, one Ladle, one Skimmer, one flesh Fork, 
one Pott matt, one Rowle for Towels, one Pudding Slice, 10 
Wooden dishes, one Earthen Pan, 2 Dozen & i of Spoons, Two 
Lye 'J'roughs and Covers, one Water Trough, 2 Wooden Horses, 
one Horse for Clothes, 2 Baskets for Washt Clothes. 

Item. In the Larder. 

One Kneading Trough, 2 Salting Troughs, one Meat Block, one 
Grist Sieve, one Sack, 2 Grist Bags, one Cleaver, one Dough Knife, 
one Dough Scraper, one Bread marker and Dawker\ one i Bushel. 

Item,. In the Room over ye Brew-House. 

One large Bedstead Sacking &c., one Flock Bed and Bolster, 2 
Blankets, one Pug, one Pewter Chamber Pott, one little Bedstead, 
one Coverlid, one Blanket, one Sheet, one Bolster Case, one Board 
for ye Tailors use, and 2 stools. 

Item,. In the Wool-House. 

One Pick, one Spade, one Garden Hake, two Shovels, one Hough, 
one Hatchet. 

Item. In the Coal Houses. 

About three Loads of Coals, and Fagots, two Coal Boxes. 

Item, In the Cellar. 

Two Horses, Four Hogsheads, Two Leather Jacks, Two Brass 
Cocks, one Stooper, one Cubbard, one Besom. 

' Dawker— a sharp instrument for marking loaves. 



By A, Shaw Mellor. 347 

Item. In the Kitchen. 

One Large Table Board, 2 Joynt Benches, one little Table, 2 Salt 
Boxes, one Grate, one Crane, 4 Crooks, 2 Ironing Holes, one Fire 
Pan Tongs & Poker, one Heater, one frying Pan, one Ironing 
Box, Two Clamps, Two Ironing Cloths, one Iron Rod for the Clavey ^ 
one Bell, one Tin Cover, one Knife Box, one Tinder Box, one 
Mincing Knife, one Rowling Pin, one Marking Iron, 6 Drinking 
Horns, 6 Combs, 20 small Knives, one large Knife, one Whet-stone, 
one Pair of Bellows, Six Iron Candlesticks, 19 Pair of Buckets, 
one Bible, one Whole Duty of Man, Two Common Prayer Books, 
Two New Testaments. 
Item. In the Working Room. 

Twelve Spinning Turns, one Snap Reel, Two Scribling Horses, 
one Long Table Board, one Pair of Scales, one Bench, 4 Stools, 
Three Baskets for Work, 2 Bags for Work, Two Hour Glasses, Six 
Small Brass Weights Marked, B: P: viz, 1 pound, J pd., halfe 
Quartern, Ounce & halfe Ounce. 

Item.. In the Inner Garret. 

One Table, Two whole Pieces of Flaxen Cloth, wanting but 5 
Ells, 2 Bed Cases & Two Bolsters ready made, four yards of narrow 
Cloth, 5 Yards of Grey Lynsey, 4 Yards of Buckram, 2j Yards of 
Colour'd Linnen, one Hair Line for the Garden, 3 Cheeses. 

Item. In the Middle Garret. 

Iron Hooks & Hair Lines for Cloths. 
Item. In Ye Outer Garret. 

One Bedstead Sacking &c. 

Item. In the Masters Lodging Room. 

One Bedstead, Sacking, and Curtain Rods. 
Item,. In the Lodging Rooms. 

12 Bedsteads, Sacking, &c., 10 Beds and Bolsters, 7 Rugs, 3 
Coverlids, 19 Blankets and 20 Sheets, 20 Bolster Cases, 2 Pillows 
& 4 Pillow Cases, 4 Table Cloths, 2 long Towels, 3 Short Towels, 
4 little cloths to wipe Hands, one Dough Cloth, 2 Hair Brooms, 
one handle Brush, 2 Pewter Chamber Pots, 3 Earthen Chamber 
Pots. 
Item,. In the Linnen Closet. 

Some Holland left, Some Shirt Buttons, Some Tape, Some Stay 
Tape, Two new pair of Hose, Twelve Dozen of Coat Buttons, Nine 
Dozen and \ of Wastcoat Buttons. 

26 Octobr 1730. 11 Duz: of Coat Buttons, 5 Duz: h of Brest 
Buttons, 1 Duz: ^ of Shirt Buttons. 

11 Aprill Reed, of Mr. Saml. Pinchen a Peece of Blew Cloath 22^ 
Yards at 4s. ye yd. £4: slO: dOO. 

^ Clavey— the beam across the fireplace. 



348 Extracts from the Accounts of the Overseers of Box. 

Apparell made for & belonging to the Poor People in ye House. 

Imps. William Head. June 9, 1729. 
A Coat, Waistcoat, & Breeches, Two Shirts and one Cravet, 2 Pair 
of Hose, one Pair of Shoes & Buckles, one Apron, & one Cap. 

Item. Isaac Pearce. June 9, 1 729. 
One Coat, Wastcoat, and Breeches, 3 Shirts and one Cravet, one 
Pair of Hose, Shoes, and Buckles, one Apron, one Cap. 

Item. Anthony Coombs. June 9th, 1729. 
One Coat, Wastcoat & Breeches, 3 Shirts, one Cravet, 2 Pair of 
Hose, 1 Pair of Shoes & Buckles, one Cap, one Apron, 2 Trusses, 

Item. Ann Coombs. Octobr. 7th. 1729. 
one Gown, k Peticoat, 2 Shifts, 3 Aprons one Cap, one Neck ker- 
chief, 2 Pair of Hose, one Pair of Shoes, one Wastcoat. 

Item. Mary Forde. June 9th 1729. 
one Gown, one Peticoat, one Shift, one Cap & Handkerchief, 3 
Aprons, one Pair of Hose, Shoes & Buckles. 

Item. Joan Arlett. June 9th. 1729. 
one Gown, 2 Shifts and one Wastcoat, one Cap, one Apron, Hose 
& Shoes. 

Item. Elizabeth Cox. June 16th 1729. 
one Peticoat, one Wastcoat, one Shift, one Cap, one Pair of Shoes. 

Item. Robert Bull. June 9th 1729. 
one Coat Wastcoat, & Breeches, 3 Shirts, one Cravet, 1 Pair of 
Shoes & Buckles, 1 Pair of Stockings, one Apron. 

Item*, Deborah Salter. Novembr. 26th, 1729. 

Item. James Stogden. June 9th 1729. 
one Coat, Wastcoat & Breeches, 3 Shirts, one Cravet, Shoes 
mended, one Apron one Pair of Stockins. 

Item. Grace Stogden. June 9th 1729. 
one Gown, Three Shifts, 3 Caps, 3 Aprons one Handkerchief, one 
Pair of Shoes, Stockins, & Buckles. 

Item. Ann Bond. June 9th 1729. 
one Gown and Peticoat, one Shifts, one Handkerchief, 3 Caps, 3 
Aprons, one Pair of Hose, Shoes and Buckles. 

Item. Ann Sidnell. Octobr. 26, 1729. 
one Gown and Wastcoat, one Shift, one Cap & 2 Aprons. 

Item. Wm. Sillard, and Family. June 9th, 1729. 
Wm. one Shirt, one Apron. 

Item. Joanna one Gown, and Coat, 2 Shifts, 3 Aprons, one Cap 
& Handkerchief, 2 Combs, Stockins, Shoes, & Buckles. 

Item. John one Coat, & Breeches, 2 Shirts, one Cravet, 2 Pair 
of Hose, one Apron, one Pair of Shoes & Buckles. 

Item. Wm. one Coat & Breeches, 2 Shirts, and one Cravet, one 
Apron one Pair of Hose, Shoes & Buckles. 



By A. Shaw MelLor. 349 

Item. Ann one Gown, 2 Peticoats, 3 Aprons, 2 Shifts, 1 Pair of 
of Hose & Shoes. 

Item, Mary one Coat, one Peticoat 2 Shifts, 1 Pair of Hose &l 
Shoes. 

Item. George one Whittle', one Cap, one Biggin*, 2 Pair of 
Hose, one Pair of Shoes. 

Item. John Head & Family. Oct : 28th 1729. 
John Wm. Heads Coat, one new Wastcoat, 2 Shirts, 2 Pair of 
Hose, one Pair of Shoes & Buckles. 

Item. Mary his Wife, one Gown, one Wastcoat, one Shift, one 
Cap, 2 Aprons, one Handkerchief, I Pair of Hose <fe Shoes. 

Item. Elizabeth one Gown, & Wastcoat 2 Shifts, 2 Aprons, 
one Cap, one Handkerchief, one Pair of Shoes. 

Item. Ann one Gown, one Wastcoat 2 Shifts, 2 Aprons, one 
Cap & Handkerchief, 1 Pair of Hose and Shoes. 

Item. Mary one Gowne, one Peticoat & Wastcoat, 2 Shifts, 2 
Aprons, & 2 Caps, 1 Pair of Hose and Shoes. 

Item. Luce Lynsey for a Coat, 2 Shifts, 2 Caps, one pair of 
Shoes. 

Item. Obadiah one Coat & Breeches 2 Shirts, one Cravet, 
one Apron Hose & Shoes. 

Item,. John one Coat & Breeches, 2 Shirts, one Cravet, one 
Apron, Hose &, Shoes. 

Item. Joyce 2 Whittles, one Swathe. 

23 Decembr. 1729 : Delivered 5 Yards & a Qr. of Linsey and 
halfe an Ell of Linen to make Deborah Salter a Gown. 



Whittle— a blanket {?). » Biggin— a nightcap (?). 



350 



EASTON DOWN, WINTERSLOW, S. WILTS, 

FLINT MINE EXCAVATION, 1930. 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil. 

Easton Down lies in the parish of Winterslow, about |-mile N.W. of 
Lopcombe Corner on the Salisbury — Andover road and is thus just within 
the Wiltshire border (Lat. 51. 7. 15., Long. 1. 39. 40. west). It is a bleak 
piece of upland, in places scattered with junipers, and slopes gently south- 
westwards to a shallow dry valley which runs northwards from Winterslow 
Hut. 

For some months previous to the discovery of the flint mine the writer 
had been mapping, with the aid of the 6in. Ordnance maps and aerial photo- 
graphs at his disposal, all the ditches, trackways and barrows south of the 
river Bourne and extending from Figsbury Rings to Quarley Camp and 
southwards to Winterslow. It is hoped to record the mass of informa- 
tion so obtained later. From a study of the resulting map, it soon became 
evident that these ditches and trackways converged upon Easton Down. 
The aerial photographs did not, however, disclose the reason as they were 
taken for other purposes at the wrong time of day. A visit to the spot was 
rewarded by the discovery of many depressions in the ground, some being 
as much as 3ft. deep, others less than 6in., and varying in diameter from 
lift, to 32ft. The surface was thickly strewn with massive flint flakes, 
broken celts and other implements scraped up by rabbits. 

The mined area is very large and covers about 40 acres. Reference to 
the accompanying map (Fig. 1) will indicate its approximate extent. For 
purposes of reference advantage is taken of the trackways which divide the 
area into four portions (lettered A, B, C, and D). Another aerial photo- 
graph, very kindly taken by Flight- Lt. F. R. Wynne, R.A.F, indicates that 
all the areas with the exception of B have been ploughed in past times^ 
probably the Napoleonic period as suggested by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, as 
the ground has reverted long ago to rough grass, and rabbits have for some 
time used the ploughed out shaft heads as warrens. Fortunately Area B 
remains in its original state, an unusual occurrence on Salisbury Plain, and 
a contributory cause of its discovery. 

Area A is the site of a Beaker Folk settlement and is described in the 
paper following. Here it need only be stated that the area is strewn with 
fragments of beakers and a few pieces of allied pottery, burnt flints and 
bones of animals. The barrow in this area is a new one and hitherto un- 
recorded. It is hoped to open this shortly as its contents may throw con- 
siderable light on the date of its surroundings. 

Area B consists mainly of silted-up mine shafts, of which 90 have so far 
been recorded. These are mostly visible on the ground, but in doubtful 
cases use has been made of the " boser" described by Dr. E. C. Curwea 
{Antiquity, IV., 30). From the activity of the rabbits and from a know- 
ledge of the ground there is little doubt that this number represents only a 




EASTON DOUN 

FLINT MINES — 

— AMD SETTLEMENT SITES 

100 zoo 300 400 500 600 79O 800 900 1000 
I ' -I -^ I I 



General Map 



Map of Easton Down, Winterslow, showing Mined Area and Settlement Sites. Kig. 1. 




SCALE OF FEET 



^ 

S 





o O^l 






c>: ^o 




Implements from Pit 



it B I. Flint Mine, Easton Down, Winterslow. 



Figs. 3—7. h' 




PLAN 
OF FLOOR B 1 




I— 


5 10 15 20 /'^^ 


SCALE OF FEET X 






/ PITB1 


^-. (^ 




NEST OF \ 
FINE FLUKES A'' ~-. 


/■/"^""v^ 




/ 1 " 

1 / ( POSllBLt PIT 


' r^T) 




^ ^ 


GUN FLINT FLOOR ■^;2^^ 




Fig. 9 


PIT B 27 1 ^ 

# # PIT B26 


\ 


,#*'*"""""'X 
/ \ 

$ PIT B16 % 


»„»>^^ I 


/ 


I / « 



Section of Pit B 1(a), and Plan of Floor B 2. Flint Mine, Easton Down, 
Winterslow. Figs. 8, 9. 





Implements from Pit B 1(a), Flint Mine, Easton Down, Winterslow. 
Figs. 10-13 h 



'•-^.i/^^Mi^"' 




Fig. 21 



Implements from Workshop Floor, B 1, Flint Mine, Easton Down, 
Winterslow, Figs. 14—21. |. 




Implements from Workshop Floor, B 2, Flint Mine. Easton Down, 
Winterslow. Figs. 22—25. i 



m 




Implements from Workshop Floors, B 2 and 3, Flint Mine, Easton 
Down, Winterslow. Figs. 26—32. h. 



Easton Down Flint Mine Excavation. 351 

small proportion of the shafts actually existing in this area. Acknowledg- 
ments are here due to Mr. J. Cochrane-Houston who, under somewhat try- 
ing conditions, very kindly surveyed this area and recorded the positions of 
the shaft heads on the accompanying map. The Beaker settlement also 
extends over this area and it is only by digging that one can distinguish 
between mine shafts and pit dwellings. 

Two pit shafts have been opened and special attention has been directed 
to undisturbed workshop floors of which six are recorded on the map but 
four only have yet been fully explored. 

Area C has been mined over practically the whole of its extent, but has 
not yet been investigated. 

Area D is another habitation site and is possibly an extension of the 
settlement in A. 

The whole area including habitation sites and mine shafts measures about 
100 acres. 

Excavation of Pit B 1. 

This pit was chosen for exploration for two reasons. Firstly it appeared 
on the surface to be a small one, being 14ft. in diameter and only 6in. deep, 
with no surrounding mound of rubble ; secondly it was undisturbed by 
rabbits, a frequent cause of the shifting of cultural layers. 

Having removed the turf, the pit was excavated spit by spit over about 
two-thirds of its area and to a depth of 6ft., thus leaving a section on the 
south-east side. At this level, owing to the constricted working space due 
to the funnel-shaped top of the shaft, the remainder of the shaft filling, 
constituting the section, was lowered by 3ft., thus facilitating the removal 
of material by making use of the ledge as a second shovelling stage. The 
removal of the filling was thus continued to the bottom (ll^ft. to 12ft.). 

Since the ground surrounding the pit before excavation was practically 
level all depths subsequently mentioned are taken from this level as datum. 

Description of Layers and thkir Contents, 

Layer 1. — This consisted of humus with a maximum thickness of 16in in 
the centre of the pit (Fig. 2). Masses of large flakes deeply patinated 
occurred below the turf, but were confined almost entirely to the south 
side. These were lying at all angles and no floor was encountered. These 
flakes, coupled with similar quantities in Layer 2 also on the south side, in- 
dicated the presence of a workshop floor on the surface (see Floor B I be- 
low), the flakes having fallen or having been washed in by rain subsequently 
to the partial infilling of the pit. 

The implements include a celt-like tool (Fig. 5) and a rough chopper or 
hand axe. 

Layer 2.— This layer consisted of fine chalk dust stained slightly brown 
by mould and probably the result of rainwash. The maximum thickness 
of this layer was 24in. The looseness of packing in the centre was in 
marked contrast to the firmness of the filling at the sides. This layer con- 
tained thousands of shells of land moUusca, a feature similar to that found 



352 Easton Doivn Flint Mine Excavation. 

at Grimes Graves and the Sussex flint mines. A report by Mr. A . S. Kennard, 
A.L.S., and the late Mr. B. B. Woodward, F.L.S , who have kindly studied 
the shells from this site, is appended. 

As mentioned above, flint flakes were numerous at the southern end, and 
these also were patinated dead white on both sides. Of the implements 
special mention must be made of a late type of Thames pick or rather adze 
(Fig. 3) and a large wedge-shaped tool (Fig. 7). Several crude choppers, 
two large cores, and one steep-sided scraper, engrailed at the edges, com- 
plete the list. 

A few bones were found, some split longitudinally presumably for the 
extraction of marrow, and a few broken tines of antlers. These were in a 
very friable condition but hardened rapidly on exposure to the air. A re- 
port on the bones by Dr. J, W. Jackson is appended. Here again no 
floor was encountered. 

Layer 3. — Composed of small loose chalk rubble this layer possessed a 
maximum thickness of 12in., and though not distinct in section from the 
layer below was chiefly characterised by the number of flakes, also confined 
to the south and centre. The patination was, however, much thinner, the 
flakes being grey and lustreless and much sharper than the preceeding. 
From their position and from the indiscriminate way in which they were 
mixed with chalk dust, these flakes must also have fallen in from Floor 
B 1 above immediately after the next layer of chalk blocks had been thrown 
in. A few tines and bones, some split longitudinally, also occurred at this 
level. 

J>ayer 4. — This consisted of loose medium-sized chalk rubble, the blocks 
becoming larger as one descended. Large blocks measuring up to 9in. in 
length, breadth and thickness, were first encountered 6ft. 6in. below datum 
on the N.W. edge of the shaft. These sloped gradually to the S.E. side 
showing that the filling in of the pit had been done from the former side. 
A large number of these blocks bore the marks of antler picks. An inter- 
esting feature of these holes in the blocks was the compressed clay-like 
chalk filling still bearing the imprint of the tine. The most likely explan- 
ation would be that the mining of this pit was done under very wet con- 
ditions, as experimentally made holes in comparatively dry chalk with 
antler picks produce a clean hole with sharp sides. 

Much tabular flint, of no use for the making of implements, occurred in 
the rubble, together with large nodules of unflaked floorstone, the latter 
term being here used to indicate the flint mined for use which occurs in a 
band at the bottom of the shaft. 

No complete deer's antler pick was found, but at 6ft. Gin. embedded in 
chalk blocks, occurred a crown, all three sur-royal tines being well worn at 
the tips from use possibly as a rake, a circumstance noted at Grimes Graves. 
The middle tine bears the marks of a flint knife or axe all round near the 
base, an endeavour having been made to cut it ofi". 

A portion of a beam, ]5in. long, was found at 8ft. below datum. The 
base has been cut off fairly cleanly just above the bez tine whilst the trez 
tine has also been removed in a similar manner close to the beam. The 
crown end of the beam bears signs of use as if cut by sharp flint. It is 



■By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil. 353 

more than probable that this implement was used for levering out the flint 
nodules. Of particular interest is the deep scoring which has been made 
for ten inches along one of the natural grooves. V-shaped in section the score 
is :|in. deep and |in. wide on the surface and is cleanly cut. One is re- 
minded of the antler combs found by Mr. A. Keiller at Windmill Hill 
(Antiquity, iv., 27) and by Mr. E. T. Leeds at Abingdon {Antiquaries Journal, 
viii., 461). Is this a stage in the manufacture of such objects'? 

Another crown was found at this level, the tines also bearing signs of 
use. This crown had been severed from the beam very skilfully by a clean 
cut all round and not chipped off as with an axe. A broken piece of a small 
beam at 9ft. completes the list. It is surprising that so few remains of 
antlers were found in comparison with the pits at Grimes Graves {Report, 
1914) and Harrow Hill {Sussex Arch. Coll., Ixvii., 15). In this respect it is 
more in accordance with Blackpatch {Sussex Arch. Coll., Ixv., 27). 

At 10ft., embedded in large chalk blocks and unfortunately broken, was 
found a scapula (shoulder-blade) of an ox. The use of scapulae as shovels 
and their distribution and chronology has been the subject of a paper by 
Dr. E. C Curwen {Sussex Arch. Coll., Ixvii., 37). These implements are 
apparently confined to the south of England, a district in Germany and 
perhaps one of the Swiss lake villages, and are chronologically distributed 
between the flint mining periods (Neolithic) and the Early Iron Age. 
Apparently none have been found at Grimes Graves. The present specimen, 
after restoration, is 16fin. long and Qgin. wide at the end of the blade. The 
spine has, as has so often been observed, been trimmed away and both sides 
of the blade show signs of use by longitudinal scratches. A small portion 
of another scapula was found in Layer 3. 

The flint implements from this layer included what is possibly a broken 
hand axe, 5in. by 3^in. Both faces are well flaked, and the edges are some- 
what zigzag. At the moment of finding it was light blue in colour with 
patches of black flint visible. On drying it became much whiter and after one 
month the patination became uniformly white all over. This case of 
accelerated patination of flint has been observed frequently on this site and 
has been noted before by Dr. R. C. C Clay {W.A.M., xliii., 159) and by 
Dr. E. 0. Curwen at Harrow Hill. Flakes which have become dead white 
after lying on the surface in summer have been observed by the author to 
regain a distinct bluish tinge on a wet day and the change is possibly a 
purely physical one analogous to the wetting of frosted glass. A well- 
finished celt (Fig. 4) was recovered at 8ft. right up against the wall of the 
shaft, with one side protected by an overhanging ledge of chalk ; another 
implement (Fig. 6) occurred on the south side at 9ft. under the cut-away 
wall. 

The floor of the shaft was first encountered at lift. 6in. below datum. 
Though very carefully searched for, no implements, antler picks, remains 
of fires or pottery were found. In fact the miners were exceedingly careful 
to remove everything before filling in the shaft. 

Description op Shaft and Method of Mining. 
The pit was oval-shaped in plan, being 15ft. by 13ft. at the surface, 



354 Easton Down Flint Mine Excavation. 

gradually narrowing to 10ft. by 5ft. 8ia. at a depth of 6ft., remaining per- 
pendicular for a short distance and then widening out again by undercutting 
to 14ft. 6in. by 12ft. Reference to the north-south section (Fig. 2) will in- 
dicate the general shape. Funnel-shaped at the top, the sides of the shaft 
without doubt were vertical originally until the flint layer was pierced, when 
undercutting was commenced. Being so shallow a pit, in comparison with 
the other well-known mines, the chalk though well bedded is not very 
secure and falls from the undercut roof must have occurred thus prohibiting 
the driving of galleries. This was brought home forcibly to the author 
whilst clearing the undercuttings. Twice a fall occurred, about two tons 
coming away from the east side and about one ton from the west. 

The sides of the shaft before collapse were observed to be unweathered, 
showing that the pit had been partially filled in almost immediately after 
abandonment. Antler pick marks were also abundant and showed the 
peculiar wet clay-like filling adhering to the sides of the holes already re- 
ferred to. There were no signs of flint tool marks, graflSti or rope marks 
on the walls. The deepest undercut occurred on the S.W. side, being 3ft. 
under the vertical shaft wall. 

Nodules of floorstone occur at 1 ift. on the S.E. side and at I2ft. on the 
N.W., the band apparently conforming to the small valley at the head of 
which this group of pits has been dug. The very large amount of crust on 
this flint explains the frequent patches left on the finished implements. 
From the number of implements found and from the extent of the mining 
in this district the flint would, however, appear to be of good quality. 

Two bands of tabular flint were pierced before the floorstone was reached, 
one at 3ft. 6in. and the other at lOft. on the S.E. side and lift, on the N.W, 
Neither of these bands was of any use as the flint was much too friable. 
Fairly good tabular flint must occur, however, in the vicinity as a number of 
implements, it is true mostly broken, have been found made of this variety. 

The floor of the shaft was level. Since, however, the floorstone follows 
the contour of the valley the flint was obtained on the N. and N.W. sides 
6in. below floor level, and on the S. and S.E. sides 6 to 9in. above this level. 
In the latter case a ledge of chalk was left showing that the miners obtained 
their flint from this level and not by undercutting the flint band. 

Implements from Pit B 1. 

Fig. 3.— A hand pick or adze triangular in section, the underface being 
well flaked and nearly flat. Though very similar to the flaked bars of flint 
found by Mr. H. F. Poole in the Isle of Wight {Proc. I. of W. Nat. Hist, 
and Arch. Soc , i., 652), the cutting edge is not produced by a transverse 
blow on one or both faces but by longitudinal flaking, the cutting edge 
being in the plane of the flat underface. T'"he butt has been blunted by a 
certain amount of battering. Deeply patinated white and dull, this tool 
undoubtedly fell in from Floor Bl. L. b^in , B. Ifin , T. l^in. 

Fig. 4. — A very well finished thick-butted but pointed celt, the maximum 
thickness being at the butt end. When found in Layer 4 the side against 
the face of the shaft was black, the other bearing patches of blue and white 



By J, F. S. Stone, B.A., B. Phil. 355 

patination. The tool is in a mint-like condition, the cutting edge being 
very sharp and diagonal, and the section pointed oval. Contemporary with 
the infilling of the pit, this implement shows that the bell-shaped type of 
pit is not universally older than the galleried (c.f. P.P.S.B A., v., 121). 
L. 4iin., B. S^in , T. liin. 

Fig. 5. — This celt-like implement from Layer 1 has patches of crust on 
both surfaces and on the extreme end of butt. The maximum thickness 
occurs in the centre, and the implement possesses a distinct curvature of 
the axis, a peculiarity to be noted subsequently in many of the celts from 
the workshop floors. The convex edge is battered and both edges have lost 
their sharpness, presumably through patination. Section flat pointed oval. 
L. 5|in., B. 2^in.,T. Ifin. 

Fig. 6. — 'J'his tool was wedged in between chalk blocks at 9ft., and those 
portions which had no crust adhering were dead black. It is now slightly 
mottled. At first thought to be a half-finished celt, the extreme care which 
has been lavished on the cutting edge round the tip and down to the crust 
makes this improbable. Many true rough-outs for celts have been found 
and it would appear that these were subsequently given their final trim- 
ming. The edge is sharp and straight all round and the portion of crust 
left at the butt end serves as an excellent handle. The maximum thickness 
occurs at the butt end. Similar implements have been found by the author 
in the glacial gravels at Wood Green and Dunbridge in Hampshire. 
L. 5|in., B. 3in., T. ifin. 

Fig. 7. — A hand chopper or wedge which stands securely on its compara- 
tively flat broad base. This is not a broken celt as the base has been used 
as a striking platform for the removal of certain finishing flakes and 
similar tools have been found in other floors. Both sides are convex and 
well flaked all over, the cutting edge being in the plane of the central axis. 
L. 4iin., B. 4in., T. 2in. 



Excavation of Pit B I (a). 

This small but unfinished shaft was found by accident and by virtue of 
its possessing certain interesting and important features it has been thought 
worthy of detailed record. Whilst carefully turning over the material of 
Floor B 2, a description of which follows later, a comparatively modern gun- 
flint workshop site was discovered just below the turf at the N.W. end of 
the floor. Half-worked gun-flints and cores had previously been found over 
the whole area, but no actual floor. The area was small, being about four 
square yards, and was packed with waste flint chips, grey and lustreless 
and of totally difl'erent facies from the industry of the workshop floors, having 
angles between the striking platform and bulbar surface of from 120° to 
130°. Specially prepared cores were also abundant, a study of which has 
already been made by Dr. R. C. C. Clay {Aiitiquaries J., v., 423). No 
finished gun-flints were however found. The flakes are of the half-moon or 
D-shaped variety and thus belong to the Old English type. 

Three inches of mould separated this floor from Floor B 2. As usual the^ 



356 Easton Doivri Flint Mine Excavation. 

ground was being investigated down to undisturbed chalk when it was sud- 
denly realised that a completely silted up pit lay beneath. Counting Floor 
B 2 as Layer 3 subsequent layers were as follows (see Figs. 8 and 9) : — 

Layer 4. — An almost completely sterile layer of mould 6in deep with no 
particles of chalk present This layer thinned out considerably below Floor 
B 2 proper. The top surface was quite level and must have taken a long 
time to form if consideration be given to the three inches only of mould 
separating the gun-fiint floor from Ploor B 2. 

Layer 5. — This was composed of mould and stained chalk dust and con- 
tained literally thousands of shells, being 1 ft. in depth. It thus corresponds 
with Layer 2 of Pit B 1. A report by Messrs. Kennard and Woodward on the 
mollusca of this layer and the one preceeding is appended. 

A few deeply patinated flakes and angular pieces of flint accompanied 
one rough-out, and the butt end of a celt possessing a very pronounced 
curvature of the axis. The exact duplicate of the latter was found in Floor 
B 2 above. Just inside this layer occurred the skull and teeth of a dog and 
two broken tines. 

Layer 6, — Very compact chalky rainwash Sin. deep and containing a few 
flakes, sharp, greyish and lustreless. 

Layer 7. — This interesting layer consisted of about 2 cwt. of dead black 
flakes, implements and large nodules of floorstone, and was 18in. in depth. 
This floor is designated Floor B 2 (a). No chalk separated the flakes, which 
were of all sizes from the minutest to some 5in. long, but all were encrusted 
with that peculiar cotton-wool-like substance ** flosjlori," calcium carbonate 
which had crystallised out from solution. As this layer sloped gently from 
east to west, and the area was very constricted, it would appear that the 
implement maker had sat on the surface and dropped his waste material, 
and incidentally four good implements, into the half-filled pit. 

This layer produced one practically finished celt (Fig. 10), nine broken 
ones, a finished hand axe (Fig. 11), a peculiar bar-like tool (Fig. 12) and a 
large piece of tabular flint which had been well chipped to keen edges along 
two of its sides. Resting on a ledge of chalk and a few inches away from 
the bottom of the floor was a chisel (Fig. 13). One bone split longitudinally 
was also recovered. 

Layer 8.— This consisted of small chalk rubble down to the base of the 
pit and was two feet in depth. Nothing was found here. 

Since this pit was completely covered by Floor B 2, and was separated in 
date from it by a considerable length of time as is evident from the deep 
sterile layer of mould superimposed upon a thick layer of shell filled rain- 
wash, a sharp change in the mode of flint working was to be expected. It 
is difficult, however, to appreciate any such change. The celt (Fig. 10) is 
possibly of an older type but its association with the chisel or adze (Fig. 13), 
admittedly not exactly in the same floor, of a type which is found in other 
associations on this site, is thought to nullify this. The occurrence of 
identical portions of two peculiarly curved celts of identical type in Layers 
3 and 5 is also in favour of no great separation in time. It is probably best 
to consider all the implements together and not to lay too much stress on 
Layers 4 and 5. 



By J. F. S. Stone, B, A., D, Phil. 357 

The pit is, however, interesting in that it is unfinished, no flint band hav- 
ing been pierced. For some reason or another it was not continued and 2ft. 
of rubble collected before it was used as a refuse pit for Floor B 2 (a). 

Six feet in diameter at the surface it is again slightly funnel shaped on the 
north side and possesses a step (1ft. x 2ft) 18in below the chalk surface on 
the north side. A ledge, 18in. wide, exists for nearly three-quarters of the 
way round at a depth of 4ft. from the surface, whilst the bottom was en- 
countered 2ft. lower down. The base is oval-shaped, being 30in. X 22in. 
and quite clean. Presumably the next stage in the mining process was the 
removal of the ledge, and thus down by stages. The wall of the pit was 
definitely undercut on the south side, showing that the mouth of the pit was 
being enlarged before proceeding further downwards. 



Implements from Pit B I (a). 

Fig. 10 — This celt from Layer 7 at first sight bears a striking resemblance 
to the Whitlingham, Norfolk, type (Archaeoloffui, Ixxi., Plate iv). It 
possesses, however, a remarkably well-pointed and sharp butt. Black to 
blue when found, it has since turned white and dull. The cutting edge is 
good and even, edges slightly zigzag and battered, pointed oval section. It 
is left roughly trimmed towards the centre which is also the point of maxi- 
mum thickness. L. 6in., B. 2jin., T. l|in. 

Fig. 11. — A hand axe recalling the Drift type in general form only. 
Sharp with zigzag edges and pointed oval section, one side only appears to 
have been used, though the battering here may have been intentional. The 
pointed end may have been broken ofiF but it does not appear to have been 
a functional part of the tool, When found it was similar in condition to 
the foregoing celt and has now undergone the same change though to a less 
extent, L. 4^in., B. 3in., T. Ifin. 

Fig. 12. — A peculiarly shaped implement, possibly a wedge or massive 
chisel. A bar of flint, square in section, with nearly square and much 
battered butt and very zigzag and slightly battered cutting edge. All faces 
have been flaked roughly flat and two of the edges much battered. Dead 
black when found with a patch of white crust on a portion of the butt, this 
implement appears, in common with many of the flakes and all the broken 
celts and rough-outs from this floor, to be much more resistant to the patin- 
ating agent and is still mostly black and sharp. In fact some of the small 
flakes which were loosened but not detached on the battered portions have 
all the appearance of a piece of flint battered to-day, with air enclosed in 
the interstices. L. 5jin., B. l|in., T. 2in. 

Fig. 13. — This adze or chisel is pronouncedly curved and is partially 
lozenge-shaped in section, with sharp well-trimmed cutting edge and sharp 
butt. Resting on the ledge of chalk and on the same level, though separated 
by 9in. of chalk rubble from the workshop floor, it is probably contemporary 
with the latter. Edges nearly parallel and sharp, concave face well flaked. 
Patination undergoing similar changes to celt, Fig. 10, L. 5|in B l^in 
T, fin. 



358 Easton Down Flint Mine Excavation. 

The Workshop Floors. 

Particular attention has been paid to the workshop floors as a possible 
means of dating the whole industry, and the results obtained certainly 
justify the many hours spent in laboriously turning over cartloads of flakes 
and debris. Four surface flaking floors have so far been examined, though 
the position of two others is known. Reference to the accompanying 
map will indicate their situations. In each case they were found by ob- 
serving the relative number of flakes turned up by moles and rabbits. 

Spalls and large flakes down to the minutest chippings were in every case 
packed closely together indicating that the final finishing of implements 
was carried out on the same spot as the coarser fashioning of the rough 
nodules obtained from the shafts. 

The floors also show no differentiation in purpose, the final articles as 
well as the broken ones indicating a celt and hand axe industry. Flakes 
showing delicate edge trimming do occur but these are very much in the 
minority. Hammerstones also are scarce, those found being well battered 
round flint nodules. One or two flakes possess facetted striking platforms 
but the typical Grimes Graves pieces illustrated in the literature and in the 
British Museum are not well represented. No pottery or small scrapers, so 
characteristic of domestic sites such as the Beaker Settlement nearby, or of 
Windmill Hill, have so far been found in the floors examined. The type of 
edge trimming, on such flakes as possessed any, was, however, similar to 
that obtained from the Beaker floors in its delicate workmanship. 

Occasional burnt pieces of flint were encountered but no hearths. In all 
cases the floors were turned over down to undisturbed chalk and the absence 
of post holes can only argue a very hardy race in such a bleak spot. 

Floor B 1. 

This floor was discovered as above mentioned whilst digging out Pit B 1 . 
It proved one of the most prolific and measured '24 by 18ft. Composed of 
a compact mass of flakes, rough-outs and implements, the depth down to 
undisturbed chalk in no case exceeded lOin., beginning just below the turf 
and resting on from 2 to 4in. of mould. The flakes and implements lying 
on top were deeply patinated white on both sides, and light blue on the 
underside further down, and all traces of sharpness had disappeared. Small 
patches of glaze occurred, however, on many of the pieces. Two nests 
of the minutest flakes were found, one at each end of the floor, presumably 
where the finishing touches were given. These small flakes, being tightly 
packed together, had not patinated so deeply as the larger ones. 

The implements illustrated (Figs. 14 to 21) came from this floor. Certainly 
one of the most interesting is the waisted tranchet axe, a rare find in 
England (Fig. 15). Amongst those not illustrated mention should be made 
of portions of seventeen broken celts of varied character, one of which must 
have measured 9in. by 4in., though a small picee of the central portion was 
not found. One implement, very Mousterian in facies, is trapezoidal in 
shape, with cutting edge all round, and possesses very steep edge trimming, 
though the edges are not in the same plane. It measures 3 Jin. by 2iin. and 



By J. F, S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil 359 

is l^in. thick. Many rough-outs for celts were also mixed up with hand 
choppers and possibly wedges, one being similar to Fig. 7, and some retain- 
ing portions of the crust on their butts for hand grip. A piece of tabular 
flint with one edge flaked from both sides may also be classed with the hand 
choppers. A core plane Sin. high with flat base 2|in. by I fin., half of the edge 
of which is well worked. A disc, similar to Fig. 22 but both faces well 
worked to the edge. Another disc-like implement, 4|in. by 3f in. and lin, 
thick, both faces well flaked with zigzag edge nearly all round. A few 
flakes possessed facetted butts, but very few showed any signs of secondary 
working or of use. No " tortoise cores " have been found. One flake, 4^in. 
by l|in., remarkably celt-like in form, possessed not only a facetted butt 
but the bulb also had been trimmed away resulting in a good cutting edge. 
One small flake, 2f in. long, with heavily facetted butt had the point and 
half the back well battered {dos rabbatu) and may be classed among the 
knives, as may also a plunging flake, 5^ by ijin., with facetted butt and 
crust remaining along one edge, the other showing signs of use. 

Implements from Floor B 1. 

Fig. 14. — A chisel, beautifully flaked over both faces, oval section, well 
battered edges and patinated white. This tool appears to be identical with 
one found in a barrow in Hampshire in association with a semi-polished 
celt with diagonal cutting edge (Payne Knight Bequest, 1824, in British 
Museum). Since long barrows are exceedingly rare in Hampshire, this 
barrow was presumably a Bronze Age round barrow. Mr. T. D. Kendrick 
has kindly supplied the information that, unfortunately, nothing further is 
known about the finding of these implements. L. 5in., B, 1 jin., T. fin. 

Fig. 15. — This beautiful " grand tranchet " axe shows a very decided ad- 
vance on the typical Danish shell mound type. Triangular in section, the 
underface is nearly flat with half its surface delicately flaked. The butt is 
blunted by a single flake and a ridge, formed by careful chipping from both 
edges, runs nearly the whole length, being terminated by a transverse flake. 
The cutting edge bears signs of use. The sides are definitely waisted 
towards the cutting edge and the implement bears a resemblance to Fig. 21 
in Evan's " Stone Implements.^' In shape it recalls the earliest waisted cop- 
per celts of Western Europe and may possibly be a transitional type when 
metal was still scarce. L. 3jin., B. 2^in., T. ll/16in. 

Fig. 16. — The smallest celt found. Pointed oval in section, zigzag and 
battered edges with both faces well flaked all over. The butt is blunt and 
well battered. L. 3^in., B. Igin., T. fin. 

Fig. 17. — Possibly a chisel, lozenge-shaped in section with zigzag edges. 
The cutting edge is formed by a small single transverse flake being removed 
from the underside. L. 4gin., B. Igin., T. |in. 

Fig. 18.— Celt, slightly lozenge-shaped section with zigzag edges. Sharp 
square butt with portions of crust on the underside. Uniform thickness 
and curved cutting edge. L. 4|in., B. 2in., T. Igin. 

Fig. 19.— Celt with convex and zigzag edges and blunt butt. Steeply 
oval section with maximum thickness in the centre. L. 5in., B. 2^in. T 
l|in. 
VOL. XLV. — NO. CLIV. 2 B 



360 Easton Down Flint Mine Excavation. 

Fig. 20. — Thick butted celt with square cutting edge and with battered 
and curved zigzag edges. The implement possesses a decided twist through- 
out its length. Maximum thickness at butt which is oval in section. If 
observed from one side it is wedge-shaped. L. 4in., B. 2^in., T. ifin. 

Fig. 21. — A very well made implement, possibly a type of racloir with 
careful steepish trimming along one side and at the smaller end. It is 
flaked over both surfaces with a patch of crust extending over one shoulder. 
Zigzag edges and faintly oval section. Deeply patinated on one side, the 
other less so. L. 6in., B. 2iin., T. 1 Jin. 

Floor B 2. 

Situated to the north-west of Pit B 1 (Fig. 9) and near the edges of Pits 
16 and 26, this floor measured 26ft. X 14ft. Though similar to Floor B 1 
in being just below the turf and containing cartloads of flakes, it was not so 
productive of implements. Its chief interest lay in its possession of a gun- 
flint factory site superimposed upon it at the north end and an unfinished 
pit shaft with second flaking floor below (see above and Fig. 8). There 
were indications that it also covered another shaft at the southern end, 
though this was not pursued. 

For implements chosen for illustration see Figs 22 to 25 and 27